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date: 18 November 2017

(p. 711) Index

(p. 711) Index

A
Abaluyia people of Kenya, widowhood among, 701
Abelsson, J., 512
acculturation
“acculturation gap,” 415
adolescents in immigrant families, 414–416
among transnational families, 52–53
complications of, 53–56
dissonant acculturation, 663–664
and family disruption, 346
acculturative stress, 52–53
activity theory, 203
Adamopoulos, J., 344
adher-awastha, Hindu Indian concept of midlife, 641
Adjaye, D., 62
Adler, P. A. & P., 434
adolescence
attachment and well-being, 416
autonomous-related self in, 416–417
autonomy and relatedness, 419
changes in dress and appearance, 329, 335, 337
definition of, 358
“emerging adolescence,” 338
global perspective on, 420–421
memories of among U. S. and Dutch adults, 627
need for cultural perspective, 411–412
need for developmental perspective, 412
relationships with siblings and romantic partners, 418
social vs. biological, 328
terminology and key referents, 441–443
time with family vs. others, 417–418
transition into emerging adulthood, 488–489
Adolescent Apprentice contract
and protection against child labor practices, 458, 459
adolescent development
culture as organizing factor, 379, 389
effect of moral purpose on self- and worldview, 383–385, 390
effect of values on self- and worldview, 381–383, 389
effects of religious purpose on self- and worldview, 385–387, 390
and global concerns in adolescent health, 357–358
narratives and the politics of identity, 400–404
relationship among values, morals, and religious orientation, 387–389, 390
self-views of adolescents, 379–380
universal vs. culture-specific processes, 378, 390, 391
worldviews of adolescents, 380–381
adolescent health
examples in India, 365–366
interventions and preventative measures, 371–372, 373
mental health, 369–371, 373
and models of adolescent development, 357–358
sexual and reproductive health, 366–368, 371, 373
sociocultural context, 358–365
adolescents
acculturative stress, 52–53
autonomy and relatedness, values of, 389
autonomy and relatedness in immigrant families, 414–416
biracial and bicultural, 55
child labor practices in Brazil, 458–459
child marriages among, 360–361, 361, 366
children, having one's own, 383
citizen children, 48, 50
civic identity among, 472
commercial sexual exploitation of, 462–464
early sexual activity among, 366
educational status worldwide, 364
effects of immigration, 49
effects of large-scale social change, 342
engaged parenting of, 344–345
global and local identity, 33–34
global concerns faced by, 360, 362
globalization, repercussions of, 30, 36
global urban youth culture, 56
group identity, 388–389
identity formation, 237–238, 397
immigrant youth, outcomes of, 46, 414, 415
implications of Internet use, 30–31
informed consent in research, 17
instrumental parentification, 461
Internet and practice of self-mutilation, 30
language and positioning of identity, 402
literacy rates among, 439, 440, 440
marriage in transnational families, 55
and moral reasoning, 240–242
moral renewal at adolescence, 230–231, 234
narratives of homelessness, 402–403
narratives of sexual identity, 403–404
rising population worldwide, 356, 357, 358, 359
self- and worldviews of, 378, 379–381
self-regulation among, 383, 389, 420
social contexts of moral reasoning, 244, 245
“third-culture kids,” 34, 35, 36, 55
transition rituals around the world, 327–328
use of inner dialogue, 35–36
adolescents, civic development of
dynamic civic identities, 472, 473, 482
global communities, 480–482
groupways cultural lens, 478–480
mediating institutions in civil society, 474–476, 477–478
within nation-states, 474
nation-states and the social contract, 476–477, 480
transactional ecological model of, 473, 475
adolescents, resilience among
children and armed conflict, 348–350
culture and, 344–345, 351
impoverished Brazilian youth, 347–348
integrated approaches to studying, 350
narratives of homeless adolescents, 402–403
sexual socialization in immigrant families, 345–347
theory and constructs, 342–344
adolescent transition rituals
and break with the past, 334–335, 337
and cultural complexity, 331–332
effects on individuals, 333–334
initiation into adolescent youth groups, 336–337
(p. 712) locales and locations of, 330–333
in modern industrialized societies, 338
pain and fear in, 335–337, 337
purpose and effects of, 329–330, 333
symbolic approaches and underlying themes, 334
transition out of childhood, 330
Adult Attachment Interview (AAI), 22–23
adult development
conceptual formulations and cultural contexts, 667–669
cross-cultural views of aging, 666–667
empirical studies of, 669–674
trends in future research, 674–677
adulthood, emerging
in Asia, 491–492
becoming self-sufficient, 495–496
in developing countries, 493, 499
distinguishing features of, 488–489, 498
in Eastern Europe, 491
and identity-based work, 497–498
love and marriage, 496–497
in OECD countries, 489–490
origins as cultural theory, 488, 489
premarital sex and cohabitation, 492
self-focused life and enjoyment, 498
and social class, 492–493
and social networking sites, 521
in Western Europe, 490–491, 498
worldwide variation in, 493–494, 499
adulthood, late
community leadership and mentoring in, 686–689
demographic overview of, 682–684
implications of nonattachment in, 689–691
neglect and mistreatment of elderly, 700
Odia Hindu conceptualization of, 639
positive trends in, 684–686, 693
adults, emerging
acculturative stress, 52–53
autonomous-relatedness among, 417
citizen children, 48, 50
effects of immigration, 49
global and local identity, 33–34
globalization, repercussions of, 30, 36
global urban youth culture, 56
health practices among, 504
marriage in transnational families, 55
origin of term “emerging adults,” 328
premarital sex and cohabitation, 502–503, 513
prostitution and health among, 512–513
psychopathology among, 505–506
risk behaviors, 504–505, 513
sexuality and health among, 507–509, 513
social contexts of moral reasoning, 244
substance abuse and antisocial behavior among, 509–512, 513, 514
Twitter use among, 530
affect
affective stance in language, 117–118
negative vs. positive among infants, 131
positive affectivity, 142, 143
Afghanistan, 348, 478
Africa
adolescent transition rituals in, 330, 335
Baganda group, East Africa, 84
development among children, 64
diverse cultures within, 69
early socialization of children, 62
ecocultures and human development, 61, 62
families and gender socialization, 312
fathering diversity within, 606, 607, 612–614
holistic worldview in, 63, 68–69
human development research in, 63–66, 68
importance of social intelligence, 67
indigenous views of human development, 398–399
open and distance outreach learning in, 444, 445
rates of child labor, 561
rates of primary education in, 363
research within indigenous knowledge systems, 66–68
social capital of children, 70–71
sub-Saharan agricultural societies, 281–283
women and aftermath of civil war, 482
youth literacy rates in, 439
See also Africans
See also individual countries
African Americans
at-home care for infirm elderly, 702
attachment with God in later adulthood, 689
authoritative parenting, 24
children and concealment of emotions, 135
cultural variations and research, 17
families and gender socialization, 315
toddlers and emotional socialization, 316
Africans
“African infant precocity,” discarded theory of, 81
developmental goals among, 6–7
developmental trajectories in indigenous social science, 69–70
personality development and individuation, 71–72
supernatural order and traditional beliefs, 37, 61, 69, 70
Africentric scholarship, 66
afterlife
indigenous beliefs in Africa, 37, 61, 69, 70
relationships with deceased elders, 704–706
Agarwal, Madhusudhan, 680, 681
aging
Chinese vs. U. S. views of, 628
“cult of youth” in Anglo-America, 645, 647, 648
demographics of, 682–684
effect of psychosocial profiles on disease risk and disability, 667, 675–676, 684, 688
eudamonia vs. hedonic well-being, 670, 671, 672
and globalization, 39
and inner dialogue, 35–36
interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and health, 676
Japan, system of “care credits” in, 686
Japanese views, 641–642
medicalization of aging process, 647
populations of elderly worldwide, 683
and power differentials, 4
protective effects of spirituality and religion, 685
protective factors, 684–685, 693–694
respect for elderly in East Asian societies, 668, 669
respect for elderly in Judaism, 690
“roleless roles,” 668, 676
wisdom and aging, 673
aging, cognitive
cognitive performance among Chinese and U.S. older adults, 624, 626
cultural differences in, 623–630
making cross-cultural comparisons, 621–623
methodological challenges to study, 630–631
agriculturists
and adolescent transition rituals, 331
children's chores, 188
parenting, 168, 275–276, 613
Aina, O. E., 315
Ainsworth, M., 151, 152, 160
Aka pygmy fathers, Central Africa, 167, 594, 613
Akhtar, Nameera, 115
Alaska Natives
cultural variations and research, 17
perceived competence in village children, 217
Alberts, C., 37
Aldwin, C. M., 685–686
Alex, L., 308–309
Algier, L., 512
Ali, J. A., 690
Allwood, C. M., 67
A Long Way Gone: Memoirs of a Boy Soldier (Beah), 349
ALSPAC Study Team, 312
Altoè, G., 286
(p. 713) Amabile, T. M., 257
amae, Japanese cultural image of, 658, 673
Ambitious Generation (Schneider & Stevenson), 555
the “American Dream,” 543–544, 546, 549, 550
American Psychological Association (APA)
