Abstract and Keywords
In response to a single-electrical stimulus to the motor cortex an electrode placed in the medullary pyramid or on the dorsolateral surface of the cervical spinal cord records a series of high-frequency waves. This has been shown by various studies conducted on animals. Recording from the surface of the spinal cord during spinal cord surgery has provided evidence for the action of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) on the human motor cortex. However, the interpretation of this data has been limited. This article explains both types of transcranial stimulation (magnetic or electrical) the direct recording of which shows that transcranial stimulation can evoke several different kinds of descending activities. The output also depends upon the representation of the motor cortex being stimulated.
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