Abstract and Keywords
This article focuses on resilience, one of the main goals of urban planning, and describes and analyses some of the key elements that can augment a city's fitness, adaptability, and resilience. It discusses the result of a historical survey of urban resilience through the ages, and describes the present status of policies and programs aimed at building resilience. The article also discusses the lessons that can be learned about urban resilience in history, and their implications for urban design and sustainable development.
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