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date: 24 April 2019

(p. 525) Index

(p. 525) Index

Abizadeh, Arash, 328, 329
abortion, 325
Al- Aulaqi v. Obama, 357, 365 n.
Alberti, Leon Battista, 197–215
All Affected Interests Principle, 319–322, 323–327, 329–332
allegory of the cave. see Plato
anarchism
and communism, 97
compared to limited government, 364
Anderson, Elizabeth, 93, 102, 307, 446
Aquinas, Thomas, 79, 176–187, 378, 496
Aquinas’ works
Summa Theologica, 178–180, 185, 186, 187, 189 n.
argument, 482–485, See logic
aristocracy, 144
Aristotle’s conception of aristocratic freedom, 160, 165–171 (See Aristotle)
Plato’s conception of aristocratic freedom, 147–154 (See Plato)
Aristotle, 10, 143, 145, 157, 160–174, 182–183, 189, 246, 249, 463
Aristotle’s works
De Anima, 165
De Caelo, 162
Eudemian Ethics, 162
Metaphysics, 162, 167, 170
Politics, 161–170 et passim
Rhetoric, 164
Arneson, Richard J., 13, 94, 295, 378
Arrow, Kenneth, 257
Athens, 144
Audi, Robert, 370
Augustine of Hippo, 176
Auschwitz, 196
authenticity, 65
authoritarianism, 11, 186, 223, 231, 338. see also totalitarianism
autocracy
and non-interference, 111
autonomy
intellectual autonomy
and specialization, 480–481 (see also specialization)
and free will, 496
intellectual autonomy, 477
Kantian autonomy, 232–233, 396–397
and child-rearing, 397–398
and liberal polities, 234–235
and planning agency, 288–293
rights of children, 397
Babeuf, Gracchus, 90
Bamford v. Turnley (1862), 22
Bargaining Power, 432
Baron, Hans, 196
Bastiat, Frédéric, 422
Baumeister, Roy, 499, 501
belief
delusion, 510
false beliefs
about options, 515
and freedom, 511–515
and self-interest, 521–522
misbeliefs
cognitive bias, 518–519
collective misbeliefs, 515–518
and defective social practices, 519–520
and freedom, 16, 509–510
and testimony, 508
Bellarmine, Robert, 186, 191 n.
Belloc, Hilaire, 187
beneficence, 247–248
Benthem, Jeremy, 95, 109, 117, 484
(p. 526) Berlin, Isaiah, 1, 4, 40, 79, 82–87, 106–108, 111, 116, 119, 223, 227, 235, 295, 341, 343–345, 441
“Two Concepts of Liberty,” 2, 50, 92, 116, 233, 236
Bicchieri, Christina, 49, 55 n.
Black Death, The, 201
Blackstone, William, 112
Boccacio, 206
Boonin, David, 14
Bosanquet, Bernard, 48, 51, 52
Bouwsma, William J., 197–198
Bracciolini, Poggio, 198
Bratman, Michael, 297 n., 501
Brennan, Jason, 49, 223, 236, 275 n., 300, 342, 344–347
Bringhurst, Piper L., 2, 4
Bruni, Leonardo, 196
Buchanan, Allen, 16, 520
Bucker, G.A., 196
Buddhism, 370, 377
Budolfson, Mark Bryant, 13
Burckhardt, Jacob, 197, 200, 205–206, 217 n.
Bush, George W., 271
Camus, Albert, 210, 211
capitalism
and the scholastic tradition, 187–188 (see also scholasticism)
Carens, Joseph, 319
Carnap, Rudolph, 476
causation, 87 n., 501
agent, 495–496
backward, 415–417, 418 n.
Chesterton, G.K., 187
child-rearing, 389–402
choice, 3–4, 250
and coercion, 328–329
and free will, 495 (see also free will)
choice architecture, 251, 301, 315
Christianity
theology, 176, 211
Christiano, Thomas, 335
civil liberties, 8, 90, 336–338, 340, 347, 373, 376, 385, 387
Coase, Ronald, 306–307, 309
Coates, Justin, 495
Cohen, G.A., 24, 26, 69, 137, 338, 441, 451–452
Colbert, Jean-Baptiste, 422–423
communism, 90, 97
Comte, Charles, 424
concepts
thick vs. thin, 189 n.
