Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reviews the contribution of electromagnetic measures, mostly event-related potentials (ERPs), to our understanding of the time course of face processing in the normal adult brain, with a focus on the 100–200 ms time window after stimulus onset, that is, during the occipitotemporal component termed the N170. It first describes the N170 component, how it can be defined, and its relationship to the vertex positive potential (VPP) response to faces that was reported prior to the N170 in the literature. It then addresses the question of the origin of the largest N170 to faces in terms of electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, neural sources, and functional processes that lead to this effect. It also discusses the controversial issue of whether the N170 reflects underlying processes that can be at least partly recruited for processing nonface objects following extensive visual experience with these objects. The chapter summarizes the evidence showing that the N170 reflects both the initial basic-level categorization of the stimulus as a face through the activation of neural face representations and the coding of individual face representations. It then briefly discusses why the N170 may be a critical time window for other types of face categorizations before summarizing the chapter and addressing the question of how the N170 can be taken as a tool to clarify the dynamics and the nature of early face processes in future research.
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