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, 16
Amrullah, E. A., 690
ancestor worship, and filial piety in East Asian societies, 668, 669
Anderson, K. G., 616
Andrews, D. W., 430
Andrews, M., 661
anemia
among adolescent girls in India, 365
among adolescents worldwide, 362, 363
antisocial behavior, among emerging and young adults, 509–512
anxiety
among infants, 86–87
contamination anxiety, 32–33, 37
gender and emotion, 316
Aoro, C., 71
Apache Sunrise ceremony, 333
apprenticeship programs, for emerging and young adults, 558–559
Arab-American adolescents
civic identity among, 472, 479–480
contextual influences upon, 475
schools as mediating institutions in civic life, 478
Arab farmers, Israel, 519–520
Arabic-speaking countries
learning environments in, 223, 224
Quranic schooling in, 220, 224
trends in science education, 216
Arab societies, sources of fathering diversity in, 606
Arab Spring, 474, 475
Arai, S., 83
Araujo de Morais, Normanda, 456–470
Arends-Toth, J., 415
Arendt, H., 474
Argentina
emotion socialization of infants, 138
public opinion on creativity, 259
Aristotle
on friendship, 427, 429
and perspectives on adult development, 670
arithmetic
abilities across cultures, 100–101
among older adults, 625
armed conflicts
and children 348–350
death and bereavement in wartime, 704
Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, 30, 33, 328, 357, 487–501
Arran, S., 389
Art of Courtly Love, The (Capellanus), 576
Asai, M., 427
Asante, K., 36–37
Asia
adolescent sexual activity in, 366
demographic transitions in, 682–683
open and distance outreach learning in, 444, 445
parental ethnotheories in, 279–281
youth literacy rates in, 439
Asian Americans
at-home care for infirm elderly, 702
authoritative parenting, 24
bicultural identity integration, 263
emerging adulthood among, 496
parenting practices of, 39
Asia 2050 report, 682
Asmus, C. I. R. F., et al., 459
asramadharma, Hindu concept of life span development, 692
Assche, L. V., 689
“astronaut” children, 48
Atkins, R., 687
Atkinson, Q. D., 330, 336
atsukmashisa, Japanese concept of boldness, 644–645, 649
attachment in infants
breastfeeding, 156
dual or communal parenting, 597–598
“secure base” behavior, 86–87
social harmony vs. individual autonomy, 150
attachment in later adulthood, 689
attachment theory
cultural patterning of relational values, 154
and exploration, 158
and feeding of children, 156
history and background, 150–151
and human evolution, 152–153
initial research, 151–152
role of culture and context, 153–154
and “secure base” function, 86–87, 157
secure vs. insecure patterns of attachment, 151, 152, 158–159
standards of care for children, 154–155, 156, 160
attentional patterns
learning through third-party attention, 297–298
significance in early learning, 296–297
attentional processes, in infant development, 85–86
Aukrust, V. G., 427
Australia
adolescent perceptions of housework, 461
adolescent transition rituals in aboriginal communities, 330
behavioral inhibition among children, 133
developmental timetables of Anglo-Australian mothers, 273
exclusivity in adolescent friendships, 430
intimacy in friendships, 428
marriage customs in, 578
parenting of adolescents, 344–345
sources of fathering diversity in, 606
youth apprenticeship programs, 558
Austria, vocational education programs in, 558
authoritarian personality theory, 411
autobiographical memory, among older adults, 626–628
autonomy and relatedness
autonomous functioning and attachment theory, 154
autonomous-related self, 416–417, 421
changing domains of relatedness, 417–419
cultural variations on, 418–419
and ensuing self-regulation, 420
equal importance of, 419
ethics of, 238–239, 495
in immigrant families, 414–416
and individualism vs. collectivism, 21–22, 24
and moral psychology, 8
and moral reasoning, 240–242
Avolio, B. J., 687
Axia, G., 121, 282, 286
Aydt, H., 318
Azerbaijan
families and gender socialization, 311
youth literacy in, 439
Azmitia, M., 299
Azuma, H., 66, 381
B
Babu, B., 84
Babyek, M. A., 685
Baby Facial Action Coding System (BabyFACS), 129
Bach, Mara, 653–665, 668
Bacon, Margaret, 275, 276, 278, 287
Baganda group, East Africa, 84
Bahuguna, Sunderlal, 692, 693
Bakhtin, Mikhail, 29, 398
Bala Bbala Project, 214
Bali
conceptions of creativity, 259
developmental timetables in, 273
Balinese adolescents
interpretations of peer behavior, 377–378
and parental authority, 382
worldviews of, 381
Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, 670
Bamana people of Mali, definition and status of elders, 699
Bame, Joseph, 61
Bang, H. J., 49
(p. 714) Bangladesh, sources of fathering diversity in, 606
Bangladeshi-British families, role of grandparents, 281
Banse, R., et al., 319
Baoulé people, Ivory Coast, 85
bar and bat mitzvah, 328
Barber, B. K., 348–349, 481
Barbot, Baptiste, 255–270
Barefoot, J. C., 685
Bariba people, parenting practices among, 592
Barker, J. C., 706
Baroni, M. R., 121
Barry, Herbert, 275–276, 278, 287, 324–340, 493–494
Barry, O., 87
Barton, A., 313
Basotho people, of Lesotho, 119
Bastug, S. S., 311
Basu, S., 320
Bates, E. A., 115
Baudhayana, ancient Hindu philosopher, 641
Baumrind, D., 279, 416
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
and mental scales, 84
overview of, 80, 81
and physical postures of daily life, 82, 83
Beah, Ishmael, 349
beauty-enhancing practices across cultures, 572, 573
Bedford, O., 382
Bedouin Arab children, intimacy in friendships, 428
Beer, J. S., 232
Beghetto, R. A., 257
behavioral domains, and infant development milestones, 84
behavioral inhibition, 133–134
Behavioral Style Questionnaire, 286
Belarus, youth literacy in, 439
Belgium
gender and emotional socialization, 317
Jewish adolescents and self-identity, 387
vocational education programs, 558
Bell, S., 427
Belmont Report, 16
Belsky, J., 591, 612
Benedict, Ruth, 287, 669
Benga, Oana, 127–148
Beng people of Ivory Coast, parenting practices among, 594
Bengtson, V. L., 668
Berk, L. E., 190
Bermuda, online social networks among adolescents, 526
Bernas, R., 280
Bernheimer, L. P., 649
Berry, J. W., 54, 67, 218, 263, 414–415, 417
Berscheid, E., 427
Best, D. L., 308
Betancourt, T. S., et al., 465
Beyers, W., 416
Bhagavad Gita, sacred text of Hinduism, 691, 692
Bhangaokar, Rachana, 241, 242, 680–696
Bhatia, S., 31–32, 400
Bhattacharjee, N., 313
Bhave, Vinoba, 692–693
Bhawuk, D. B., 692
Bhogle, S., 312
Bhola, P., 370
Bhoodan movement, India, 692–693
Bhowmik, D. K., 38
Bhubaneswar, India, 638–640
Bianchi, S., 312
bias, avoiding in research, 22–23, 24, 57
biculturality
bicultural identity integration, 263, 264
biculturalism and creativity, 263–265
and hybridity, 33–34
using bicultural researchers, 56
Bigler, R. S., 314
Big Society, concept of, 686
bilingualism
benefits for creativity, 35
and coexisting ways of learning, 303
and divergent thinking, 264
using bilingual researchers, 56
Black, Kaitlin, 174, 292–306
Blasi, A., 237
Blood, R. O., 579
Bloom, P., 246
Blurton-Jones, N. G., 188
Bodibe, R. C., 71
Boduroglu, Aysecan, 621–636, 628, 631
Bofi forager fathers, Africa, 613
Bolivia
child labor practices and education, 462
children and cognitive achievement, 219–220
Bologna Process, 563
Bond, M. H., 386, 431
Bontempo, R., 378, 427
Bornstein, M. H., 138, 317
Bororo people, parenting practices among, 592
Bosnia
children and armed conflict, 348–349
postwar youth community involvement, 688
Botswana
civic identity among youth, 481
definition and status of elders, 699
observational learning among children, 205
reminiscences of elders, 700–701
Bower, B., 30
Bowlby, J., 151, 152, 153, 160
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink, 666–679
Bradley, C., 66
Brahman Nepalese children
emotion socialization of, 140
rules for emotional display, 135
brain
prenatal and childhood growth of, 103
role of amygdala in activation of fear and anxiety, 127
Brain, R., 428
Bram, C., 62
Branco, A. U. & A. L., 34
Brazil
Center of Psychological Studies, 456
Childhood Brazil, 462
child labor in a domestic context, 460–462
commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, 462–464
communication among toddlers, 300
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241
marriage customs in, 578
public opinion on creativity, 259
risk and protective factors in child labor, 458–459, 459–460
sources of fathering diversity in, 606
street kids in, 341–342, 347–348
Value of Children Study, 414
youth activists in, 476
breastfeeding, and socialization of children, 596
Breininger, Eric, 388–389
Brewer, M. B., 381, 391
briddha avastha, Hindu Indian concept of old age, 639
Brim, O. G., 646
Brinkman, B. G., 314
Britain
British-diaspora, expectations of, 273
civic contributions by older adults, 686
language and identity in adolescence, 402
public opinion on creativity, 259
broadband subscriptions, worldwide, 522, 522
Broda, Michael, 554–569
Bronfenbrenner, U.
bioecological model of fathering diversity within societies, 605, 605
bioecological model of human development, 217, 357, 378
ecological model of culture, 344
immigrant families and youth, 415
modern-day childcare, 174
Broude, G. J., 576
Brown, J. D., 521
Brown, J. K., 332
Brown, Jill, 165–181, 173
Bruffaerts, R., 689
Brummet, B. H., 685
Brunell, A. B., 315
Bruner, J., 400
Bruun, F. J., 700
Bryant, D., 118
(p. 715) Buddhism
philosophy of detachment, 690–691
and views of aging in Japan, 642, 672
Bühler, C., 667
Buhrmester, D., 428
Bundik, M. J., 684
Burdelski, M., 120
Burke, M., 526
Burma, beauty-enhancing practices in, 572
Burnard, P.
