Abstract and Keywords
The financial deregulation in major Western economies in the 1970s and 1980s freed banks from many preexisting constraints, facilitating competition and greater risk-taking and eventually leading to prudential regulation and supervision as a specific, well-defined area of regulatory activity. It was codified in the Basel Accord, which allowed banks considerable discretion in how they met broadly specified regulatory requirements and was focused primarily on individual bank safety. The financial crisis of 2007–2008 highlighted numerous weaknesses in the design and application of this approach. The previous micro-orientation has been complemented by a macroprudential focus, suggesting a strengthened case for central bank involvement in prudential regulation. Microprudential regulation has been strengthened, with changes reflecting less confidence in the previous market-oriented approach and more reliance on direct controls. The wheel has turned such that prederegulation approaches and attitudes have been incorporated into the postcrisis design and approach of prudential regulation.
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