- Introduction: Religion and Ecology—What Is the Connection and Why Does It Matter?
- The Earth as Sacrament: Insights from Orthodox Christian Theology and Spirituality
- The World of Nature according to the Protestant Tradition
- Jainism and Ecology: Transformation of Tradition
- Hindu Religion and Environmental Well-being
- The Greening of Buddhism: Promise and Perils
- Daoism and Nature
- Motifs for a New Confucian Ecological Vision
- Religion and Ecology in African Culture and Society
- Indigenous Traditions: Religion and Ecology
- Population, Religion, and Ecology
- Genetic Engineering and Nature: Human and Otherwise
- So Near and Yet So Far: Animal Theology and Ecological Theology
- Religious Ecofeminism: Healing the Ecological Crisis
- Science and Religion in the Face of the Environmental Crisis
- Religion and Ecology: Survey of the Field
- The Spiritual Dimension of Nature Writing
- Religion, Environmentalism, and the Meaning of Ecology
- Religious Environmentalism in Action
- Religion and Environmental Struggles in Latin America
- African Initiated Churches as Vehicles of Earth-Care in Africa
- The Scientist and the Shepherd: The Emergence of Evangelical Environmentalism
- Religion and Environmentalism in America and Beyond
Abstract and Keywords
The sixteenth-century Protestant Reformation in Europe, sparked by Martin Luther and John Calvin, who are sometimes called “the Magisterial Reformers,” is of more than historical interest, since the trends of thought and social formation which it set in motion are still of wide-ranging consequence, particularly with regard to the theology of nature. A complete account of Reformation theology and piety would take into account the voices of what is often called “the left wing of the Reformation.” However, in general, the later attitudes of Protestants toward nature, including those of most Baptists, have not been greatly affected by the distinctive teachings of this group, whereas large numbers of Baptists and others who trace their heritage to these left-wing sources, as well as those who stand more directly in the traditions of Luther and Calvin, have been influenced in this regard by the legacy of the Magisterial Reformers. This article examines the teachings of Luther and Calvin concerning nature. It also discusses the Reformation tradition, the culture of modernity, and the ecological crisis.
H. Paul Santmire is the author of Brother Earth: Nature, God, and Ecology in a Time of Crisis; The Travail of Nature: The Ambiguous Ecological Promise of Christian Theology; and Nature Reborn: The Ecological and Cosmic Promise of Christian Theology. His Harvard doctoral dissertation (1966) was on Karl Barth's theology of nature. He also served as a coauthor of statements on the environment by the Lutheran Church in America (1972), the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (1993), and the National Council of Churches of Christ (2005).
John B. Cobb Jr. received his graduate education at the University of Chicago Divinity School. He is emeritus professor of theology at the Claremont School of Theology and founding codirector of the Center for Process Studies. Among his writings are Is It Too Late? A Theology of Ecology; The Liberation of Life: From the Cell to the Community (coauthor); For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy toward Community, the Environment, and a Sustainable Future; Sustainability; and The Earthist Challenge to Economism.
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