Burton, R. V., 333
Buss, David, 571, 575
C
California First-Year Mental Scale, 84
Callaghan, L., 63
Cambodia, death and bereavement in wartime, 704
Cameron, P. A., 315
Cameroon
child fosterage in, 172
Nso infants and children, 130, 130, 136
patterns of infant care, 586
role of grandparents in parenting, 593
social contract between state and citizens, 477
studies of generativity in, 659–660
Camino, L., 687
Campbell, C., 71
Camras, L. A., 129
Canada
adolescent friendships and enhancement of self-esteem, 430
behavioral inhibition among children, 133, 134
beliefs regarding aging and memory, 628–629
gender and cognitive development in children, 319
Internet use and parental closeness, 524
Inuit family model of psychological interdependence, 414
managing conflict in childhood friendships, 431, 432
work migration in, 564
youth apprenticeship programs, 558–559
Capellanus, Andreas, 576
Caprara, G. V., 386
caregiving
distal vs. proximal, 277, 279
and schooling of young children, 294–295
Caribbean
adolescent sexual activity in, 366
education and work migration, 565
fathering diversity within, 606, 614–615
youth literacy rates in, 439
Carlo, G., 238, 243
Casey, J., 316
Cashmore, J., 273
Caspi, A., 670
Castellani, V., 386
caste system, and friendships among children, 427
categorization and memory, among older adults, 625–626, 626
Caudill, W., 279
Celenk, O., 417
Celik, K., 509
Center of Psychological Studies, Brazil, 456
Central African Republic, child soldiers in, 464
Cerqueira-Santos, E., et al., 463, 464
Cervantes, C. A., 316
Cervera, M. D., 285
Chad, Republic of, 464
Chan, A. S., 626
Chan, T., 84
Chang, Leslie, 496
Chao, R. K., 279, 280
Chaplin, T. M., 316
Charalambous, C., 402
charismatic leadership style, 687
Charles, S. T., 671
chastity, cultural views on, 571–572
Chaudhary, Nandita, 281, 611, 612, 616
Cheah, C. S. L., 310, 382
Chee, M. W. L., 623
Chen, C. S., et al., 258
Chen, E. E., 136
Chen, G. P., 624
Chen, H., 431
Chen, S. X., et al., 264
Chen, W., 625
Chen, X., 134, 383, 387, 430
Chen, Y. -R., 381, 391
Cheng, C., 264
Cheng, W. J. Y., 281
Cherlin, A. J., 285
Chess, S., 285
Chessa, A. G., 627
Chiao, J. Y., et al., 623
Chiapas, Mexico, 205
Child, Irvin, 275, 276, 278, 287, 657
Child Behavioral Questionnaire, 132
childbirth, in Chinese hospitals, 608–609
childcare, adult and sibling, 166–174
grandparents as caregivers, 171–172
increased competence in child caregiving, 173
nonfamily caregivers, 167
parents as caregivers, 167–169
siblings as caregivers, 169–171, 186
variations of, 179
child-centered vs. family-centered activities, 189, 191
child domestic workers, definition of, 461
Child Fund/Sierra Leone, 350
childhood, early memories of, 627–628
Childhood and Society (Erikson), 654, 655, 664n1
Childhood Brazil, 462
child labor practices
child soldiers, 464–465
domestic work within family home, 460–461
domestic work within third-party homes, 461–462
in India, 365, 371
risk and protective factors, 457–459, 459–460, 467
sexual exploitation, 467
trends worldwide, 457
See also street kids
Child Protection Program, India, 372
children
acculturative stress, 52–53
acquisition of cultural knowledge, 96–102
attachment vs. exploration, 151
attentional patterns among, 296–297
authoritative parenting, 23–24
avoiding cultural bias in assessment, 23
biracial and bicultural, 55
child fosterage, 172–173, 178
child marriages, 360–361, 366
child welfare institutions, 176–177
citizen children, 48, 50
commercial sexual exploitation of, 462–464
the “competent” child, 155–156
creativity, 256, 260, 261
cross-gendered children, 314
cultural distance with playmates, 38
cultural influence and child development, 192–195
cultural patterns of collaboration, 298–299
developmental trajectories, 8–9
development of social cognition, 104–105
domain approach to moral reasoning, 235, 236
early childhood care and education, 174–177
effects of biculturalism, 264
gender and social identity, 317–318
historical vs. universal child, 38–39, 40
immigration, effects of, 6, 49
initiative in activity, 295–296
instrumental parentification, 461
interaction of culture and temperament, 285–286
learned self-care, 293
and marriage in transnational families, 55
out-of-home care and daycare, 592, 593
and power differentials, 4
public services for children in Italy, 166
research with, 17, 19, 20, 21
socialization for chores, 87
socialization in schools and child care centers, 174
(p. 716) social networks and attachment theory, 152, 153
standard of good care, 154, 156, 160
“third-culture kids,” 34, 35, 36, 55
universal needs for primary care, 167
violence against worldwide, 360
work and play as culturally organized activities, 187–189
See also education
See also infants
See also play
children, and emotion
concealment of emotions, 135
cultural differences in functioning, 129–130
effortful control and regulation of, 132–133
norms and socialization practices, 135–141
parental talk, 140–141
rules for display, 134–135
socialization and outcomes, 141
socialization of toddlers, 138–139
theoretical frameworks to study development, 128–129
children, cognitive development in, 198–213
cognitive-developmental approach to moral reasoning, 234
in a cultural context, 204–209
and daily activities, 208–209
and ecological contexts, 217–218
evolutionary basis of, 203
and gender, 318–319
narratives, shared, 206
observational learning, 205, 209
sharing and learning, 205–207
sharing knowledge, 206–207
social learning processes, 200–202, 201
sociocultural context of, 200, 202–203, 203–204
transmitting cultural knowledge, 207
children, in Africa
caregiving roles, 70, 71
early socialization of, 62, 63, 64
physical development of toddlers, 64
social capital of, 70–71
stages of development, 69
children, language development in
attunement to phonology, 113
emotional affect in language, 117–118
expressive vs. referential style, 115–116
linguistic markers of speaker certainty, 118–119
linguistic politeness, 119–121
and socialization, 114–115, 123
universal grammar vs. sociocultural perspective, 112, 122
children in adversity
amid armed conflict, 348–350
strength-based research on, 70, 71
Children of Different Worlds Study (Whiting and Edwards), 168, 169
Children of Six Cultures (Whiting & Whiting), 65
children's books
learning cultural emotion norms, 136, 137, 137
Child Report of Parenting Behavior Inventory, 24
Childs, C.P., 296
child soldiers
in armed conflicts in Colombia, 465–466
and exploitation of children, 464
health effects of recruitment, 465
illegal armies groups (IAG), 457
roles assumed by, 349–350
“child study movement,” 80
Chile
entrepreneurship and self-employment in, 559
gender and emotional socialization, 317
Chilisa, B., 63, 67
China
cognitive development in ancient China, 622
creativity and social context, 259
demographic transitions in, 683
education and work migration, 565
emerging adulthood in, 487, 496
“floating populations” and “skipped generations,” 609
historical attitudes toward love, sex, and marriage, 580–581
integrating creativity into classrooms, 261
Internet use and parental closeness, 524–525
managing conflict in friendships, 431, 432
marital happiness in, 579
marriage customs in, 576, 578
public opinion on creativity, 259
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
social contract between state and citizens, 476
Value of Children Study in, 413
work migration in, 564
China, fathering diversity within, 608–611
ethnicity and urban/rural migration, 609
generational differences, 610–611
geography and ethnicity, 610
one child policy and family structure, 609–610
socioeconomic diversity and social mobility, 610
Chinese adolescents
autonomy and relatedness among, 416–417
civic development among, 472–473
friendships and enhancement of self-esteem, 430
religiosity of, 387
schools as mediating institutions in civic life, 478
views of filial piety, 382, 383
Chinese children
behavioral inhibition among, 133
child and adolescent friendships, 426–427
and concealment of emotions, 135
and concepts of moral reasoning, 234
emotional reactivity among infants, 131
emotion socialization of toddlers, 139
facial expressions among infants, 129–130
gender and emotional socialization, 317
gender and social identity, 318
institutional care for infants and toddlers, 176–177
motor skills of 4-month-old infants, 134
parental emotion talk, 140
parent-child conversations, 206
temperamental reactivity among infants, 133
Chinese drawings, and assessment of creativity, 258
Chinese families
care, beneficence, and prosocial morality, 243
cultural emotion norms, 136
role of grandparents, 171, 172, 281, 672
social contexts of moral reasoning, 244
storytelling traditions, 280
Chinese older adults
arithmetic ability among, 625
beliefs regarding aging and memory, 628–629
cognitive ability and memory among, 625–628, 626
cognitive aging among, 623, 624
and grandparenting, 171, 172, 281, 672
protective effects of spirituality, 685
Chinese research participants
developmental goals among, 6–7
Chipko movement, protecting trees in India, 693
Chirkov, V., 310
Chisholm, Lynne A., 438–455
Chiu, C., 263, 265
Chiu, C. -Y., 32–33, 35, 37
Chiu, L.-H., 625
Cho, G. E., 281
Choi, S. Y. P., 317
Chouinard, M. M., 199
Christianson, M., 308–309
Chu, C. Y., 610
Chua, H. F. C., 625, 626
Chung, C., 629
(p. 717) Chung, J., 431
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, 241
chuunen, Japanese concept of midlife, 644
Cicchetti, D., 514
Cicirelli, V. G., 277
circumcision, 327, 334, 338
citizen children, 48, 50
citizenship, dynamic models of, 472, 473
Citlak, B., 414
civic development
defined, 471