Conley, Sarah, 251
Connell, W. J., 200
conscience, 242, 244, 384
norms of respect for, 378–379
conservatism, 93–94
Constant, Benjamin, 108, 340
constitutions
checks and balances, 355, 361
constitutional court, 363–364
constitutional government, 350–354
failures of, 354–357
and democracy, 8 (see also democracy)
and democratic decision making, 11 (see also democracy)
of the United States of America, 350–364 et passim, 369, 382, 385
contractualism, 94, 97
Cyrus the Great, 172
da Vinci, Leonardo, 206
Dahl, Robert, 320
Davidson, Donald, 489 n.
de’ Medici, Lorenzo, 198–199
decision. See choice
Deery, Oisín, 498, 504, 505 n.
democracy, 335–336
Aristotle’s criticisms of, 161–164
and autonomy, 340–343 (see also autonomy)
and liberalism, 336–340 (see also liberalism)
and non-domination, 343–347 (see also freedom, republican conception of)
and self-rule, 329–330
Demsetz, Harold, 13
Dennett, Daniel, 477
determinism
essentialist, 519, 522
physical, 14–15, 494
Aquinas’ view of, 189 n.
(p. 527) and compatibility with free will, 495–496 (see also free will)
distributive justice. See justice
division of labor, 10, 48
domination, 6, 92, 107, see also freedom, republican conception of
versus interference, 109–112
Douglass, Frederick, 196, 218 n.
Dworkin, Ronald, 2, 69, 77–79, 83–85, 98, 370, 441
Ebels-Duggan, Kyla, 14, 389, 396, 402 n., 404 n.
economic distributism, 187–188
Economist, The, 336–338
egalitarianism, 6, 8, 77, 83, 90–91, 93–95, 101–102
authority egalitarianism (see equality, and authority)
and distribution, 77–78, 83, 85–86
liberal egalitarianism, 309, 312–313
standing egalitarianism (see equality, and standing)
egoism, 392
Eisgruber, Christopher, 385
Ekstrom, Laura, 495
Endarkenment, The Great, 475, 486–488
and hyperspecialization, 478–481 (see also specialization, hyperspecialization)
Enlightenment, The, 223–224, 225, 232, 475–478, 479–480, 483, 485
Environmental Protection Agency, The, 309
Epictetus, 196
epiphenomenalism, 505 n.
epistocracy, 347
and authority, 90, 94
economic equality
and distribution of goods, 95
and esteem, 90, 94
and fairness, 76
relational equality, 93, 102
and religious liberty, 379–380
and responsibility, 76
and standing, 90, 94
essentialism, 177, 519. see also determinism, essentialist
Estlund, David, 336, 347, 371
European Convention on Human Rights, The, 373–374
exploitation, 14–15, 217 n., 421–422, 425–436 et passim, 437 n.
externalities, 96, 261–262, 266–267, 277
negative, 29, 306–309
Fagothey, Austin, 185, 186
fairness, 2, 36, 49, 50, 55 n., 76–77, 119
and dissent, 379
and diversity, 49–51
and evolution, 49, 55 n.
and exploitation, 422–434 et passim (see also exploitation)
justice as fairness (see justice, justice as fairness)
Farrar, Cynthia, 195
federalism, 251
Feinberg, Joel, 5, 108, 390–396, 398–400
feminism, 117
feminist abolitionism, 98
feminist philosophy, 521
and republican freedom, 117 (see also, freedom, republican conception of)
Ferguson, Missouri, 102 n.
Feser, Edward, 10, 188 n., 189 n.
Fischer, John Martin, 497
Foot, Philippa, 178, 180, 184
Foucault, Michel, 488 n.
Francis of Assisi, 215
Frankfurt School of critical theory, 523 n.
Frankfurt, Harry, 446, 494–495, 497
Frede, Michael, 495, 502
free will, 3–4, 15–16, 170, 180, 492–504 et passim, see also responsibility
and the ability to do otherwise, 494
and attention, 500
compatibilist theories of, 495
and the consequence argument, 494
and decisions, 496–497
and imagination, 492, 498–504, 505 n.
