Abstract and Keywords
This chapter compares defense rights, duties, norms, and practices in common law and civil law jurisdictions. It first provides an overview of international norms regarding defense rights, focusing on the elements of the right to fair trial that are substantially reflected in international normative instruments. It then examines the “role” of the suspects and the accused in common law and civil law systems, along with the range of defense rights, at both the investigative and trial stages, and how they may be articulated, using the European Union’s procedural rights program as an exemplar. It also highlights the challenges to implementation across both adversarial and inquisitorial jurisdictions. Finally, it asks whether normative standards may be meaningfully applied across jurisdictions in the context of different procedural traditions, and the significance of criminal justice processes in the development and confirmation of national identities.
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