dynamic civic identities, 472, 473, 482
dynamic models of, 472
global communities, 480–482
groupways cultural lens, 478–480
mediating institutions in civil society, 474–476, 477–478
within nation-states, 474
nation-states and the social contract, 476–477, 480
transactional ecological model of, 473, 475
civic engagement
in Catholic countries, 691
in late adulthood, 694
in Muslim countries, 690
civic identity, 472
civil society, definition of, 474
cladistics, 96–97
Clancy, P. M., 119
Clendinen, D., 645
Cochran, M., 175
codes of conduct, professional organizations, 16
Coe, Christopher L., 666–679
cognitive ability
and creativity, 257, 259
inborn capacity for, 214
in later adulthood, 685
cognitive aging, 621–636
arithmetic ability, 625
autobiographical memory, 626–628
and basic cognitive processes, 623–625, 624
beliefs about aging and memory, 628–629
and brain anatomy, 623
and emotion, 629–630
and interpersonal social situations, 630
making cross-cultural comparisons, 621–623
and memory, 625–626, 626
memory errors across cultures, 631–632
methodological challenges for research, 630–631
cognitive development
among U.S. and Singaporean youth, 623
cognitive-developmental approach to moral reasoning, 233–235
cultural context of, 200–202, 201, 204–209
dynamic systems and transactional approaches, 204
evolutionary basis of, 203
and gender, 318–319
and globalization, 216–217
phylogeny of, 102–104
sociocultural context of, 199, 200, 202–203, 203–204, 209–210
uniquely human behaviors, 104–105
cognitive function
absence of variation across cultures, 100–101, 101–102, 105–106
presence of variation across cultures, 95–96, 96–102, 98–100, 105–106
and referential gestures, 101
spatial cognition, 100
cognitive neuroscience, cross-cultural observations, 623, 632
cognitive reorganization, and adolescent transition rituals, 335
cognitive skills vs. motor skills, 81
Cohen, A. B., 386–387
Cohen, D., 434
Cohler, B. J., 400
Colburne, K. A., 319
Colby, A., 237
Cole, M., 64–65
Cole, P. M., 135
Coleman, J. M., 315
Coleman, S., 427
collectivist cultures
common patterns of change in, 421
collectivity
and cognitive-developmental approach to moral reasoning, 234
Collins, W. A., 427
Colombia, child soldiers in, 465–466
colonialism
and arrival of scientific psychology in Africa, 63, 64
colonial French schools in northern Cameroon, 301–302
Colonna, E., 461
Comas-Diaz, L., 662
communication and information technologies, 522, 523–524
community
and cognitive-developmental approach to moral reasoning, 234
ethics of, 238–239
and moral psychology, 8
and moral reasoning, 240–242
community leadership
in Hindu India, 692–693
and mentoring in late adulthood, 686–689
and nonattachment in late adulthood, 692
and successful aging in late adulthood, 686
Community Wide Drug Demand Reduction Program, 371–372
compulsory care, and youth in Sweden, 510
confirmation, Christian, 328, 338
conflict management in friendships, 431–432
conflict zones
and adolescent narratives of identity, 401–402
child soldiers in, 464–465
minimizing harm for research subjects, 21
women's solidarity in aftermath, 482
conformity, normative, 104
Confucianism
and filial piety, 382, 383, 387, 668–669
on friendship, 427
gender and social identity, 318
and managing conflict in friendships, 431
midlife narratives in Japan, 637–638, 648, 649
and model citizenship, 473
traditions of parenting, 280
and views of aging in Japan, 642, 672
Congo, Republic of
child soldiers in, 464
Efe foragers and children, 149–150
Connolly, J. A., 418
Consedine, N. S., et al., 142
Consensual Assessment Technique, 258
conventional rules vs. moral reasoning, 235
Convention on the Rights of the Child, 464, 466
convergent evolution, 97
convergent thinking and multiculturalism, 265
Cook, H. M., 120
Coon, H. M., 379
Çorapçi, Feyza, 127–148
Correa-Chávez, Maricela, 174, 292–306
Corsaro, W. A., 318
Costa, P. T., 670
Costa Rica
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
studies of generativity in, 659–660
work migration in, 564
Cotton, Janice, 177
Cotton, S., 273
Cox, A., 686
Craft, A., et al., 261
crawling, and infant motor skill development, 82
creativity
and biculturalism, 263–265
and cultural and linguistic diversity, 35
(p. 718) cultural variations in the conception of, 258–259
“derived etic approach” to assessing, 258, 266
development across cultures, 260–263
expatriate creativity hypothesis, 263
and hybrid identities, 34–35
multicultural context of, 265, 266
nature and assessment of, 256–258, 266
value of, 255, 256
Croatia
and adolescent narratives of identity, 402
studies of generativity in, 658, 659
Cronbach, L. J., 433
cross-gendered children, 314
Crowley, K., 299
Csikszentmihalyi, M., 257, 686
Cuba
public opinion on creativity, 259
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
cultural adequacy of research findings, 21–24
avoiding bias in assessment, 22–23
culturally broadening constructs, 23–24
sampling and generalization, 21–22
cultural assimilation, 53
. See also acculturation
cultural-developmental approach to moral reasoning, 238–242, 239
cultural-developmental scholarship
aim and scope, 4–5
approach to, 5–9
broadening and deepening concepts, 6–7
theoretical frameworks, 7–9
units of analysis, 5–6
cultural dissonance, 54–55
cultural distances
and creativity, 264
homophily vs. heterophily, 37–38
and identity confusion, 36–38
cultural diversity
benefits for creativity, 35
and developmental psychology, 40–41
cultural emotion norms, 136–137
cultural milieus
and creativity, 258, 259
and developmental goals, 6–7
and familiarity with research practices, 22
and friendships, 428–429, 431
and informed consent, 17–18
and moral development, 8, 235
multifaceted nature of, 5
and parenting practices, 19, 20, 21
and privacy concerns, 18–19
cultural psychology
of adolescence, 397–400, 404, 405
developmental perspective on, 667, 674
and developmental psychology, 233
narratives and politics of adolescent identity, 400–404
and perspectives on adolescence, 411–412
and perspectives on gender, 310
cultural socialization, effects of immigration, 6
cultural stereotyping, avoiding in research assessment, 22
cultural variation
on autonomy and relatedness, 418–419
in friendship, 426–427, 433–435
phylogeny of, 102
culture and adolescent development
culture as organizing factor, 379, 389
effect of moral purpose on self- and worldview, 383–385, 390
effect of values on self- and worldview, 381–383, 389
effects of religious purpose on self- and worldview, 385–387, 390
relationship among values, morals, and religious orientation, 387–389, 390
resilience of culture among adolescents, 344–345, 351
self-views of adolescents, 379–380
universal vs. culture-specific processes, 378, 390, 391
worldviews of adolescents, 380–381
culture and cultural practices
cultural emotion norms, 136–137
evoked vs. transmitted, 573
and generativity, 664
and temperament in family relationships, 285–286
vs. nationality, 54
culture and globalization
and alternative educational programs, 220
and cognitive development, 216–217
and formal learning environments, 219
and informal learning environments, 219–220
“culture shock,” 263
Cunningham, M. R., et al., 575
Cupertino, A. P., 685–686
custom complex study design, 657
cyberbullying, 526
Cyprus
school books and gender socialization, 314
youth literacy in, 439
Czech Republic
adolescent perceptions of housework, 461
vocational education programs, 558
D
Daiute, C., 402
Daly, M., 575
Damon, W., 237, 238, 684
Daoism, and concept of detachment, 691
Darnton, R., 581
Darwin, Charles, 80, 571
Dasen, P. R., 65, 85
Davies, D., et al., 260
Dawes, A., 66
death and bereavement
directions for future scholarship, 706–707
end-of-life care, 702
expressions of grief and longing among elderly, 701–702
grief following death of elders, 702–703
relationships with deceased elders, 704–706
rituals and grieving, 703–704
Deaux, K., 472
debutante celebrations, 338
DeCaro, J. A., 285
DeFoe, Daniel, 581
De Geer, B., 417
de Haan, M., 299
Dekovic, M., 415
Delpierre, V., 387
D'Emilio, J., 581
Demuth, C., 592
Denmark
age distribution of foreign migrants, 565
emerging adulthood in, 487
linguistic politeness among children, 120
religious discourse in, 231
work/study programs, 558
youth apprenticeship programs, 558
Denoma, J., 431
Dent, C. H., 120
deportation of undocumented family members, 48
depression, and shyness, 134
Dernelle, R., 387
Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex, The (Darwin), 571
de St. Aubin, Edward, 653–665, 668
“destination states,” 46
De'tang-Dessendre, C., 565
“deterritorialization,” 36
developing countries
dualistic economies and social systems, 273
entrepreneurship and self-employment in, 559–560
“youth phase” in, 447
developmental anthropology
cognitive function, variations in, 94–95, 95–96
cultural influence and developmental outcomes, 192–195, 632–633
ontogeny of cultural variation in cognitive function, 96–102
developmental change, and effect on childhood friendships, 428
developmental expectations
(p. 719) across cultures, 273, 274
Developmental Expectations Questionnaire, 272, 273
setting the agenda for parenting, 272–275
developmental goals
action phase of engagement and disengagement with, 539–540, 550
cultural variation, 6–7
Developmental Niche framework
and adolescent development, 378
analysis beyond motor skills, 84
described, 82
researching, 88
western Kenya, 272
developmental psychology
adolescence, perspectives on, 397, 399, 412
and cultural psychology, 233
culture-informed studies on, 378
developmental psychopathology, 505–506
developmental systems theories, 419–420
Erikson's eight psychosocial stages of development, 654