incompatibilist theories of, 495
and neuroscience, 494
and psychology, 492
(p. 528) freedom
as democratic self-rule, 14, 150, 155, 161–164, 173, 320, 323, 327–332, 340
epistemic freedom, 499
excellence conception of, 180, 183
exercise conceptions of, 106 (see also positive liberty)
of indifference, 181, 183
from interference, 21, 24, 108 (see also negative liberty)
legal, 144
negative freedom (see negative liberty)
as non-interference, 108–112 (see also negative liberty)
opportunity conceptions of, 106, see also negative liberty
Plato’s conception of political freedom, 149–151, 154–156 (see also Aristocracy)
positive freedom (see positive liberty)
psychological, 144, 147–148
and public policy, 2–3
Renaissance humanist conception of, 198–200, 210–212
republican conception of, 90–91, 93, 95, 102, 107, 112, 121, 343–347
“kindly master” argument for, 115–119
and antislavery, 98–99
and authority egalitarianism, 93
and democracy, 114–115 (see also democracy)
and inalienable rights, 98–101
and non-domination, 91, 117–118, 119–121
procedural view of, 113–114
Rousseau’s conception of moral freedom, 227–231
and self-command, 224–227, 240–241, 244 (see also virtue)
as self-governance, 301
of speech, 393
and virtue, 148–149, 180, 224, 228, 231
humanist virtue, 198–200
self-command as virtue, 225
Freud, Sigmund, 42–43
Friedman, Milton, 257, 259, 268, 274
Fuller, Lon, 284–287
Garrigou-Lagrange, Reginald, 176
Gaus, Gerald, 2, 4, 46, 48, 224, 227, 236, 280 n.
Gauthier, David, 55 n., 230
General Will, the
and Bosanquet, 48
and Rousseau, 46–47
Gilson, Etienne, 176
Glaucon, 145–146
Goodin, Robert, 320
Gould, Carol, 321
Gray, John, 108
Green, T.H., 41–44
Greenawalt, Kent, 370
Greene, Abner S., 375
Guyer, Paul, 232
Habermas, Jürgen, 345
Haidt, Jonathan, 3
Hamilton, Alexander, 354–355
Hanley, Ryan Patrick, 2, 11, 225, 227
Hansen, Herman Mogens, 167
happiness, 210, 245
Aristotle’s view of, 166, 167, 171
tranquility, 226
as utility, 246
Hardin, Garrett, 271
Harm Principle, The, 405
Harrington, James, 109
Harris, Sam, 494, 502
Hart, H.L.A., 298 n.
Hayek, Friedrich, 6, 42, 49, 90, 108, 120, 196, 293, 297, 297 n., 311, 441, 466
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 205
Held, David, 321
Henry of Gent, 191 n.
Hinduism, 370, 377
Hinman v. Pacific Air Transport (1936), 23–24
Hobbes, Thomas, 85, 108, 111, 181, 183, 186, 300
Hohfeld, Wesley Newcomb, 26, 84–85, 95, 97, 182–185, 189 n., 451
Hong-Page Theorem, 50–52. See also Hong, Lu; Page, Scott E.
Hong, Lu, 50
Huemer, Michael, 11, 12, 357, 365 n.
Hursthouse, Rosalind, 180
impartial spectator, the, 240–245
inalienability protections, 34
Islam, 370, 387
Jefferson, Thomas, 355
Judaism, 370, 377
just world hypothesis, the, 515–516
justice, 247–249
and borders, 321–322, 329–331
distributive justice, 94
justice as fairness, 310–311
and law, 186, 248 (See also law)
Kant, Immanuel, 11, 79, 134, 223–224, 231–236, 396, 476–477, 479
Kant’s works
Conjectural Beginning of Human History, 234
Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, 232–233
Metaphysics of Morals, 233–234
Keyt, David, 1, 10, 157 n., 173 n.
Kramer, Matthew, 292
Lacroix, Justine, 341
Lamont, John, 189 n.
