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date: 01 March 2021

Abstract and Keywords

Zionism set out not only to establish a state of the Jews, but also to create a Jewish society, one profoundly different from the ones the immigrants had been born into. The genocide of the Nazis, the abandonment of internationalism by the Soviet Union, and the hostility of Arab nationalism moved Zionism toward a position more concerned with national survival. Israel was forced to abandon a nonaligned status after 1950 and, when diplomatically isolated after the 1973 Yom Kippur War, to cultivate relations with regimes that were considered pariah states, such as South Africa, Chile, and Argentina. The ascendancy of the Israeli Right after 1977 accentuated this approach. The demise of the USSR, the end of the Cold War, and the signing of the Oslo Accords in the 1990s all contributed to the establishment of diplomatic relations with major states such as India and China and Arab neighbors such as Jordan, as well as to unofficial contacts with others such as Cuba. In the twenty-first century many states relegated ideology to a secondary position, assisting Israel’s policy of survivalism.

Keywords: Zionism, Israel, survivalism, nationalism, socialism, communism, Cold War, decolonization, pariah states

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