- The Oxford Handbook of the Brazilian Economy
- The Colonial Economy
- The Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries
- Brazilian Structuralism
- Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization
- Experiences of Inflation and Stabilization, 1960–1990
- Leviathan Captured Neoliberalism as Solution and Problem in Brazil
- Growth Volatility and Economic Growth in Brazil
- The Brazilian Development Bank
- The Evolution of Brazil’s Banking System
- Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap
- Evolution and Sectoral Competitiveness of the Brazilian Manufacturing Industry
- The Agricultural Sector
- Traditional Agriculture and Land Distribution in Brazil
- Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa
- Manufacturing, Services, and the Productivity Gap
- Energy in Brazil: Past and Future
- Trade Policy from the 1930s to the Present
- Regional Disparities
- Brazil’s Northeast
- Changes in Income Distribution in Brazil
- The Development of Brazilian Education: A Tale of Lost Opportunities?
- Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction
- South-South Cooperation for Social Development: Brazil and Africa Examined
- Labor Market Development in Brazil: Formalization at Last?
- Environmental Issues
- The Economics of Health in Brazil
- Brazil, the BRICS, and the Changing Landscape of Global Economic Governance
- Brazilian Trade and International Economic Prospects in an Anti-Globalization Era
- The Evolution of Foreign Direct Investment in Brazil
- Multinational Corporations from Brazil
- The Rise and Fall of State Enterprises
- Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil
- Corruption Scandals, the Evolution of Anti-Corruption Institutions, and Their Impact on Brazil’s Economy
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter analyzes the origins and development of the Brazilian banking system from colonial times to the present day. It begins with a description of the first credit relationships before the existence of banks in colonial Brazil, followed by a discussion of the difficulties faced by the first banks established in the imperial period. It then presents a detailed discussion of domestic and foreign banks during the First Republican, and the key institutional changes that occurred during the Great Depression of the 1930s and the military regime after 1964. Later, it covers banking activities in the hyperinflation period up to the country’s stabilization in 1994. The chapter concludes with an analysis of the recent period and how the banking system endured the Great Recession of 2008–2010 and the recent Brazilian fiscal crisis that began in 2014.
Gustavo S. Cortes, PhD Candidate, Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Renato L. Marcondes, Associate Professor of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of São Paulo
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