- The Oxford Handbook of U.S. Women’s Social Movement Activism
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: The Long History of Women’s Social Movement Activism in the United States
- Layers of Activism: Women’s Movements and Women in Movements Approaching the Twentieth Century
- The Swells between the “Waves”: American Women’s Activism, 1920–1965
- The Equal Rights Amendment Campaign and Its Opponents
- The Turn toward Socialist, Radical, and Lesbian Feminisms
- Contemporary Feminism and Beyond
- Intersectionality: Origins, Travels, Questions, and Contributions
- Mobilizing the Faithful: Conservative and Right-Wing Women’s Movements in America
- The Historical Roots of a Global Feminist Perspective and the Growing Global Focus among U.S. Feminists
- Workplace Discrimination, Equal Pay, and Sexual Harassment: An Intersectional Approach
- Battles over Abortion and Reproductive Rights: Movement Mobilization and Strategy
- Maternalist and Community Politics
- Women’s Health Social Movements
- U.S. Women’s Movements to End Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse, and Rape
- Welfare, Poverty, and Low-Wage Employment
- Anti-Feminist, Pro-Life, and Anti-ERA Women
- The Dynamics and Causes of Gender and Feminist Consciousness and Feminist Identities
- Movement Emergence and Resource Mobilization: Organizations, Leaders, and Coalition Work
- Identity Politics, Consciousness-Raising, and Visibility Politics
- Protest Events and Direct Action
- Language and Its Everyday Revolutionary Potential: Feminist Linguistic Activism in the United States
- Sexuality, Gender Identity, Fluidity, and Embodiment
- From Ink to Web and Beyond: U.S. Women’s Activism Using Traditional and New Social Media
- Inside the State: Activism within Legislative and Governmental Agency Forums
- Women as a Force in Electoral Politics
- U.S. Women’s Legal Activism in the Judicial Arena
- Female Empowerment and the Chain of Command: Women in the U.S. Military
- Push, Pull, and Fusion: Women’s Activism and Religious Institutions
- Women’s Activism and Educational Institutions
- Women, Sports, and Activism
- Women’s Activism in the Modern Movement for Black Liberation
- Latinas in U.S. Social Movements
- Women in the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Movement
- American Women’s Environmental Activism: Motivations, Experiences, and Transformations
- Gendered Activism and Outcomes: Women in the Peace Movement
- Women’s Activism in U.S. Labor Unions
- Women in the White Supremacist Movement
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter explores the history of women’s participation in the LGBT movement, from the homophile phase in the 1950s–1960s through gay liberation, lesbian feminism, anti-AIDS activism in the 1980s–1990s, to contemporary queer activism and the marriage equality movement. The chapter points to shifts in women’s participation, ranging from fighting for women’s issues within male-dominated organizations to creating separatist groups to collaborating with gay men in mixed-gender organizations. In addition, the chapter focuses on changes in collective identities adopted by women in the LGBT movement, sometimes emphasizing commonalities across the lines of sex and sexual identity and sometimes emphasizing difference. The analysis makes clear the ways that social movement spillover from the Old Left, civil rights, women’s, anti-war, New Left, and other movements had an impact on women’s organizing in the LGBT movement, and, in turn, how women’s participation in the movement spilled over to new forms of activism.
Leila J. Rupp is Distinguished Professor of Feminist Studies and Interim Dean of Social Sciences at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She has published extensively on women’s movements, sexualities, and transnational history. Her award-winning work includes Sapphistries: A Global History of Love between Women and (with Verta Taylor) Drag Queens at the 801 Cabaret.
Benita Roth is Professor of Sociology, History, and Women’s Studies at the State University of New York, Binghamton. Her work focuses on gender, race and ethnicity, class, and sexuality in social protest, as evidenced by her latest book, The Life and Death of ACT UP/LA: Anti-AIDS Organizing in Los Angeles from the 1980s to the 2000s (Cambridge University Press).
Verta Taylor is Distinguished Professor of Sociology and affiliated faculty member in Feminist Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. She is the author of numerous publications on women’s and LGBT movements and recipient of the American Sociological Association’s Jessie Bernard Award and the McCarthy Award for her scholarship on social movements. Her prize-winning research includes (with Leila Rupp) Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women’s Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s and Drag Queens at the 801 Carbaret.
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