- The Oxford Handbook Of National Security Intelligence
- About the Contributors
- National Security Intelligence
- National Security and Public Anxiety: Our Changing Perceptions
- Theories of Intelligence
- The Sources and Methods of Intelligence Studies
- Getting Intelligence History Right: Reflections and Recommendations from the Inside
- Assessing Intelligence Performance
- The Rise of the U.S. Intelligence System, 1917–1977
- The Rise and Fall of the CIA
- British Strategic Intelligence and the Cold War
- Signals Intelligence in War and Power Politics, 1914–2010
- The President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
- Intelligence and Law Enforcement
- The Evolution of International Collaboration in the Global Intelligence Era
- The Dilemma of Open Sources intelligence: Is OSINT Really Intelligence?
- The Troubled Inheritance: The National Security Agency and the Obama Administration
- Human Source Intelligence
- United Nations Peacekeeping Intelligence
- Privatized Spying: The Emerging Intelligence Industry
- Guarding the Border: Intelligence and Law Enforcement in Canada's Immigration System
- Extraordinary Rendition
- Addressing “Complexities” in Homeland Security
- The Intelligence Analysis Crisis
- Competitive Analysis: Techniques for Better Gauging Enemy Political Intentions and Military Capabilities
- Decision Advantage and the Nature of Intelligence Analysis
- Intelligence Analysis in an Uncertain Environment
- The Dilemma of Defense Intelligence
- The Policymaker-Intelligence Relationship
- On Uncertainty and the Limits of Intelligence
- The Perils of Politicization
- Leadership in an Intelligence Organization: The Directors of Central Intelligence and the CIA
- The Future of FBI Counterintelligence through the Lens of the Past Hundred Years
- Treason: “ 'Tis Worse than Murder”
- The Challenges of Counterintelligence
- Catching an Atom Spy: MI5 and the Investigation of Klaus Fuchs
- Covert Action, Pentagon Style
- Covert Action: United States Law in Substance, Process, and Practice
- Covert Action: Strengths and Weaknesses:
- The Role of Defense in Shaping U.S. Intelligence Reform
- Intelligence and the Law in the United Kingdom
- Rethinking the State Secrets Privilege
- Accounting for the Future or the Past?: Developing Accountability and Oversight Systems to Meet Future Intelligence Needs
- “A Very British Institution”: The Intelligence and Security Committee and Intelligence Accountability in the United Kingdom
- The Politics of Intelligence Accountability
- Ethics and Professional Intelligence
- Intelligence in the Developing Democracies: The Quest for Transparency and Effectiveness
- The Intelligence Services of Russia
- The German Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND): Evolution and Current Policy Issues
- Israeli Intelligence: Organization, Failures, and Successes
- Intelligence and National Security: The Australian Experience
Abstract and Keywords
In the final year of his presidency, President George W. Bush issued an Executive Order which reorganized and renamed the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB) to President's Intelligence Advisory Board (PIAB). The precursor to PFIAB and PIAB, the President's Board of Consultants on Foreign Intelligence Activities was established by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1956. It aimed to provide the president a nonpartisan evaluation of the role and effectiveness of the U.S. intelligence collection, covert actions operation, counterintelligence, and intelligence analysis. The board has addressed three broad areas over the years. First, it assessed the impact of new technologies and innovative modes of organization to the collection and analysis of intelligence. Second, it analyzed foreign political trends. Third, it provided assessment of crisis management. Despite of the significant activities performed by the board, it remains to be the smallest and the least well-known part of the U.S. intelligence community. This article focuses on the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board (PFIAB). It determines why it remains to be the least known part of the intelligence community and how it functions and operates. The article also discusses the evolution of the board from the perspective of the administration of Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Ford, Carter, Reagan, George H. W. Bush, Clinton, and G. W. Bush. While the PFIAB has been doubted of its relevance, it has remained to play a useful role for both the president and the overall intelligence community. Uniquely positioned, it has a clearance to review all of the most sensitive secrets and it has direct access to the president. It is a powerful and effective tool that supports the president's efforts to implement policies, manage operations of the intelligence community, and change organizations. Although much debate has been directed on the potential and the role of the institution, it has nevertheless made important recommendations such as the establishment of DIA, CIA's Directorate of Science and Technology, and Defense Attaché system; all of which improved the intelligence system.
Kenneth M. Absher is a fellow with the Scowcroft Institute of International Affairs at the Bush School of Government and Public Service in College Station, Texas, and a former senior CIA official.
Michael C. Desch is a professor of political science and fellow of the Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace at the University of Notre Dame.
Roman Popadiuk is the executive director of the George Bush Presidential Library Foundation at Texas A&M University, and a retired member of the career Senior Foreign Service and the first U.S. ambassador to Ukraine in 1992–1993.
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