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date: 21 August 2019

Abstract and Keywords

Contemporary typology can be characterized as the study of cross-linguistic variations and the constraints that bear on them. Following the lead set by Greenberg (1963) and treating data from a wide range of languages, authors have explored numerous specific domains, including resultatives, and tense and aspect. Their methodology consists in data-driven research based on representative samples of languages and linguistic phenomena; effort is consequently made to guarantee both linguistic diversity and historical independence. The samples are culled from reference grammars, texts, questionnaires, and fieldwork. Although the search for language invariants is perfectly distinct from studies centered on cross-linguistic variation, the two nonetheless complement one another. This article is about universals and typology. It also discusses typology in linguistics, universals, invariants, primitives, typology of aspect, states, events, processes, perfectives and perfectivity, complete and incomplete aspectual opposition, and aspectualized relations in discourse temporality.

Keywords: universals, typology, linguistics, invariants, primitives, aspect, perfectives, perfectivity, aspectualized relations, temporality

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