- Copyright Page
- About the Editors
- About the Contributors
- Introduction: Situating Consumers and Consumption
- The Social Embeddedness of Marketing
- The Sharing Economy
- Prosumption: Contemporary Capitalism and the “New” Prosumer
- Consumer Culture Theory
- A Sociological Critique and Reformulation of Brands
- Relational Work and Consumption
- Meaningful Objects and Consumption
- Bourdieu, Distinction, and Aesthetic Consumption
- Taste, Legitimacy, and the Organization of Consumption
- Cultural Markets and Consecration
- Emotions in Consumer Studies
- Young People and Consumption: The Changing Nature of Youth Consumption in an Era of Uncertainty and Digital Experience
- Consumption <i>as</i> Production: Data and the Reproduction of Capitalist Relations
- Household Finances and Credit Visibility
- The Cultivation of Market Behaviors and Economic Decisions: Calculation, Qualculation, and Calqulation Revisited
- Consumer Transactions: Consumer Banking
- Consumer Credit Surveillance
- Omnivorousness, Distinction, or Both?
- The Development of Ethnoracial Market Segments: Lessons from the US Latino Media Market
- Race and Consumer Inequality
- Fashion and Its Gendered Agendas
- Gentrification and Urban Inequality
- Branding National Identity in an Unequal World
- Subcultures and Consumption
- Taste, Sensation, and Skill in the Sociology of Consumption
- Food Tastes
- Gender as a Critical Perspective in Marketing Practice
- Consumer Cities, Scenes, and Ethnic Restaurants
- Ethical Consumption
- Affluence, Anti-Consumerism, and the Politics of Consumption
- Linking Environmental Sustainability and Consumption
Abstract and Keywords
What does “consumer culture” mean? Until now, consumer culture has been understood as some immaterial ideas, feelings, ideologies, knowledge, and so on. This article proposes to depart from this classic view of culture by referring to what the word means in biology and farming. It shows indeed that marketing is about “cultivating” consumers. Marketing does so by using different market strategies and market devices that play on consumers’ dispositions, of course, but that also shape and redefine consumers’ calculation, “qualculation,” and “calqulation.” In the two latter words, “qual” insists on some qualitative aspects involved in economic decision; “calq” refers to the French verb calquer, meaning “tracing” (like when using tracing paper): in several instances, consumers do not calculate alone but rather decide collectively with partners, by adjusting (tracing) their calculation to those of the others: they calqulate. The chapter reviews each notion and refers it to previous and current works. These words invite study of calculation in the making; they help to understand that economic decisions involve the agents who calculate, the agencies they mobilize to do so, and the actors who work hard to have them calculating the way they wish.
Franck Cochoy is Professor of Sociology at the University of Toulouse Jean-Jaurès and member of the CERTOP-CNRS, France. His past and present research is focused on the different mediations that frame the relation between supply and demand. His most recent articles in English appeared in Theory, Culture and Society, Marketing Theory, the Journal of Cultural Economy, and Organization. He has written several books among which is On Curiosity: The Art of Market Seduction (Mattering press, forthcoming).
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