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date: 03 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

General characteristics defining the cultural pattern of Northern Iroquoians included primary reliance on horticulture for subsistence. Perhaps one of the most interesting historical circumstances of northern Iroquoians is the appearance by historic times of an “island” of Iroquoian speakers in the middle of a “sea” of Algonquian speakers. Their origins in the lower Great Lakes region, therefore, have always been of interest to anthropologists, but are also of critical concern for northern Iroquoian descendant communities in regard to still-contested lands and rights in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. The ability of anthropologists to recognize ethnicity in the archaeological record and to outline their histories and that of their neighbors is now evaluated regularly in the courts.

Keywords: Northern Iroquoians, horticulture, Algonquian speakers, lower Great Lakes, Iroquoian descendant, archaeological record

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