- Copyright Page
- List of Contributors
- Cognitive Sociology and the Cultural Mind: debates, directions, and challenges
- Cognitive Sociology: between the personal and the universal mind
- Critical Theory and Cognitive Sociology
- Pierre Bourdieu as Cognitive Sociologist
- Embodied Cognition: sociology’s role in bridging mind, brain, and body
- The Old One-Two: preserving analytical dualism in cognitive sociology
- Can Carnal Sociology Bring Together Body and Soul?: or, who’s afraid of christian wolff?
- Cognitive Sociology and French Psychological Sociology
- Cognitive Science and Social Theory
- Dual-Process Models in Sociology
- Bridging the Vocabularies of Dual-Process Models of Culture and Cognition
- Metaphorical Creativity: the role of context
- Priming and Framing: dimensions of communication and cognition
- Cognitive Linguistics
- Class, Cognition, and Cultural Change in Social Class
- Cognitive Dichotomies, Learning Directions, and the Cognitive Architecture
- What Is Cultural Fit?: from cognition to behavior (and back)
- Productive Methods in the Study of Culture and Cognition
- An Assessment of Methods for Measuring Automatic Cognition
- Methods for Studying the Contextual Nature of Implicit Cognition
- Social Mindscapes and the Self: the case for social pattern analysis
- Charting the Emergence of the Cultural from the Cognitive with Agent-Based Modeling
- Sociology of Attention: fundamental reflections on a theoretical program
- Risk, Culture, and Cognition
- Cultural Blind Spots and Blind Fields: collective forms of unawareness
- The Sacred, Profane, Pure, Impure, and Social Energization of Culture
- Cognition and Social Meaning in Economic Sociology
- Scientific Analogies and Hierarchical Thinking: lessons from the hive?
- Getting a Foot in the Door: symbolism, door metaphors, and the cognitive sociology of access
- Foregrounding and Backgrounding: the logic and mechanics of semiotic subversion
- War Widows and Welfare Queens: the semiotics of deservingness in the US welfare system
- Perceiving and Enacting Authentic Identities
- Cognitive Migrations: a cultural and cognitive sociology of personal transformation
- The Experience of Time in Organizations
- Silence and Collective Memory
- Name Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter discusses how differences in social class affect a variety of psychological processes and outcomes. In particular, it discusses how relatively higher class individuals are more likely to focus on the self—that is, emphasizing personal goals, feelings, and interests—compared to working-class individuals, who pay greater attention to the social context and their relationships with close others. In support of this claim, it discusses evidence of social class differences in values, neural processes, and higher level reasoning. It also explores the dynamic nature of the social class construct, looking at the difficulties people encounter when shifting to a relatively higher class and the historical trends that suggest global shifts in social class structure within societies. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of understanding social class when looking at various psychological outcomes. At the same time, they challenge researchers to consider the complexity of social class when studying its effects.
Henri C. Santos is a Post-doctoral Fellow in Behavioral Science at Geisinger Health System. His research explores how people make consequential decisions in a changing world. On an individual level, he studies expertise, intellectual humility, and wisdom, particularly in the context of healthcare. On a societal level, he investigates cultural change in individualism-collectivism over time.
Igor Grossmann is Associate Professor of Psychology at the University of Waterloo. He is a behavioral scientist exploring the interplay of sociocultural factors for wisdom in the face of daily stressors. His interdisciplinary work uses a range of methods, including big data analytics, psychophysiology, diary surveys, and behavioral experiments.
Michael E. W. Varnum is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Arizona State University. Dr. Varnum’s primary research focuses on how ecology shapes patterns of cultural variation and cultural change. His work incorporates theory from evolutionary psychology, behavioral ecology, and cultural psychology, and methods ranging from econometrics to neuroscience.
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