Abstract and Keywords
This article defines Native American Movements as revitalization movements characterized by strong emphasis on the elimination of alien persons, customs, values, and/or material from the mazeway. Native American millennialism emerged as a response to the pan-continental colonization of the Americas and the subsequent periods of social oppression. Convergence with incoming European culture hinted at the dissolution of indigenous religio-cultural practices, ways of life and hence, instigated self-styled prophets to preach loyalty to ancestral ways and relinquish European practices. Materialism, coupled with an awareness of military inferiority, motivated certain native quarters to compromise and enter the mainstream. Since the twentieth century, Native Americans, now US citizens, championed movements for various group rights, which were mostly land-related. In 1969, a few native youths took over the Alcatraz Islands, claiming native rights by discovery.
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