Abstract and Keywords
The study of learning started in the late 19th century with the comparative approach to learning of animals and humans. In the early 20th century, American psychologists moved to study observable behavior, culminating in the approach known as behaviorism. They dismissed the work by European psychologists who studied the ways humans and animals reason and think. The behavioristic approach spawned a stream of research in mathematical models of learning that were based on the notions of stochastic learning and reinforcement. The 1950s brought the cognitive revolution that reinstated the study of the mind as a major topic of research by psychologists, linguists, anthropologists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, and philosophers. More recently, cognitive science connected with neuroscience, computer science, and artificial intelligence
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