- The Oxford Handbook of Endangered Languages
- Biographical Note
- Introduction: Endangered Languages
- The Status of the World’s Endangered Languages
- Assessing Degrees of Language Endangerment
- Language Contact and Language Endangerment
- Indigenous Language Rights—Miner’s Canary or Mariner’s Tern?
- The Goals of Language Documentation
- Documentation, Linguistic Typology, and Formal Grammar
- The Design and Implementation of Documentation Projects for Spoken Languages
- Endangered Sign Languages: An Introduction
- Design and Implementation of Collaborative Language Documentation Projects
- Tools and Technology for Language Documentation and Revitalization
- Corpus Compilation and Exploitation in Language Documentation Projects
- Writing Grammars of Endangered Languages
- Compiling Dictionaries of Endangered Languages
- Orthography Design and Implementation for Endangered Languages
- Language Archiving
- Tools from the Ethnography of Communication for Language Documentation
- Language Documentation in Diaspora Communities
- Ethics in Language Documentation and Revitalization
- Approaches to and Strategies for Language Revitalization
- Comparative Analysis in Language Revitalization Practices: Addressing the Challenge
- The Linguistics of Language Revitalization: Problems of Acquisition and Attrition
- New Media for Endangered Languages
- Language Recovery Paradigms
- Myaamiaataweenki: Revitalization of a Sleeping Language
- Language Revitalization in Kindergarten: A Case Study of Truku Seediq Language Immersion
- Māori: Revitalization of an Endangered Language
- Language Revitalization in Africa
- Planning Minority Language Maintenance: Challenges and Limitations
- Congruence Between Species and Language Diversity
- Sustaining Biocultural Diversity
- Traditional and Local Knowledge Systems as Language Legacies Critical for Conservation
- Climate Change and Its Consequences for Cultural and Language Endangerment
- Interdisciplinary Language Documentation
- Why Lexical Loss and Culture Death Endanger Science
- Funding the Documentation and Revitalization of Endangered Languages
- Teaching Linguists to Document Endangered Languages
- Training Language Activists to Support Endangered Languages
- Designing Mobile Applications for Endangered Languages
- Indigenous Language Use Impacts Wellness
Abstract and Keywords
Numerous studies have confirmed that there is a striking congruence between the global distributions of species diversity and language diversity. In both, richness and diversity generally increase at latitudes closer to the Equator. A variety of explanations has been offered; fundamentally, it appears that similar evolutionary processes, working on key biogeographic and environmental factors, are the cause. Advances in statistical analysis promise a deeper understanding of the overlap. The status of and trends in species and language diversity also show remarkable similarities when two leading indicators, the Living Planet Index and the Index of Linguistic Diversity, are compared at a global scale. Likewise, an analysis using IUCN Red List criteria reveals comparable levels of threat. At regional scales, however, differences emerge between trends. An integrated, biocultural approach to conservation is proposed as the most effective response to the parallel extinction crisis of species and languages.
David Harmon is an independent researcher who writes about biocultural and linguistic diversity, place-based conservation, and secular values. He co-founded the NGO Terralingua, which is devoted to biocultural diversity. With his collaborator Jonathan Loh, he developed the Index of Biocultural Diversity and the Index of Linguistic Diversity; the latter is one of the indicators used by the Biodiversity Indicators Partnership. With Loh, he co-authored Biocultural Diversity: Threatened Species, Endangered Languages (WWF Netherlands, 2014). His most recent book is A Naturalistic Afterlife: Evolution, Ordinary Existence, Eternity (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017).
Jonathan Loh is an independent scientist specializing in the conservation, monitoring, and assessment of biological and biocultural diversity. He has devised, developed, and published many indicators of the changing state of global, regional, and national biodiversity, ecosystems, languages, and culture. He has a PhD in ethnobiology and is an Honorary Research Fellow of the School of Anthropology and Conservation at the University of Kent, Canterbury, UK.
Access to the complete content on Oxford Handbooks Online requires a subscription or purchase. Public users are able to search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter without a subscription.
If you have purchased a print title that contains an access token, please see the token for information about how to register your code.