Abstract and Keywords
This article examines the major changes in public participation in urban planning in the United States at various points over the past half-century to track, analyses some of the core tools and practices, and highlights the persistent challenges in developing appropriately robust systems for engaging active publics in urban planning. The analysis reveals that while civic engagement in urban planning has generally been extended and enriched in the decades since the 1960s, cities vary considerably in how they incorporate civic engagement into planning processes.
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