Landemore, Hélène, 346
law
Anglo-American property law, 22
arbitration, 305
common law, 114
constitutionality of law, 353, 356 (See also constitutions)
and contractual slavery, 100 (See also slavery)
and democracy, 335–336 (See also democracy)
divine law, 181
due process, 92, 343
and interference, 112
law of coverture, 93
lawlessness, 153
laws of nature, 61, 80 (See determinism)
liability-rule protections (See liability)
medieval canon law, 183
moral law, 41, 46, 53, 185, 228, 232–234
natural law, 177–182, 190 n. (See also rationality)
and natural rights, 185
Plato’s conception of laws, 152–155
and religious claims, 373, 375–376 (See also liberty, religious liberty)
repeal of law, 361–362
and Rousseau’s General Will, 46–47
rule of law
as an ideal, 284–286
and autonomy, 290 (See also autonomy)
and economic freedom, 337
and economic prosperity, 340
and effectiveness of law, 286
and institutions, 286–287
and planning agency, 291–292
and the private sphere, 304
in Renaissance Italy, 197
and rule by law, 284
Rule of Law Constraints, 91, 92
and sexual harassment, 100
Tort law, 96, 306
legal accommodation, 381–382
for religious belief, 382–386 (see also liberty, religious liberty)
legal centralism, 304
legal compliance problems, 303–304
legal entitlements, 303–304
legal polycentrism, 304–305
legislature
negative legislature, 361–362
positive legislature, 361
Leiter, Brian, 370, 378
Levi, Primo, 194, 196
liability
liability rule-protections, 34
extraordinary nuisance, 35–36
ordinary nuisance, 36–37
liberalism
classical liberalism, 7, 310–313
in France, 424–425
and democracy, 335–340
libertarianism, 8, 91, 97, 100, 101, 246, 269, 309–313
default libertarianism, 258–260, 265, 267
empirical arguments for, 269–273
empirical objections to, 273–274
empirical libertarianism, 259–260
libertarian paternalism, 301
and Adam Smith, 245–247
(p. 530) liberty
civil liberty, 337, 373
economic Liberty, 12, 90
flat liberty, 85–86
Law of Conservation of Liberty, 6, 82–84, 86, 88
negative, 1, 40, 64, 66, 91–92, 94–98 Passim, 100–103, 223–236 Passim, 300, 301, 304
and noninterference, 91
personal, 77, 82
positive, 1–2, 40–41, 42, 45, 53, 64–66, 91, 98, 101, 223–227, 231, 301, 310, 338
epistemic conditions of, 509–511, see belief
and opportunity, 91
religious liberty, 13, 385–387 et passim
scope of, 369–370
special accommodations for, 375–376
and rights, 77–78, 84
rights-based theories of, 59–66
vs. responsibility-based theories of, 66–72
value-neutral theories of, 59
Liddel, Peter, 170
Locke, John, 27, 61, 95, 108–109, 124, 129, 183, 186–187, 297 n., 426, 496
logic
and The Great Endarkenment, 486–488 (see also Endarkenment, The Great)
logical alien, 483–484
psychologism, 477–478, 484
Long, Roderick, 170
Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 356
MacCallum, Gerald, 40, 144, 160–161, 173
Macedo, Stephen, 383, 389
Machiavelli, Niccolò, 108
MacIntyre, Alasdair, 183, 463, 488 n.
Mack, Eric, 100, 127–138 Passim, See also Self–Ownership
Mackie, J.L., 387
Madison, James, 109, 354–355
Maritain, Jacques, 167, 186, 191 n.
markets
cultural market, 481
Hayek’s view of, 292–293, 297, 311
market failure, 13, 260–263, 267, 269, 272, 310
and government failure, 265–266
versus political exchange, 425
relationship to freedom, 225
and the scholastic tradition, 186–188 (See also scholasticism)
Marsh, David, 207
Marx, Karl, 14, 81, 422, 426–428, 463
McKenna, Michael, 495, 523 n.
McLean, Paul, 200
Mele, Alfred, 523 n.
Mendelberg, Tali, 346
mercantilism, 423–424
metaphysics
and the law, 153–154
Meyers, Chris, 433
Mill, John Stuart, 5, 100, 108, 112, 239, 251, 297 n., 347, 405, 477
Miller Jr., Fred D., 1, 10, 157 n., 173 n.
Miller, David, 324
Millgram, Elijah, 15, 489 n.
Milton, John, 109
Montesquieu, 109, 354–355
moral sentiments, 243–244, 245, 251–252
moral standing, 323
Moran, Richard, 403
Mulgan, R.G., 169
Nahmias, Eddy, 1, 15, 494, 496, 497, 499, 501, 503, 504
Näsström, Sofia, 324, 329
natural law. See law
naturalism in philosophy, 189 n. 499, 503–504
Naturalistic Fallacy, The, 395
negative liberty. See liberty
neoplatonism, 176
Newman, W.L., 169
nominalism, 182, 183
non-interference, 108, see also negative liberty
norms, 226
Novak, Michael, 186
Nozick, Robert, 34, 74 n., 81–82, 88 n., 90, 95–96, 100, 103 n., 124–130, 139 n., 186, 191 n., 333 n., 342, 408, 411, 444, 448–453, 454 n.
Nozick’s “Tale of the Slave,” 342, see also slavery
Nussbaum, Martha, 377
O’Connor, Timothy, 495
Obama, Barrack, 270, 271, 357
(p. 531) Olsaretti, Serena, 88 n., 447, 448, 451
opportunities
and child-rearing, 391–392
and free will, 492
and freedom, 91, 94, 97 (see also positive liberty)
and planning agency, 289, 294
and resources, 77
and rights violations, 65
Ostrom, Elinor, 13, 264–266, 271, 302
Otsuka, Michael, 25, 95, 450, 451
Otteson, James R., 11, 225, 227, 253 n., 469 n.
