Abstract and Keywords
This chapter covers the traditional study of deductive reasoning together with a change in the paradigm that has occurred in recent years. The traditional method involves asking logically untrained participants to assume the truth of premises and draw logically necessary conclusions. Contrary to initial expectations most people perform quite poorly on these tasks making many logical errors and exhibiting systematic biases. Moreover, reasoning turns out to be highly dependent on content and context. While this work produced a wealth of psychological findings and theories, authors have begun to change their methodological and theoretical approach in order to focus on how people reasoning with uncertain and personal beliefs. Many now consider Bayesiansim to be a more appropriate normative and computational model of reasoning than classical logic. Dual-process theories of reasoning have adapted to this paradigm shift and feature prominently in the current literature.
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