- The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics
- Introduction: Eugenics and the Modern World
- The Darwinian Context: Evolution and Inheritance
- Anthropology, Colonialism, and Eugenics
- Race, Science, and Eugenics in the Twentieth Century
- Eugenics and the Science of Genetics
- Fertility Control: Eugenics, Neo-Malthusianism, and Feminism
- Disability, Psychiatry, and Eugenics
- Eugenics and the State: Policy-Making in Comparative Perspective
- Internationalism, Cosmopolitanism, and Eugenics
- Gender and Sexuality: A Global Tour and Compass
- Eugenics and genocide
- Eugenics in Britain: The View from the Metropole
- South Asia's Eugenic Past
- Eugenics in Australia and New Zealand: Laboratories of Racial Science
- Eugenics in China and Hong Kong: Nationalism and Colonialism, 1890s–1940s
- South Africa: Paradoxes in the Place of Race
- Eugenics in Colonial Kenya
- Eugenics in Postcolonial Southeast Asia
- German Eugenics and the Wider World: Beyond the Racial State
- Eugenics in France and the Colonies
- Eugenics in the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies
- The Scandinavian States: Reformed Eugenics Applied
- The First-Wave Eugenic Revolution in Southern Europe: Science <i>sans frontières</i>
- Eugenics in Eastern Europe, 1870s–1945
- Eugenics in Russia and the Soviet Union
- Eugenics in Japan: Sanguinous Repair
- Eugenics in Interwar Iran
- Eugenics and the Jews
- Eugenics Policy and Practice in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Mexico
- The Path of Eugenics in Brazil: Dilemmas of Miscegenation
- Eugenics in the United States
- Eugenics in Canada: A Checkered History, 1850s–1990s
- Epilogue: where did eugenics go?
Abstract and Keywords
This article summarizes both the history and the historiography of eugenics across the world and that indicates new lines of inquiry that have evolved in recent years. It demonstrates that eugenics rapidly has become a shared language and ambition in cultures and locations that were otherwise radically different. It discusses the complicated relationship between the unconditional advocacy of contraception by neo-Malthusians and the cautious ambivalence typical of eugenicists. This article extends the analysis of eugenics through gender by addressing the question of masculinity and the subjectivity of eugenic advocates. This article analyzes the transnational themes in eugenics and surveys the important question of place-based differences in eugenic aims, methods, policies, and outcome. Eugenics invokes a modern political history in which individuals have been subsumed within collectives and their perceived interests and soon became a signal for, and almost a symbol of, modernization.
Philippa Levine is the Mary Helen Thompson Centennial Professor in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin. Her books include Prostitution, Race and Politics: Policing Venereal Disease in the British Empire, and The British Empire, Sunrise to Sunset.
Alison Bashford is Professor of Modern History at the University of Sydney. She has published widely on the modern history of science and medicine, including Purity and Pollution (1998) and Imperial Hygiene (2004), and has coedited Contagion (2001), Isolation (2003), and Medicine at the Border (2006). She is currently completing a history of geopolitics and the world population problem in the twentieth century. In 2009-2010 she was Visiting Chair of Australian Studies, Harvard University, with the Department of the History of Science.
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