Owen, David, 321, 326
ownership
as an institution, 7, 28–30
self-ownership, 9, 22, 24–26, 124–125
the conflation problem for, 125–126
libertarian view of, 126–135
and the problem of trivial infringements, 126–127, 130
and scholasticism, 191 n.
and voluntariness, 450–453
Padgett, John, 198
Page, Scott E., 50
Pain, 229, 458
Paine, Thomas, 102
Paley, William, 108, 117
Parfit, Derek, 263, 277 n., 418 n.
paternalism, 251. see also libertarianism; nudges
Patterson, Orlando, 1, 10, 109, 195, 196, 199, 206, 209
Pavel, Carmen E., 12
Peloponnesian War, The, 172
Pennington, Mark, 13, 308, 316 n.
Pereboom, Derk, 502
Petrarch, 206
Pettit, Philip, 40, 42, 44, 45, 53, 92, 107–109, 114, 117–119, 121, 223, 290, 297, 343–345
physician assisted suicide, 381
Pigou, A.C., 306, 308–309
Pigovian tax, 266, 267
Pinckaers, Servais, 180–181
planning agency, 283
Plato’s works, see also Plato
Laws, 144, 151–156
Lysis, 144
Phaedrus, 147–148
Republic, 144, 145, 147–151, 242
Theaetetus, 151–156
plutocracy, 94
Pogge, Thomas, 82
Polanyi, Karl, 304
Pope John XXII, 187
Pope Nicholas V, 212
Pope Pius II, 213
Popper, Karl, 143
Porete, Marguerite, 196
positive liberty. See liberty
Posner, Richard, 292
posthumous harm, 405–417
preferences, 345
Price, Richard, 109
Principle of Subsidiarity, The, 186, 288
Prisoner’s Dilemma, 49, 261–262
private enterprise, 250, see also capitalism
privilege
with respect to ideas, 101
promises, 292
property rights. See rights
property rule protections, 34
psychology
psychological dependence, 99
punishment, 356
and beneficence, 247–248
and coercion, 360
criminal, 279 n., 285
and exploitation, 434, 435 (see also exploitation)
and Free Will, 502, 505 n.
and Justice, 298
and Paternalism, 251
and Planning, 294
and the U.S. Constitution, 351, 356
and violations of constitutions, 364
Quine, W.V.O, 489 n.
Quong, Jonathan, 380
Raaflaub, Kurt, 143
racism
and essentialism, 519
institutionalized racism, 516
Railton, Peter, 25, 129, 138 n., 499
(p. 532) rationality
practical, 510, 513, 518
and natural law theory, 179
Ravizza, Mark, 497
Rawls, John, 5, 55 n., 87 n., 94, 103 n., 108, 191 n., 273, 280 n., 285, 290, 297 n., 298 n., 303, 309–313, 316 n., 393, 436 n.
Raz, Joseph, 97, 285, 290
reactive attitudes, 41, 43, 45, see also responsibility, moral responsibility
Reagan, Ronald, 270
reasons
defeasible reasoning, 482–483
public vs. private reasons, 371–372
reciprocal benefits, 22–24
regulation
“bottom-up,” 302
“top-down,” 302
of indivisible goods, 308–309
of markets, 311–312
Reid, Thomas, 496
Renaissance, The, 194–216
Humanism, 198–199
responsibility
fiduciary responsibility, 7
liability, 444
moral responsibility, 4, 41–45, 53, 60, 66–72, 443–444, 496 (see also free will)
and the ability to do otherwise, 494
and coercion, 447–449
degrees of, 493
and imagination, 499–500
and Reasoned Control, 43–45
and Rights, 66–72, See also Rights
personal responsibility, 224
substantive responsibility, 446, 449–450
rights
autonomy rights, 390
claim right, 26
and fairness, 77–78
as inalienable, 99, 101
as inviolable, 124, 132
liberty rights, 26, 98
moralized notion of, 136–137
natural Rights, 181–186
property rights, 84, 95, 97, 101–102
property Rights
and incentives, 308
Ring of Gyges, 242–243
Roosevelt, Franklin D., 353
Rousseau, Jean-Jacques, 4, 11, 41, 46–50, 53, 186, 223–224, 227–231, 341
and Adam Smith, 223, 232, 233, 234, 235
Rousseau’s Works
Discousre on Inequality, 227, 235
Emile, 228–231
Social Contract, 227, 228, 231
Russell, Daniel, 469 n.
