- The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages
- Biographical Note
- Introduction: Endangered Languages
- The Status of the World’s Endangered Languages
- Assessing Degrees of Language Endangerment
- Language Contact and Language Endangerment
- Indigenous Language Rights—Miner’s Canary or Mariner’s Tern?
- The Goals of Language Documentation
- Documentation, Linguistic Typology, and Formal Grammar
- The Design and Implementation of Documentation Projects for Spoken Languages
- Endangered Sign Languages: An Introduction
- Design and Implementation of Collaborative Language Documentation Projects
- Tools and Technology for Language Documentation and Revitalization
- Corpus Compilation and Exploitation in Language Documentation Projects
- Writing Grammars of Endangered Languages
- Compiling Dictionaries of Endangered Languages
- Orthography Design and Implementation for Endangered Languages
- Language Archiving
- Tools from the Ethnography of Communication for Language Documentation
- Language Documentation in Diaspora Communities
- Ethics in Language Documentation and Revitalization
- Approaches to and Strategies for Language Revitalization
- Comparative Analysis in Language Revitalization Practices: Addressing the Challenge
- The Linguistics of Language Revitalization: Problems of Acquisition and Attrition
- New Media for Endangered Languages
- Language Recovery Paradigms
- Myaamiaataweenki: Revitalization of a Sleeping Language
- Language Revitalization in Kindergarten: A Case Study of Truku Seediq Language Immersion
- Māori: Revitalization of an Endangered Language
- Language Revitalization in Africa
- Planning Minority Language Maintenance: Challenges and Limitations
- Congruence Between Species and Language Diversity
- Sustaining Biocultural Diversity
- Traditional and Local Knowledge Systems as Language Legacies Critical for Conservation
- Climate Change and Its Consequences for Cultural and Language Endangerment
- Interdisciplinary Language Documentation
- Why Lexical Loss and Culture Death Endanger Science
- Funding the Documentation and Revitalization of Endangered Languages
- Teaching Linguists to Document Endangered Languages
- Training Language Activists to Support Endangered Languages
- Designing Mobile Applications for Endangered Languages
- Indigenous Language Use Impacts Wellness
Abstract and Keywords
Supported by qualitative eyewitness accounts and reported quantitative experimental evidence, this chapter makes a case that using Indigenous languages has beneficial effects on the health of descendant language users. The chapter draws connections between traditional lands–culture–language, and suggests that the oppression of each of these affects the well-being of the people. Quantitative data correlates language use with lower suicide rates, diabetes symptoms, and reduction in risk factors for youth. Being bi- or multilingual, not necessarily in an ancestral language, appears to improve cognitive function throughout the life of an individual, and maintain gray and white matter such that aging of the brain is delayed. The chapter concludes with suggestions for action.
Alice Taff works to foster Alaskan language continuity by engaging language community members to document their languages, re-establish situations for language use, and create materials in their languages. Examples of such materials are: Deg Xiyanʼ Xidhoy: Deg Xinag narratives http://www.uas.alaska.edu/arts_sciences/humanities/alaska-languages/deg-xinag.html Woosh Een áyá Yoo X̱ʼatudli.átk: Tlingit Conversations http://www.uas.alaska.edu/arts_sciences/humanities/alaska-languages/cuped/video-conv/ Unangam Tunuu (Aleut language) conversation corpus https://elar.soas.ac.uk/Collection/MPI78647 She is past president of the Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas. Her current research interest is finding links between ancestral Indigenous language use and health.
Melvatha Chee earned her PhD in linguistics from the University of New Mexico and accepted an assistant professor position at the University of Alberta, Edmonton. Her dissertation, “A Longitudinal Cross-Sectional Study on the Acquisition of Navajo Verbs in Children Aged 4 Years 7 Months Through 11 Years 7 Months,” analyzed Navajo child language data she collected. Her research interests are in the areas of morphophonology, polysynthesis, semantics, and acquisition. Her clans are Tsé Nahabiłnii, Kin Îichíi’nii, Hooghan Îání, and Áshįįhí. She maintains a connection to her culture, which enriches her Navajo language skills and knowledge.
Jaeci Hall is currently working on a PhD in linguistics at the University of Oregon. She works on language revitalization of her heritage language, Tututni, an Athabaskan language from Southern Oregon. Her research interests include language revitalization theory and methodology, syntactic and morphological reconstitution of languages that have lost their first-language speakers, as well as Athabaskan language reconstruction. She is employed as a graduate researcher at the Northwest Indian Language Institute (NILI) in Eugene, Oregon.
Millie Yéi Dulitseen Hall comes from the traditional inland Tlingit territory of Teslin, Yukon and has lived in the Yukon Territory for most of her life. She started her studies of the Tlingit language in Juneau, Alaska in 2013. Her intention is to use the first language of her grandmother (her name was Jiyil.axhch Mabel Johnson) daily and in meaningful ways, for the rest of her life. She is pleased and proud that one of her sons, Timothy Shkooyéil Hall, is also learning and interested in the revitalization and teaching of the Tlingit language.
Kawenniyóhstha Nicole Martin received a recognition of completion at the Onkwawénna Kentyóhkwa Mohawk Adult Immersion Program, Six Nations, Ontario in May 2008. She is now a language instructor at the DeadiwÓnöhsnye’s Gëjohgwa’ Seneca Adult Immersion program located in Coldspring in the Country of the Seneca Nation. Her grassroots interests include the 2004 International Indigenous Elders Summit, 2005–2010 Haudenosaunee (Iroquoian) Unity Run, Indigenous Youth United Nations Declaration presentation, and more currently assisting in Haudenosaunee (Iroquoian) language revitalizing efforts where she continues assisting with immersion curriculum development and delivery techniques, and teaching basic conversational language to various groups within the Haudenosaune (Iroquoian) Confederacy homelands.
Annie Johnston, whose Tlingit name is Ḵa’yaadéi, is from the Kóoḵhittaan Clan (Raven Children’s Clan) and the Kóok Hit (Pit House). She lives in Teslin, Yukon Territory, Canada. She lost the use of her Tlingit Language at the Indian residential school she attended for ten years. Today, she continues to learn the language through cultural and traditional activities.
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