and lifespan trajectories, 539
shift from universal to historical child, 40
developmental research, four phases of, 88–89
developmental science
globalization of, 356
sociogenic vs. ontogenetic paradigm of, 404
developmental trajectories, 8–9, 69–70
deVries, M. W., 286
Dewey, John, 449
dharma, Indian concept of, 243
Dharmashastras, oldest known description of life course, 238
dialogical self theory, 29, 35–36, 40–41
DiBianca Fasoli, A., 241, 245
Diers, J., 356, 366
Dillon, M., 685
Diouf, M., 477–478
disciplinary measures in transnational families, 52
Dishion, T. J., 430
divergent thinking
biculturalism and verbal divergent responses, 264
and bilingualism, 264
and creativity, 257, 262
vs. convergent thinking, 265
diversity within communities, impact of transnational migration, 44–45
divinity
ethics of, 238–239
and moral psychology, 8
and moral reasoning, 240–242
Doku, P. N., 36–37
domain approach
to moral reasoning, 235–237
domain approach to moral reasoning, 236
Donald, D., 66
Donnelly, T., 687
Donskoi, Mark, 655
Dorfman, P. W., 687
Dost, A., 414
Douglass, Carrie, 490–491, 498
Draper, P., 188, 591
Drapier, C., 565
Drijat, in Negev Desert, Israel, 519–520
Drucker-Brown, S., 171
Dube, L., 320
Dubois, D. P., 319
Du Bois, W. E. B., 479
Durgel, E., 415
Dutch adolescents, attachment and well-being, 417
Dutch adults, memories of adolescence, 627
Dutch children
independence of, 285
managing conflict in friendships, 431
Dutch families
family model of independence, 415
time allocated for meals, 284
Dutra-Thomé, Luciana, 456–470
case studies of adolescent sexual exploitation, 463, 464
Dutta, R., 238, 623, 692
Dyson, J., 426, 427
E
early childhood
economic subsistence patterns and, 275–276
family cultural variability, 278–279, 287
individualism vs. collectivism in, 283–285, 287
interplay of temperament and culture, 285–286
parental expectations of development, 272–275, 287
parent-child relationships across cultures, 279–285, 287
parenting styles across cultures, 277–278, 287
relationships and early childhood development, 165
in sub-Saharan agricultural societies, 281–283
time allocated to activities, 283–284
women's workloads and parenting practices, 276–277
Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire (ECBQ), 143
East Asian families
emphasis on early academic achievement, 280
father-child relationships, 280
parental ethnotheories, 279–281
role of grandparents, 281
rule-oriented behavior, 380
East Asians, developmental goals among, 6–7
East Asian societies
autonomy vs. relatedness, 381–382
filial piety in, 668–669
East Indian islands, adolescent transition rituals, 328–329
Ebbinghaus illusion, 98–100, 99
Eberhard, P., 280
Eccles, J. S., et al., 417, 418
Eckhoff, A., 261
ecoculture
defined, 62
and early childhood socialization, 165–166
and human development, 61, 62
ecological contexts, and children's intellectual development, 217–218
ecological systems theory and cognitive development, 204
economic subsistence patterns
and adolescent transition rituals, 331
and parenting, 276–277
education
alternative educational programs for working children, 220
apprenticeship programs, 558–559
creativity, and teachers, 260–261, 262
creativity in multicultural groups, 265
developmental readiness for school, 275
educational status of adolescents worldwide, 364
formal schooling and cognitive development, 202, 207
formal schooling vs. housework and chores, 190
formal vs. informal learning, 218–220, 222–223, 225, 443, 444
gender disparities in, 365, 439, 451
and gender socialization, 313–314
general and vocational secondary education worldwide, 449, 450, 451
leaving school too early, 561–562
limits of formal education, 440–441
measuring relevancy and outcome, 446
media resources for, 443–444, 445
open and distance outreach learning, 444, 445
and participation in social movements, 452
patterns of organized learning, 293–300
promoting careers in STEM, 563–564
Quranic schooling, 220, 224, 301–302
rates of postsecondary education in United States, 550
role of cultural traditions in, 445
secondary schooling and work, 557–560
segregated vocational institutions, 547–548
(p. 720) sociocultural context of schooling, 300–303
tertiary education, increasing rates of, 489, 490, 494
three-tiered system in Germany, 544–545, 546
U. S. educational system, 548
universal primary education, 363, 366, 438, 449
as vehicle of work migration, 565–566
working while in school, 554
and youth transitions to adulthood, 447–448
youth unemployment and educational levels, 554–555
See also literacy
See also schooling
Education for All 2012, 365
Edwards, Carolyn Pope, 165–181
Children of Different Worlds Study, 168
developmental expectations, 272, 273
gender differences in childhood chores, 188
maternal responsibilities, 154–155, 279
parental expectations of children's friendships, 427
women's workloads and parenting practices, 276, 277
Efe foragers and children (Republic of Congo), 149–150, 152–153, 167, 208, 294
Eggum, N. D., 386
Egypt
and Arab Spring, 474, 475
developmental timetables of mothers, 273–274
Eichstedt, J. A., 319
Eisenberg, N., 386
Ekman, P., 129
Elder, Glen, 546
elders
continuing relationships with deceased elders, 704–706
definition and status of across cultures, 697–699
directions for future scholarship on, 706–707
end-of-life care and concerns, 702
grief and bereavement among, 701–702
grief following death of, 702–703
longing for past, 700–701
The Elephant Man, 574
Ellis, J., 64
Elman, J. L., et al., 203
El Salvador, recruitment of child soldiers in, 465
emotion
cultural dimensions of emotionality, 131, 132
culture-specific attitude toward, 141
expression and regulation in late adulthood, 685
and gender, 315–317
and moral reasoning, 232
negative-powerful vs. negative powerless, 140, 143
in older adults across cultures, 629–630
emotional development
future research, 141–143
regulation and early development, 132–133
emotional development, among infants
cross-cultural differences in reactivity, 130–131
cultural differences in, 129–130
cultural differences in emotion socialization, 137–138
culture-sensitive approach to, 127–128
developmental markers of, 86–87
effortful control and emotional regulation, 132–133
German mothers, 128
Japanese mothers, 128
negative vs. positive affectivity, 131
theoretical frameworks to study, 128–129
emotional expressivity
between mothers and infants, 138
restriction of, 139
rules for, 134–135
and social-cultural influence, 130
of specific emotions, 139–140
emotion socialization
emotion norms and socialization practices, 135–141
and outcomes, 141
socialization of specific emotions, 139–140
of toddlers, 138–139
empathy, and interdependence, 156–157
employment
in identity-based work, 497–498
social demotions among immigrant parents, 51
emulation, and cognitive development, 200
England
gender and cognitive development, 319
gender socialization in schools, 313
marriage customs in, 578
Engle, P. L., 89
English families, rules for emotional display among children, 134–135
English language
and acculturation, 53, 54
implications for self-identity, 31–32
proficiency among immigrant children, 51–52
proficiency among immigrant parents, 51
and spatial cognition, 6
entrepreneurship and self-employment, 559–560, 567
environment, definition of, 96
environment and creativity, 260, 261, 262
environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA), 151, 153
epigenetic landscape, 544, 545, 546
epistemic stance in language, 118–119
epistemology of gender, 308–309
Erikson, Erik
adolescence and cultural changes, 399
adolescence and identity formation, 237
and emic study designs, 661
ideological alternatives, 480
inception of generativity, 654–656
psychosocial stage model of adult development, 667, 669
theories of adult development, 670
Erny, P., 65
Esin, A., 509
Estonia, socialization values of mothers, 417
ethics
of autonomy, community, and divinity, 238–239
and moral psychology, 8
Ethiopia
beauty-enhancing practices in, 572
information technology use among adolescents, 523
ethnic stereotyping, avoiding in research assessment, 22
Ethnographic Atlas (Fisher), 575
eudaimonia, and adult well-being and aging, 670, 671, 672, 675
Europe
adolescent transition rituals in, 330
emerging adulthood and self-focused fun, 498
European-American drawings
and assessment of creativity, 258
European-American families
attentiveness among toddlers, 296
children learning through third-party attention, 297–298
and children's language acquisition, 294
children taking initiative in activity, 295
collaborative communication among children, 299, 300
cultural construction of everyday activities, 191
cultural influence and child development, 193, 194
cultural model of childrearing, 190
cultural patterns of collaboration among siblings, 298
family chores in, 187–188, 188–189
(p. 721) joint attention of mothers and infants, 206
parent-child conversations, 206
storytelling traditions, 280
European Americans
authoritative parenting, 24
cultural emotion norms, 136
cultural variations and research, 17–18
developmental goals among, 6–7
emotional reactivity among infants, 131
parenting practices of, 19–20, 39
as a psychological study group, 186
European Higher Education Area, 563
Evaluation of Potential Creativity, 264
evidentials, 111, 118
evolution
and attachment theory, 152–153, 159
and cultural-developmental scholarship, 8–9
and emotional development, 128
estimating heritable predispositions, 96–97
evolutionary basis of cognitive development, 203
and facial expressions, 129
and fathering diversity, 613
and milestones of infant development, 79–81