Sager, Lawrence, 385
Samuelson, Paul, 257
Satz, Debra, 99
Say, Jean-Baptiste, 422, 423
Scanlon, T.M., 137, 322, 443, 444, 447, 497
Schmidtz, David, 4, 17 n., 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 34, 223–225, 227, 236, 276, 468 n.
Schofield, Malcolm, 151
scholasticism
voluntarism about the will, 180–181
Dominicans, 187
Fransiscans, 187
Intellectualism about the will, 180
Thomism, 176–177, 186
and economics, 187–188
Schumpeter, Joseph, 320, 327
Scott, James C., 272, 306
Scotus, John Duns, 176
self-fulfilling prophecy, 517
Sen, Amartya, 301, 313–314, 320
Shakespere, William, 208
Shapiro, Ian, 326
Sidgwick, Henry, 108
Sidney, Algernon, 109, 116
Singer, Peter, 274
Skinner, Quentin, 107, 223
slavery, 84–85, 98, 116, 147–148, 345
Plato’s view of, 145–146
In Renaissance Italy, 201–213
Smith, Adam; works
Lectures on Jurisprudence, 226
(p. 533) The Theory of Moral Sentiments, 225–226, 240, 246–247, 458, 469 n.
The Wealth of Nations, 37 n., 246–247, 423
Smith, Vernon, 271
Sobel, David, 9, 25, 28, 125, 126
social Darwinism, 515, 517
social democracy, 90
social norms
emergence of, 49
and exploitation, 422 (see also exploitation)
and fairness, 429
and non-domination, 113–144
socialism, 117, see also capitalism
Socrates, 144–151, et passim, 152, 156, 242
Sokol, Alan, 483
Sparta, 144
specialization, 478–479
hyperspecialization, 15, 479–482, 484
Spencer, Herbert, 5, 108
Spinoza, Baruch, 496
Sripada, Chandra, 493, 498, 499
statute of limitations, 330
Steiner, Hillel, 25, 62, 78, 79, 82, 85, 87 n., 295
stoicism, 196, 198, 211–212, 495
Storr, Virgil Henry, 15, 462, 466, 467, 468
Strauss, Leo, 183
Strawson, Peter, 41–43, 503
Sturges v. Bridgman (1879), 30
Suárez, Francisco, 176, 186
Sunstien, Cass, 239, 250, 270–271, 301, 313–314
Supreme Court of The United States, The, 350, 356–357, 358
Taleb, Nassim, 272
Taylor, Charles, 106, 227
teleology, 177, 185
Thaler, Richard, 239, 240, 301, 313–314
Thrasymachus, 149
Tierney, Brian, 183
totalitarianism, 11, 90, 231, 235, see also authoritarianism
Tragedy of the Commons, The, 261–263, see also Prisoner’s Dilemma
transaction costs, 306–307, see also market
Ubel, Peter, 251
utopia, 476–477
Vallentyne, Peter, 24, 451
values
conflict of, 78–81, 96
constant aggregate magnitude values, 80–84
variable aggregate magnitude values, 80, 83
van Inwagen, Peter, 494
Velleman, J. David, 498, 499
Vihvelin, Kadri, 500
Villey, Michel, 183
Virgil, 213
virtue, 148–149, 180, 224, 228, 231, 247, see also Freedom
self-command as a virtue, 224–227, 240–241, 244
and self-judgement, 241–244
voluntariness, 13, 35, 98–99, 124, 199, 287, 302–304, 432, 439–453 et passim.
and associations, 315–330 et passim
and free will, 497
voting
submajority rules, 362
supermajority rules, 359–361
Waldron, Jeremy, 291–292, 421
Wall Street Journal, The, 336–337
Wall, Steven, 12, 25, 34, 37, 118, 119, 121, 126
Wallace, R. Jay, 495
weakness of will, 314
Wickard vs. Filburn, 353–354, 356
Wilde, Oscar, 508
William of Ockham, 176
Williams, Bernard, 81
Wisconsin v. Yoder, 383
Wittgenstein, Ludwig, 489 n.
Wolf, Susan, 497, 498, 502
Xenophon, 146–147
zero-sum game, 22
Zimmerman, David, 446, 448, 449
Zwolinski, Matt, 14, 27, 425, 428, 435