Show Summary Details

Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE ( © Oxford University Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a title in Oxford Handbooks Online for personal use (for details see Privacy Policy and Legal Notice).

date: 19 October 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The alternative protein industry has attracted much media attention. It has become increasingly clear that current meat production systems are unsustainable except in grass-fed low-volume production systems. The new alternative meat industry seeks to introduce new technologies that produce ‘meat’ sustainably. By using IT-terms such as 1.0 to 4.0, this analysis classifies traditional herding and grazing systems as 1.0, feedlot production as meat 2.0, plant-based meat alternatives as meat 3.0, and cultured meat alternatives as meat 4.0. An overview of current developments in the meat 3.0 and 4.0 industries highlights the recent technological advances. The environmental and health benefits of meat 3.0 and 4.0 are discussed and the cultural and business implications. Finally, the consequences of meat 4.0 for a sustainable planet and its social foundations are revealed, identifying the billion livelihoods that depend on meat 1.0 and 2.0 production. The alternative protein industry could have disruptive effects as well as benefits to the planet and society.

Keywords: lab meat, alternative proteins, natural resources, food security, food systems

Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.

Please subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.

For questions on access or troubleshooting, please check our FAQs, and if you can''t find the answer there, please contact us.