Abstract and Keywords
This article discusses how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to study the pathophysiological substrata of pediatric neurological and neurobehavioural disorders and to provide practical guidance for future research. It outlines the substantial challenges inherent in studying in vivo the neurobiology of pediatric neurobehavioural disorders, such as safety, quantitative versus categorical measures, and challenges in correlational studies. It discusses ways in which TMS generates quantitative measures that may function as endophenotypes for neurobehavioural disorders. Combining TMS with other modalities may also be informative. Single- and paired-pulse TMS is safe and well tolerated in children. The application of rigorous experimental designs and a combination of TMS with other research methods may increase the knowledge of pathophysiology and treatment of pediatric neurobehavioural disorders.
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