- The Oxford Handbook of Medieval Philosophy
- The Late Ancient Background to Medieval Philosophy
- Greek Philosophy
- Arabic Philosophy and Theology before Avicenna
- Avicenna and Afterwards
- Averroes and Philosophy in Islamic Spain
- Medieval Jewish Philosophy in Arabic
- Jewish Philosophy in Hebrew
- Latin Philosophy to 1200
- Latin Philosophy, 1200–1350
- Latin Philosophy, 1350–1550
- Medieval Philosophy after the Middle Ages
- Logical Form
- Logical Consequence
- Meaning: Foundational and Semantic Theories
- Mental Language
- States of Affairs
- Parts, Wholes and Identity
- Material Substance
- Mind and Hylomorphism
- Body and Soul
- Scepticism and Metaphysics
- Freedom of the Will
- Moral Intention
- Virtue and Law
- Natural Law
- Arguments for the Existence of God
- Philosophy and the Trinity
Abstract and Keywords
This article argues that modern philosophy is haunted by the specter of Cartesian dualism: the view that a human being is a composite of two fundamentally different substances, one material (the body) and the other immaterial (the mind or soul). Medieval philosophers did not know about Descartes, yet they were well aware of a “Platonic dualism” that has most of the features of Cartesian substance dualism. With Scotus's account of the unity of the composite substance, the medieval elaboration of the Augustinian solution reached its apex. Another version of it held sway as the mainstream consensus for the remainder of the Middle Ages, until philosophical materialism came into its own. The article examines medieval Platonism, medieval Artistotelianism, philosophical materialism, and the metaphysics of hylomorphic compounds.
Peter King is Professor of Philosophy and of Medieval Studies at the University of Toronto. The author of many articles on and translations of medieval philosophy, his most recent book is Augustine: On Free Choice of the Will, On Grace and Free Will, and Other Writings (2010). He has written several studies of cognitive and affective psychology in the Middle Ages, with particular attention to the role of Thomas Aquinas; most recently he has written on the history of medieval theories of the emotions for The Oxford Handbook of the Emotions (2010).
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