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date: 23 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This synthesis chapter recapitulates the major themes of Part II. These themes concern the various problems within science that may produce misleading results and prevent the correction of errors. These problems include publication bias, bias in statistical analysis, hyping of study results, and, in rare cases, fraud. The collected authors suggest that these may be symptomatic of a scientific culture that overvalues exciting, novel, and significant results and undervalues incremental contributions and null results. Institutional reforms are discussed as ways to better align researcher behavior with scientific goals, and consideration is given to the challenges of self-correction in a contentious political climate.

Keywords: publication bias, hype, fraud, self-correction, institutional reform

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