- List of Contributors
- African American Citizenship
- An American Conundrum: Race, Sociology, And The African American Road To Citizenship
- Race and the Limits of American Democracy: African Americans from the Fall of Reconstruction to the Rise of the Ghetto
- The Strange Career Of Racial Science, Racial Categories, And African American Identity
- Race-Conscious Color Blindness: World War II, <i>Brown v. Board of Education</i>, and the Strange Persistence of the One-Drop Rule
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part I: Racial Attitudes in the United States during World War II, 1939–1945
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part II: Racial Attitudes during the Civil Rights and Black Power Eras, 1946–1975
- From Color Caste to Color Blind, Part III: Contemporary Era Racial Attitudes, 1976–2004
- From Slave to Citizen: Overview of the Evolution of African American Economic Status
- Reconstruction: The Foundations of Economic Citizenship
- The Economy and the Black Citizen, 1900 to World War II
- The Expansion of Economic Rights since World War II
- Government Policy and the Poor
- African American Politics and Citizenship, 1865–Present: An Overview
- The Black Public Sphere and Black Civil Society
- Blacks and the Racialized State
- War and African American Citizenship, 1865–1965: The Role of Military Service
- From the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- African American Women: Intersectionality in Politics
- The United States Constitution and the Struggle for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- African American Legal Status from Reconstruction Law to the Nadir of Jim Crow: 1865–1919
- African American Legal Status from the Harlem Renaissance through World War II
- Law from the Rise of the Civil Rights Movement to the Present
- Education and the Quest for African American Citizenship: An Overview
- Emancipation and Reconstruction: African American Education, 1865–1919
- From the “New Negro” to Civil Rights: African American Education, 1919–1945
- Education from Civil Rights through Black Power: 1945–1975
- From Retrenchment to Renewal: African American Education, 1975–Present
- The African American Psyche, 1865–Present: An Overview
- Predicaments, Coping, and Resistance: Social and Personal Identities among African Americans
- Contemporary Black Identities and Personalities
- The Rise and Fall of Race Psychology in the Study of African Americans
- Black Personality in the Integrationist Era
- The Racism of Intelligence: How Mental Testing Practices Have Constituted an Institutionalized Form of Group Domination
Abstract and Keywords
Emancipation and the end of the Civil War forced the nation to grapple with the question of how to integrate and adjust these new black citizens into the fabric of America. Blacks pushed forward toward racial equality. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments provided them first-class citizen status, and with Reconstruction era elections, blacks gained significant political power in some states and worked to institutionalize their constitutional rights and privileges. One of their primary interests was the building of a system of public schools that would advance the political, social, and economic interests of the black community. Black legislators helped to create a strong common school system for both races, a new phenomenon in the southern United States where public schooling had been nonexistent. With Emancipation, African Americans initiated “an educational revolution in the American South.” Freed slaves mobilized to establish and operate schools. Sympathetic northern whites funded many of these schools, but many more were community schools established and run by blacks.
Joy Ann Williamson-Lott is Associate Professor of Educational Leadership and Policy Studies at the University of Washington.
Linda Darling-Hammond is Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University and Founding Director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.
Maria E. Hyler is Assistant Professor of Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Maryland, College Park.
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