- The Oxford Handbook of Warfare in the Classical World
- Abbreviations and Spelling Norms
- Emperors from Augustus to Heraclius
- War and Warfare in Ancient Greece
- War and Warfare in Ancient Rome
- The Archaeology of War
- Warfare and Environment in the Ancient World
- The Classical Greek Experience
- The Three Thousand: Alexander’s Infantry Guard
- The Hellenistic World at War: Stagnation or Development?
- War and Society in Greece
- The Rise of Rome
- Imperial Rome at War
- War and Society in the Roman Empire
- Men at War
- Treating the Sick and Wounded
- Keeping Military Discipline
- The Business of War: Mercenaries
- Logistics: Sinews of War
- War at Sea
- Arming Greeks for Battle
- Arming Romans for Battle
- Greeks Under Siege: Challenges, Experiences, and Emotions
- Generalship: Leadership and Command
- Finding the Enemy: Military Intelligence
- Greek Rituals of War
- Roman Rituals of War
- The Athenian Expedition to Sicily
- The Peloponnesian War and Its Sieges
- Epaminondas at Leuctra, 371 b.c.
- Demetrius “the Besieger” and Hellenistic Warfare
- The Second Punic War
- Roman Warfare with Sasanian Persia
- Epilogue: The Legacy of War in the Classical World
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter reports on the understanding on Roman armor, specifically discussing the development of Roman arms and armor. Archaeology offers actual examples of Roman arms and armor. Polybius describes a shield that was conventionally known as the scutum and which is possibly the same item as the beautifully preserved oblong shield discovered at Kasr al-Harit. The Roman soldier often utilized the shield's protruding boss (umbo) as a supplementary weapon. The pilum was designed to bend on impact. The pectorale was a well-established feature of Italian armor. Cavalry helmets are believed to have differed from infantry versions, again owing to the peculiarities of cavalry fighting. It is noted that the distinction between citizen legionaries and peregrine auxiliaries ended with Caracalla's universal granting of Roman citizenship.
Duncan B. Campbell, Department of Adult and Continuing Education, University of Glasgow
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