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date: 12 July 2020

Abstract and Keywords

The impact of peace movements on the development of international law over the course of the 19th and early 20th centuries was significant, especially in advancing norms of equality of status, and in advocating for and legitimizing international organizations. This chapter relates the impact of peace movements and other civil society actors on the development of international law beginning in the early 19th century and culminating with the creation of the United Nations in 1945. During this period, civil society actors, including peace movements, had considerable success in influencing international legal norms, the development of institutions, and the negotiation of treaties regarding arbitration, humanitarianism, and arms control. The discussion focuses on ‘Western’, and especially Anglo-American, peace activists from the Global North. Legal norms promoted by these actors included constraints on States’ rights to wage war and the requirement that States attempt to resolve conflict peacefully before using force.

Keywords: international organization, peace movements, civil society, United Nations, humanitarianism, arms control

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