Ewing Lee, E., 313
explanation-seeking questions, 199, 210
expressivity
emotional expressivity, 130, 139–140
facial expressions, cultural differences in, 129–130
between mothers and infants, 138
restriction of, 139
Eze, N., 72
F
Facebook
emerging adults and self-expression, 530
peer relationships among emerging adults, 526
facial characteristics universally considered attractive, 572–573
facial expressivity, cross-cultural differences in, 129–130
Fairness to All Individuals Through Respect (FAIR), 314
Falakhim Arab farmers, Israel, 519–520
Falicov, C. J., 662
false belief reasoning, among children, 104, 105
families
autonomy and relatedness in immigrant families, 414–416
cultural perspectives on, 411–412
cultural variability among types of, 278–279
developmental perspectives on, 412
and ecological contexts for development, 218
effects of social change on relatedness, 412–414
family-centered vs. child-centered activities, 189, 191
family change theory, 413–414
family generativity, 660, 662
gender and emotional socialization in, 315–317
and gender socialization, 311–312, 314–315
importance of extended family in West Africa, 597
importance of global perspective on, 420–421
intergenerational households in India, 638
neglect and mistreatment of elderly, 700
sexual socialization in immigrant families, 345–347
“third-culture kids,” 34, 35, 36, 55
The Family, Sex, and Marriage: In England 1500-1800 (Stone), 571
family change theory, 413–414
family chores
“chore curriculum,” 188, 191
as culturally organized activities, 187–189
family disruption
and acculturation, 346
and homelessness, 347
and risk of child labor abuse, 459
and risk of commercial sexual exploitation, 462–463
family relationships, development of
cultural variability, 278–279, 287
economic subsistence patterns and childrearing practices, 275–276
new social media and family relationships, 524–526
parent-child relationships across cultures, 279–285, 287
and parenting styles across cultures, 277–278, 287
role of temperament and culture, 285–286
setting the agenda for parenting, 272–275
in sub-Saharan agricultural societies, 281–283
themes and variations in the West, 283–285
and women's workloads, 276–277
family values, and self-view of adolescents, 382, 387
Fan, L., 624
Farsi-English bilingualism, and creativity, 264
Fasulo, A., 284
fatalism
among Mexican American families, 662–663
in Japanese views of aging, 642
fathers
care of infants and toddlers, 167–168
core elements of fathering, 615–616
in European-American families, 282–283
and gender socialization, 312, 314–315
increasing roles for, 169
parenting by, 587, 588–589
profiles of paternal behavior, 168
roles and life stages in Hindu India, 640
in sub-Saharan Africa, 282–283
in subsistence-based farm families, 593–594
time allocated for family life, 284
fathers, diversity within societies, 602–617
bioecological model of, 605, 605, 608
within the Caribbean, 614–615
categories of diversity, 604
within Central and Eastern Africa, 612–614
within China, 608–611
core elements of fathering, 615–616
examples from 15 societies and regions, 606–607
within India, 611–612, 640
international vs. intrasocietal diversity, 603–604
the soldier father, 608
Fathers in Cultural Context (Shwalb), 603, 616
Fatigante, M., 284
Fay, K., 685
Fee, A., 263
Feinberg, F., 628
Feldman, S. S., 344–345
feminist perspectives on gender, 309–310, 319
Fernandes, A. C., 370
Ferrer-Wreder, Laura, 502–518
fertility
and adolescent transition rituals, 334
control among adolescent populations in India, 367–368
mating behavior influenced by, 574
Filgueiras, J. C., 464
filial piety
and aging in East Asian societies, 668–669
in Confucianism, 382, 383, 387
Finland
gender socialization in, 311, 315
integrating creativity into classrooms, 261
Fischer, F. M., 459
Fisher, H. E., 575, 579, 580
Fisher, J., 706
Fiske, A. P., 390, 430
Fitneva, Stanka, 111–126
Five C's of Positive Youth Development, 419
(p. 722) Flanagan, Constance, 471–484
Fleming, R., 685
Foner, A., 668
forager societies
and adolescent transition rituals, 331, 332
children's chores in, 188
fathers' care of infants and toddlers, 167, 168
proximity between fathers and children, 613
foster families, 172–173, 178
Four C Model of creativity, 256, 257
Four P's of creativity study, 256, 257
Foursha-Stevenson, C., 313
Fouts, H. N., 613, 614, 616
Fox, N. A., 135
France
collectivism vs. individualism in, 283
effects of biculturalism on Parisian children, 264
youth apprenticeship programs, 558
Free Basic Education and Reentry Policies (Zambia), 221, 222
Freedman, E. B., 581
Freire, Paolo, 444
French, Doran, 386, 425–437
French, J. L., 462
French families
gender and social identity, 317–318
joint attention of mothers and infants, 206
Freud, Sigmund
gender and moral perspective, 242
modern reframing of concerns, 247
and the moral conscience, 230
and moral reasoning, 231
social contexts of moral reasoning, 243–244
Friedlmeier, Wolfgang, 127–148
Friedman, C. K., 314
Friedman, H. S., 684
Friedman, R. J., 135
friendships
approaches to studying friendship and culture, 432–433
and enhancement of self-esteem, 430
exclusivity in, 429–430
in individualist vs. collectivist societies, 433–434
and instrumental aid, 429
intimacy in, 427–429, 432
and management of conflict, 431–432
new social media and depth of friendships, 526, 527
prototypic patterns within cultures, 434–435
and work roles, 426, 427
friendships, among children and adolescents
cultural variations in, 426–427
social strictures on, 427
Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), 465–466
Fulani people (West Africa), parenting practices among, 594
Fulbe people, of northern Cameroon, 301–302
Fuligni, A. J., 414
Fung, H., 280, 629–630
Furrow, D., 118
Furrow, J. F., 238
Furstenberg, F. F., Jr., 285
fusion culture, 35
G
Gala, Jigishi, 307–324
Galinsky, A. D., 263, 265
Gandhi, Mahatma, 656, 680, 681
Gandhian mentors, India, 688, 692, 693
Gandhi's Truth (Erikson), 656
Gandini, L., 272
Gannon, S., 286
Garcia Coll, C., et al., 415
Garrett-Peters, P. T., 135
Gartstein, M. A., et al., 141, 142
Gaskins, Suzanne, 173, 185–197, 297, 434
Gatz, M., 671
Gautama, ancient Hindu philosopher, 641
Gauvain, Mary, 198–213
Gay, J. A., 64–65
Gaynor, J. L., 260
Gaytán, F. X., 43
Geary, D. C., 624, 625
Géber, Marcelle, 81
Geertz, H., 285–286
Gemeinschaft, community, 520
gender
across cultures, 315–319, 321–322
and adolescent population worldwide, 358–359
and adolescent transition rituals, 330, 331–332, 332–333, 333, 337
and Anglo-American narratives of midlife, 646, 647
and availability of education, 365
and cognitive development, 318–319
in the context of caste and community, 321
cultural psychology perspective, 310
and emotion, 315–317
epistemology of, 308–309
feminist perspectives on, 309–310, 319
gender-differentiated paths and future research, 674
gender-differentiated paths to personal growth, 642–644, 669
and nutritional and health disparities, 366
and social identity, 317–318
and street youth in Brazil, 341–342
gender development, theoretical perspectives on, 309
gender differences
in behavior, 308
and children's household chores, 188
in displaying sadness vs. anger, 135
in moral reasoning, 242
negative-powerful vs. negative powerless, 143
gender socialization environments, 310–315
atypical socialization and identity, 314–315
books and educational settings, 313–314
family, 311–312
macro environments of gender socialization, 310–311, 319–320, 321
peers, 312–313
generational change
and adolescent civic development, 483
and the Arab Spring, 474
parents and grandparents as caregivers, 172
theories of, 471, 473
generativity
capturing the salience of culture in scholarship, 660–664
and community service, 687
within cultures, 653–654, 655
effect of spirituality on, 685
generativity and culture since Erikson, 656–660
inception of generativity, 654–656
Generativity Behavioral Checklist, 658, 659
genetics
and cultural-developmental scholarship, 8–9
and emotional development, 128
estimating heritable predispositions, 96–97
genetic epistemology, 85
risk-taking genes, 131–132
Geneva Convention of 1949 on International Humanitarian Law, 466
geography
and fathering diversity within societies, 604
and fathering within a bioecological model, 605
Georgakopoulou, A., 402
Georgas, J., 417
German adolescents
interpretations of peer behavior, 377–378, 383
Jugendweihe adolescent transition ceremony, 338, 339
and parental authority, 377, 382
worldviews of, 380, 381
German families
cultural emotion norms, 136, 137, 137
cultural model of childrearing, 190
emotional development among infants, 128
emotional regulation among children, 133
(p. 723) emotion socialization of infants, 138
family model of independence, 413
middle-class mother and 3-month-old infant, 589
patterns of infant care, 277, 586
prosocial behavior of children, 385
social smiles among infants, 130, 130
typical dinner situation for, 590–591
German language, and linguistic markers of speaker certainty, 118
Germany
age distribution of foreign migrants, 565
demographics of aging in, 682
kindergarten in Hamburg, 438
social mobility in, 547, 549
studies of generativity in, 659–660
study on divergent thinking, 262–263
three-tiered educational system, 544–545, 546, 547–548
trainees and temporary migrant workers, 566
Gesell, Arnold, 80, 81
Gesellschaft, society, 520
gestures, declarative, 101
Ghana
Mamprusi grandparents as child caregivers, 171
traditional beliefs regarding afterllife, 37
urbanization among women, 481
Gibbs, J. C., 235
Gifting of Land movement, India, 692–693
Gil, V. E., 581
Gilligan, Carol F.
