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date: 21 February 2020

Abstract and Keywords

This chapter discusses how within-group variability is as important a component to understanding the relationship between stigma and health outcomes as between-group variability. The chapter offers a framework that proposes that people’s expectations, beliefs, attitudes, goals, and self-regulatory competencies interact with one another, as well as with people’s cultural environment, to yield individual differences in response to perceived discrimination. The chapter reviews a set of individual difference constructs that have been shown to affect physical and psychological health-related outcomes. Throughout the chapter, we emphasize that individual differences can arise not only through differences in how much a given construct characterizes a person but also through differences in the relationships among the constructs themselves as well as differences in the environment. The broad goal is to reconcile individual variability with group-level differences.

Keywords: race-based rejection sensitivity, perceived discrimination, expectations, legitimizing ideologies, racial identification, regulatory focus, cognitive reappraisal, stigma, health, individual differences

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