- Copyright Page
- Neurolinguistics: A Brief Historical Perspective
- Neurolinguistic Studies of Patients with Acquired Aphasias
- Electrophysiological Methods in the Study of Language Processing
- Studying Language with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Study the Neural Network Account of Language
- Magnetoencephalography and the Cortical Dynamics of Language Processing
- Shedding Light on Language Function and Its Development with Optical Brain Imaging
- What Has Direct Cortical and Subcortical Electrostimulation Taught Us about Neurolinguistics?
- Diffusion Imaging Methods in Language Sciences
- Neuroplasticity: Language and Emotional Development in Children with Perinatal Stroke
- The Neurolinguistics of Bilingualism: Plasticity and Control
- Language and Aging
- Language Plasticity in Epilepsy
- Language Development in Deaf Children: Sign Language and Cochlear Implants
- Neuromotor Organization of Speech Production
- The Neural Organization of Signed Language: Aphasia and Neuroscience Evidence
- Understanding How We Produce Written Words: Lessons from the Brain
- Motor Speech Disorders
- Investigating the Spatial and Temporal Components of Speech Production
- The Dorsal Stream Auditory-Motor Interface for Speech
- Neural Representations of Concept Knowledge
- Finding Concepts in Brain Patterns: From Feature Lists to Similarity Spaces
- The How and What of Object Knowledge in the Human Brain
- Neural Basis of Monolingual and Bilingual Reading
- Dyslexia and Its Neurobiological Basis
- Speech Perception: A Perspective from Lateralization, Motorization, and Oscillation
- Sentence Processing: Toward a Neurobiological Approach
- Comprehension of Metaphors and Idioms: An Updated Meta-analysis of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies
- Language Comprehension and Emotion: Where Are the Interfaces, and Who Cares?
- Grammatical Categories
- Neurocognitive Mechanisms of Agrammatism
- Verbal Working Memory
- Subcortical Contributions to Language
- Lateralization of Language
- Neural Mechanisms of Music and Language
Abstract and Keywords
Investigating the neural and physiological basis of language is one of the most important challenges in neurosciences. Direct electrical stimulation (DES), usually performed in awake patients during surgery for cerebral lesions, is a reliable tool for detecting both cortical and subcortical (white matter and deep grey nuclei) regions crucial for cognitive functions, especially language. DES transiently interacts locally with a small cortical or axonal site, but also nonlocally, as the focal perturbation will disrupt the entire subnetwork sustaining a given function. Thus, in contrast to functional neuroimaging, DES represents a unique opportunity to identify with great accuracy and reproducibility, in vivo in humans, the structures that are actually indispensable to the function, by inducing a transient virtual lesion based on the inhibition of a subcircuit lasting a few seconds. Currently, this is the sole technique that is able to directly investigate the functional role of white matter tracts in humans. Thus, combining transient disturbances elicited by DES with the anatomical data provided by pre- and postoperative MRI enables to achieve reliable anatomo-functional correlations, supporting a network organization of the brain, and leading to the reappraisal of models of language representation. Finally, combining serial peri-operative functional neuroimaging and online intraoperative DES allows the study of mechanisms underlying neuroplasticity. This chapter critically reviews the basic principles of DES, its advantages and limitations, and what DES can reveal about the neural foundations of language, that is, the large-scale distribution of language areas in the brain, their connectivity, and their ability to reorganize.
Hugues Duffau (MD, PhD) is Professor and Chairman of the Neurosurgery Department in the Montpellier University Medical Center and Head of the INSERM 1051 Team at the Institute for Neurosciences of Montpellier (France). He is an expert in the awake cognitive neurosurgery of slow-growing brain tumors. For his innovative work in neurosurgery and neurosciences, he was awarded Doctor Honoris Causa five times, and he was the youngest recipient of the prestigious Herbert Olivecrona Award from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. He has written four textbooks and over 370 publications for a total of more than 25,000 citations and with an h-index of 85.
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