caring vs. self-interest, 243, 641
moral orientations, 242
Giner-Sorolla, R., 241
Ginges, J., 389
Gini coefficient, 541, 541, 550
Giovanni, D., 272
Giriama in rural Kenya, children's peer relationships, 427
Girimaji, S. C., 370
Girouard, N., 38
Glaser, B. G., 661
globalization
and cognitive development, 199, 216
effect on local cultures, 9
exclusionary vs. integrative reactions, 37
and generativity-culture connection, 664
global communities, and civic identity, 480–482
globalization of science, 356
global urban youth culture, 56, 421
global vs. local identities, 33–34, 421
implications of the Internet, 30–31
localization as response, 32–33
and moral perspectives, 235, 246, 247
and social contexts of moral reasoning, 244
and understandings of romantic love, 571
globalization, implications for self and identity, 28–42
aging and globalization, 39
cultural distances and identity confusion, 36–37
dialogical self theory, 29, 35–36, 40–41
flexibility and resilience of the self, 40–41
historical vs. universal child, 38–39
hybrid identities, 33–36
impact on human development, 29–30
open vs. closed minds, 29, 35–36
promises and deceptions of globalization, 31–33
psychological distance between cultures, 36–38
the self as a mini-society, 39–40
Global North and Global South
compulsory education in, 448, 448, 449
media resources and informal education, 443–444
youth civic development in, 482–483
“youth phase” in, 447
GLOBE Project, in leadership, 687
“glocalization,” 33
Gl veaunu, V. P., 266
Goh, E. C. L., 281
Goh, E. L., 172
Golding, J., 312
Goldschmidt, W., 65
Golinkoff, R. M., 190
Golombok, S., 312
González, M. M., 670
Goode, W. J., 610
Goodnow, J. J., 273
Goodwin, R., 417
Goody, E., 172
Goossens, L., 416
Gorky, Maxim, 655
Gottlieb, Alma, 594
Goyal, Namrata, 14–27
Grace, Lila, 271–272
grandparents
as caregivers, 171–172
as caregivers in foster families, 173
family relationships in East Asia, 281
in Japanese society, 672
parenting by, 587
role in middle-class Western families, 591–592
role in subsistence-based farm families, 593
time allocated for family life, 285
Gray, P. B., 616
Gray, S. J., 263
great ape clade
brain development among, 103
culture among, 102, 103
gestures among, 101
phylogeny of, 97, 97, 99
Great Cat Massacre, The (Darnton), 581
Great Gatsby curve, and social mobility, 542
Greece
cognitive development in ancient Greece, 622
language and identity in adolescence, 402
linguistic politeness among children, 121
social contract between state and citizens, 476
youth outside both school and work, 566
Greek-Cypriot adolescents, language and identity, 402
Greek families in Australia, acculturation goals, 415
Green, S. J., 576
Greenfield, Patricia, 519–534
avoiding bias in assessment, 23
children taking initiative in activity, 296
contrasts of parenting across cultures, 277
proximal vs. distal caretaking, 278
Grigorenko, Elena, 214–229, 255–270
Gronbaek, M., 685
Grossman, I., 673
group identity, importance of among adolescents, 388–389
group sleeping, in Indian families, 172
groupways, definition of, 471
Guan, Shu-Sha Angie, 519–534
Guatemalan Mayan children
attentiveness among toddlers, 296–297
cultural patterns of collaboration, 298
and language acquisition, 294
learning through third-party attention, 297–298
self-care among, 293
Guerra, V. M, 241
Gujarat, India, 688
Gujarati children
role of grandparents in parenting, 593
rules for emotional display, 135
Gullette, M. M., 647
Gummerum, M., 42, 428
Gunaratnam, Y., 707
Gupta, T., 415
Gupta, U., 579
Gururaj, G., 370
guru-shishya parampara, mentoring tradition in India, 688
Gusii people (Kenya)
child language socialization, 282
children taking initiative in activity, 296
collaborative communication between mothers and toddlers, 300
cultural model of childrearing, 190
definition and status of elders, 698
(p. 724) effect of maternal schooling on children, 301
parenting practices among, 592, 594
transmitting knowledge to children, 208
Gutchess, Angela H., 621–636
H
Hackett, R. J., et al., 370
Hadza children, play and household work, 188
Haidt, J., 384
Half the Sky Foundation, China, 176, 177, 179
Hall, G. Stanley
“natural history” approach to human development, 80
romantic relationships in adolescence, 418
Hamburg, Germany, 438
Hamilton, S. F., 548
Hammack, Phillip L., 396–409
Hammarström, A., 308–309
Handbook of Cross-Cultural Human Development (1981), 4–5
Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (Lonner & Adamopoulos), 344
Hanique, B., 387
Hardie, J. H., 386
Hardy, S. A., 238
Harkness, Sarah, 79–93, 271–291
childcare by fathers, 169
“developmental niche” framework, 65
ecocultural perspective, 165
harmonious functioning, and attachment theory, 154
Harris, W. V., 689
Hart, D., 687
Harwood, R., 415
Hasher, L., 628
Hastings, P. D., 414
Hatano, G., 23, 476
Hatfield, Elaine, 570–585
Haub, C., 682
Haun, Daniel B. M., 94–110
Hawaii
children's participation in daily activities, 294
collaborative communication between mothers and toddlers, 300
mismatched school and home cultures, 302
Hawkes, K., 188
Hayes, R. D., 370
Hazare, Anna, 693
health concerns and risk factors
among emerging and young adults worldwide, 504, 505, 513
prostitution and health, 512–513
related historical, social, and cultural factors, 506–507, 513
sexuality and health, 507–509, 513
substance abuse and antisocial behavior, 509–512, 513, 514
health treatment
women's neglect of, 307
Heath, C., 329
Heckhausen, Jutta, 535–553
Hedden, T., 622, 623–624, 624
hedonic well-being, and aging, 670, 671, 672
Hein, Sascha, 214–229
Heine, S. J., 186, 188
Heinicke, C. M., 598
Helson, R., et al., 670
Hempel, P. S., 258
Henrich, J., 186, 188
Herdt, Gilbert, 487
heritable predispositions
in cognitive functioning, 96–97
and cultural context, 97–102
Hermans, Hubert J. M., 28–42
Herzegovina, postwar youth community involvement, 688
Hess, R. D., et al, 273
heterophily, role in cultural differences and distance, 37–38
Hevern, V., 30–31
Hewlett, B. S., 594, 613, 614
Hickman, J. R., 241
Hill, S. A., 315
Hinduism
and adolescent development, 387–388
description of life course, 238
diversity within, 650n2
and family relationships, 281
gender and emotion, 316
midlife narratives in Hindu India, 637–638, 638–641, 648, 649
perspectives on nonattachment, 691–693, 694
sacred thread ceremony, 328, 334
sari party, 328
Hines, M., 312
Hippert, M. I., 464
Hirsch-Pasek, K., 190
Hiruma, N., 135
Hispanic Americans
civic engagement of undocumented youth, 479
cultural variations and research, 17
diversity among, 662
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
historical contexts, in adult development and aging, 676–677
historical loss conceptualized as personal loss, 345
HIV/AIDS
orphaned children and foster families in Africa, 172
preventing transmission among adolescents, 368–369
Young People Talk AIDS, India, 371
Hmong families
care, beneficence, and prosocial morality, 243
emotional reactivity among infants, 131
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241
Hofer, J., 660, 662
Hofstede, G. H.
dimensions of culture, 444
individualism-collectivism index, 132, 132
Hollnsteiner, M. R., 429
Holodynski, M., 129, 130
homelessness
among Brazilian youth, 347–348
in Brazilian cities, 341–342
narratives of adolescents, 402–403
homophily, role in cultural differences and distance, 37–38
homoplasy, 97
Hong, S. I., 688
Hong Kong
autonomy and relatedness among adolescents, 416–417
cognitive ability and memory among older adults, 626
early socialization for moral and academic learning, 280
effects of biculturalism on children, 264
emotion socialization in families, 139
exclusivity in adolescent friendships, 429–430
integrating creativity into classrooms, 261
intimacy of friendships, 428
parenting of adolescents, 344–345
positivity bias among older adults, 635–636
honorifics, 119, 120
Hopi reservation, Arizona
adolescent initiation ceremonies, 327, 330
Hopi reservation in Arizona, adolescent initiation ceremonies, 332
Hortaçsu, N., 311
horticultural peoples, and fathers' care of infants and toddlers, 168
housework and chores
children's responsibilities as they age, 188, 189
cultural construction of everyday activities, 190–192
cultural influence and child development, 192–195
as culturally organized activities, 186–187
developmental expectations regarding, 273
foundational sources of cultural beliefs, 189–190
gender differences in assignment, 308
(p. 725) as protective factor against child labor abuses, 458, 459, 460–461, 467
at transition into adolescence, 335
How Healthy Are We? A National Study of Well-Being at Midlife? (Brim, Ryff, & Kessler), 646
Hrdy, Sarah Blaffer, 587, 616
Hsu, C., 138
Hsueh, Y., 175
Hu, Ming, 471–484
Hulusjö, A., 512
human development
and education and learning, 443–447
holistic worldview in Africa, 63
impact of globalization, 29–30
individual and societal, 442, 452
periods of research in Africa, 63–66
United Nations Human Development Index, 446
Human Development in a Cultural Context (Nsamenang), 65
human subjects, protecting, 15–21
informed consent, 17–18
institutional review boards, history of, 15–16
minimizing harm, 19–21
privacy concerns, 18–19
Humphreys ethnographic study on homosexual practices, 16
Hunchback of Notre Dame (Hugo), 574
Hungary
adolescent perceptions of housework, 461
linguistic politeness among children, 121
hunter-gather societies
fathers' care of infants and toddlers, 167
and parenting, 275–276
Hupp, J. M., 315
Hureia Kippu, Japanese concept of “care credits,” 686
Hwang, K. K., 431
hybrid identities
and adolescent civic development, 475
among African children, 71, 449
and diasporic websites, 528–529
effects on innovation and creativity, 34–35
global and local identity, 33–34
globalization and, 33–36
in modern India, 493
and moral perspectives, 235
Hyde, J. S., 319–320
Hyun, J.-H., 280
I
Iceland, work/study programs in, 558
identity
civic identity in the developing world, 481
and cultural psychology of adolescence, 397–400
formation in adolescence, 237–238
globalization and confused identity, 36
identity explorations and emerging adulthood, 521
narratives of political identity, 401–402
narratives of sexual identity, 403–404
and new and old media, 527–530
“youth talk” and adolescent identity, 402
Ifaluk people of Micronesia
cultural model of childrearing, 190
culture and children's temperament, 286
ikigai, Japanese concept of having a life worth living, 668, 672, 673, 674
illegal armies groups, 349–350, 464–466
Imada, Takatoshi, 663
imitation, and cognitive development, 200
immigrant families
acculturation of, 52–53
autonomy and relatedness in, 414–416
challenges faced by, 46
complications of acculturation, 53–56
diasporic websites and ethnic identity, 528
disruptions in parenting, 49–52
future research directions, 56–57
reactive identification with sending country, 480
sexual socialization in, 345–347
immigrant populations, minimizing harm in research, 21
immigration
to countries with longer history of, 480
and cultural socialization, 6
densities of immigrants arriving and leaving between countries (2000-2005), 44
and families, 47–52
inalterability of moral reasoning, 235
independence
family model of, 278, 413
independence vs. interdependence
and adolescent development, 378, 382
and adolescent self-views, 379–380
and attachment theory, 160
developmental perspectives on, 412
independent vs. interdependent self, 154
India
child labor practices, 461–462
education and work migration, 565
emerging adulthood in, 487
fathering diversity within, 611–612
gender and emotion, 316
gender socialization and sexual activity, 367
