Abstract and Keywords
Transcranial magnetic stimulation is used for a wide range of applications in cognitive, clinical, and neuroscience. However, the precise physiological mechanisms by which TMS influences brain function are only partially understood. Combining TMS with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a more complete picture of the neural underpinnings of TMS effects. This article gives an overview of methodology and technical aspects concerned with combining TMS with fMRI. Furthermore, it explains the challenges involved with the combination of TMS with fMRI and proposes solutions to the same. It also focuses on recent applications of concurrent TMS-fMRI. Combining TMS with fMRI may allow a new noninvasive probe technique for the human brain. TMS-fMRI can be used to compare TMS-evoked effective connectivity in health and disease. It can potentially be used to investigate connectivity changes during different states, with different degrees of involvement for interconnected brain regions during different tasks.
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