- Table of Symbols and Abbreviations
- About the Authors
- The Oxford Handbook of Tense and Aspect
- Philosophy of Language
- Narratology and Literary Linguistics
- Computational Linguistics
- Universals and Typology
- Discourse and Text
- Diachrony and Grammaticalization
- Language Contact
- Creole Languages
- Primary Language Acquisition
- Second Language Acquisition
- Remoteness Distinctions
- The Surcomposé Past Tense
- Bound Tenses
- Embedded Tenses
- Nominal Tense
- Lexical Aspect
- Verbal Aspect
- Perfective and Imperfective Aspect
- Progressive and Continuous Aspect
- Habitual and Generic Aspect
- Habituality, Pluractionality, and Imperfectivity
- Perfect Tense and Aspect
- Resultative Constructions
- Time in Sentences with Modal Verbs
- Evidentiality and Mirativity
Abstract and Keywords
Contemporary typology can be characterized as the study of cross-linguistic variations and the constraints that bear on them. Following the lead set by Greenberg (1963) and treating data from a wide range of languages, authors have explored numerous specific domains, including resultatives, and tense and aspect. Their methodology consists in data-driven research based on representative samples of languages and linguistic phenomena; effort is consequently made to guarantee both linguistic diversity and historical independence. The samples are culled from reference grammars, texts, questionnaires, and fieldwork. Although the search for language invariants is perfectly distinct from studies centered on cross-linguistic variation, the two nonetheless complement one another. This article is about universals and typology. It also discusses typology in linguistics, universals, invariants, primitives, typology of aspect, states, events, processes, perfectives and perfectivity, complete and incomplete aspectual opposition, and aspectualized relations in discourse temporality.
Jean-Pierre Desclés is Professor in Computer Sciences and Humanities at Sorbonne, and the head of LaLIC (Languages, Logics, Informatics, and Cognition). He is a member of the International Academic of Philosophy of Sciences. After earning a Ph.D. (1970) and a Doctorat d’Etat (1980) in mathematics, he collaborated with linguists such as A. Culioli (Paris 7 University) and S. K. Shaumyan (Yale University), using Curry’s Combinatory Logic for analyzing syntactical and grammatical problems. With Z. Guentchéva, he takes into account the topology to formalize basic aspectual concepts (state, event, process, bounds, perfectivity, complete and completed situations, …) in an enuntiative and cognitive framework and to study, by means of formal schemes, the meanings of lexical predicates and adposition operators.
Zlatka Guentchéva (Ph.D. 1975; Doctorat d’Etat 1985 from Paris 7 University) is Senior Researcher Emerita at CNRS (the National Centre for Scientific Research) in France, and former director of LACITO (Languages and Civilizations with Oral Traditions). She received a doctorate honoris causa from the University of Sofia (2007). In the early 1980s she was especially interested in Shaumyan’s Applicative Model and has published a book on this model and, jointly with him and J.-P. Desclés, two studies on passive and reflexive constructions from a theoretical point of view. She has also published a number of research papers with a focus on evidentiality, aspect, and tense from a typological perspective, and on the Bulgarian grammatical system.
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