gender socialization in schools, 313
health interventions in, 371–372
Hindu perspectives on nonattachment, 691–693
hybrid identities in emerging adulthood, 493
internal migration, 46
marriage customs in, 576, 577, 578
midlife narratives in, 637–638, 638–641
Panchayat Raj program, 477
perspectives on mentoring, 688
philosophy of nonattachment, 681
public opinion on creativity, 259
sources of fathering diversity in, 607
traditional patriarchy in, 281, 320
India, adolescents in
civic development among, 478
health concerns among, 365–366
mental health among, 370–371
preventing HIV/AIDS among, 368–369
religion and adolescent development, 387–388
transition rituals, 328
India, families in
behavioral inhibition among children, 133, 134
care, beneficence, and prosocial morality, 243
emotion socialization of infants, 138
emotion socialization of toddlers, 139
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241–242
expression of sadness vs. anger, 139
family model of interdependence, 413
gender differences and household chores, 308
gender socialization, 311–312
grandparents as caregivers, 171–172
rules for emotional display among children, 134–135
socialization of children, 280
Tamil family views on romantic love, 570
India, later adulthood in
attachment and nonattachment, 689
autobiographical memory among older adults, 627–628
demographics of aging, 683, 684
grandparents as child caregivers, 171–172, 593
relationships with deceased elders, 706
Indian women, preoccupation with sociocultural roles, 307
indigenous knowledge
defined, 68
and human ontogenesis in Africa, 72–73
research themes, 68–72
indigenous social science
a call for development in Africa, 61–63
lessons from research, 67–68
individualism vs. collectivism
and attachment in children, 150
common patterns of change in collectivist cultures, 421
developmental perspectives on, 412
and developmental tasks, 520, 521
(p. 726) development of family relationships, 283–285
display of emotions, 135
friendship, cultural variations in, 427, 433–434
friendship, exclusivity in, 430
friendship, instrumental aid in, 429
friendship, intimacy of, 428
friendship, managing conflict in, 431
and generativity, 653, 654, 657, 659–660
Hofstede's index, 132, 132
individualism and the “American Dream,” 543–544, 546
individualistic emotional competence, 136, 139, 142
marriage customs, 582–583
and midlife narratives, 641, 647
narratives of Muslim and Jewish girls, 380, 381
networked individualism, 520, 521, 523
and new media, 523, 524
“parasite singles,” 492
and parenting practices, 277–278
potential inadequacy of construct, 21–22, 24
individuation
in African cultural settings, 71–72
and autonomous-relatedness, 417
and educational choices in youth, 449
Indonesia
affection in friendships, 428
definition and status of elders, 697–698, 699
exclusivity in adolescent friendships, 430
intimacy in friendships, 425, 427–428
managing conflict in friendships, 431
prosocial behavior of children, 384–385
relationships with deceased elders, 705–706
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
Value of Children Study, 413
youth literacy in, 439
infant development, milestones of, 79–93
Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84
beyond motor performance, 83–87
beyond Western milestones, 87
emergence and elaboration of, 79–81
emotional development, 86–87
genetic epistemology, 85
global vs. local norms, 88–89
locally developed scales, 87
memory and attention, 85–86
motor development, 81–83
research milestones, 88–89
infant-mortality rates, and parenting practices, 277
infants
arithmetic abilities among, 100–101
care in child welfare institutions, 176–177, 178–179
care of in subsistence-based farm families, 594, 595, 595–596
conversational exchange with, 114–115
cultural differences in emotion socialization, 137–138
and developmental trajectories, 8–9
infant cognition, 96
infant regulatory problems and effects on marriage, 591
minimizing harm in research, 19, 20, 21
moral development, 242, 243, 246
mortality rates and parenting practices, 277
motor skills, 134
prenatal and infant language learning, 113
public services for children in Italy, 166
sharing and cognitive development, 205–206
socialization by grandparents, 171, 172, 178
socialization by siblings, 169–171, 170–171, 178
social networks and attachment theory, 152, 153
universal needs for primary care, 167
See also children
information and communication technologies, 522
informed consent, ethical considerations, 17–18
Inhelder, R., 65, 85
innovation, and hybrid identity, 34–35
institutional care for infants and toddlers, 176, 178–179
institutional review boards (IRBs), 15–16
instrumental parentification, 461
intelligence, cultural manifestation of, 214–229
in the context of culture and globalization, 216–217
and ecological contexts, 217–218
education in Zambia, 220–221
formal vs. informal educational settings, 215, 218–220, 225
intelligence and culture as interwoven concepts, 217
learning environments in Saudi Arabia, 223–224
learning environments in Zambia, 221–223
practical vs. academic intelligence, 225
predetermined cognitive ability, 214
socially responsible intelligence, 221
various meanings of intelligence, 225
interdependence
and cognitive developmental approach to moral reasoning, 234
and decreased social conflict, 673
ethnic minority families in the Netherlands, 415
family model of, 278, 413
and health and well-being, 676
intergenerational households in Hindu India, 638
interleukin-6 (IL-6), and health and well-being, 676
internalization model of emotional development, 129
International Encyclopedia on Adolescence, 357
International Labor Organization (ILO)
campaign for eradication of child labor, 461
on commercial sexual exploitation of children and adolescents, 462
opposition to use of child soldiers, 464
International Migration Outlook 2011 report, 565
International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, 355, 357
International Study of Parents, Children, and Schools, 283–284
Internet
diasporic websites and ethnic identity, 528
and global communities, 481–482, 528
implications for self and identity, 30–31
and lower levels of closeness between children and parents, 524
online commentaries and identity development, 529
penetration worldwide, 522, 522
and social contexts of moral reasoning, 244
Inuit people
and children's language acquisition, 294
cultural model of childrearing, 190
family model of psychological interdependence, 414
parenting practices among, 592
self-care among children, 293
Invisible Children (child soldiers in northern Uganda), 349
Iran, language and gender socialization, 313
Ireland
Northern Ireland, and adolescent narratives of identity, 402
vocational education programs, 558
youth outside both school and work, 560, 566
Irish families
motor skills of 4-month-old infants, 134
temperamental reactivity among infants, 133
Ishida, M., 673
Ishii, K, 117
Ishikawa, J., 83
(p. 727) Islam
origins of radicalism in adolescence, 388–389
and philosophy of nonattachment, 690
Quranic schooling, 220, 224, 301–302
Ispa, J. M., 616
Ispa-Landa, S., 616
Israel
creativity and social context, 258, 259
demographics of aging in, 682
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241
Internet use and parental closeness, 524–525
Negev Desert and village of Drijat, 519–520
project with Palestinian and U. S. adolescents, 396–397, 401, 405
Value of Children Study, 413
youth outside both school and work, 560
Israeli children
intimacy in friendships, 428
prosocial behavior toward strangers, 385
Italian adults
beliefs regarding aging and memory, 629
demographics of aging, 682
emerging adulthood in Italy, 660–661
Italian children
behavioral inhibition among, 133, 134
culture and children's temperament, 286
emotional regulation among, 133
emotion socialization of infants, 138
infant temperament among, 131
linguistic politeness among, 121
managing conflict in friendships, 431
socializing toddlers for group participation, 175–176
Italian families
gender socialization, 312
parental descriptions of children, 283
time allocated for meals, 284
Italy
age distribution of foreign migrants, 565
“child friendly city” of Pistoia, 166, 175–176
gender and emotional socialization, 317
gender and social identity, 318
Nigerian immigrant families in, 282
youth outside both school and work, 560, 566
Iturbide, Maria, 341–376
Iverson, J. M., 122
Ivory Coast
Baoulé people, 85
child labor practices and education, 462
child language socialization, 282
Izard, C.E., 129
J
Jackson, C., 321
Jacquemin, M. Y., 462
Jain, A., 612
Jain, M., 685
James, William, 29, 385
Jankowiak, William, 610
Janssen, S. M. J., 627
Japan
adult development and aging in, 666–667, 668–669, 674–677
at-home care for infirm elderly, 702
concept of Hureia Kippu or “care credits,” 686
demographics of aging in, 682
emerging adulthood in, 498
emotional affect in language, 117
empirical studies of adult development, 672–674
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241
gender socialization in, 311
generativity in, 653–654, 658
health and risk behaviors in emerging and young adults, 502, 506
marital happiness in, 579
marriage customs in, 576, 578
midlife narratives in, 637–638, 641–645, 648
peers and gender socialization, 312
perspectives on mentoring, 688
preschools in, 175
prostitution and health among emerging and young adults, 512–513
research on developmental timetables, 272–273
sexuality and health in emerging and young adults, 508
sources of fathering diversity in, 607
study of fathering in, 602–603
substance abuse and antisocial behavior in emerging and young adults, 510–511
trainees and temporary migrant workers, 566
Japanese adolescents
interpretations of peer behavior, 377–378, 383
and parental authority, 377, 382
values of autonomy and relatedness, 381
worldviews of, 380, 381
Japanese adults, interpersonal social situations and aging, 630
Japanese families
care, beneficence, and prosocial morality, 243
children and concealment of emotions, 135
Confucian traditions and parenting, 280–281
distal vs. proximal caregiving, 279
emotional development among infants, 128
emotional reactivity among infants, 131
emotional regulation among children, 133
facial expressions among infants, 129–130
globalization and identity confusion, 36
“positive affectivity” among infants, 142, 143
privacy concerns, 23
rules for emotional display among children, 135
Japanese language
linguistic markers of speaker certainty, 118
linguistic politeness in, 119–120
Japanese mothers
concept of amae, 658
developmental timetables of, 273
joint attention of mothers and infants, 206
parenting practices of, 19–20, 22
Japanese National Law for the Welfare of Elders, 1963, 669
Java, intimacy in friendships, 428
Javanese children, interplay of temperament and culture, 285–286
Jayet, H., 565
Jedinak, A., 314
Jejeebhoy, S. J., 367
Jensen, Arthur, 81
Jensen, Lene Arnett, 3–13, 230–254
cultural perspective on morality, 384
ethic of autonomy, 495
repercussions of globalization for adolescents, 30
role of religiosity in adolescent self- and worldviews, 385
study on youth in India, 33
Jewish adolescents
effect of individual and family values on self-view, 382
individualism vs. collectivism in life narratives, 380
and self-identity in Belgium, 387
Jewish kibbutz communities, intimacy in friendships, 428
Ji, L., 428
Ji, L. J., et al., 625
Jianbin, X., 685
jihadis, origins of radicalism in adolescence, 388–389
Johnson, D. J., 259
Johnson, K. A., 386–387
Johnston, K., 312
joint attention
activities among children, 104
adults and children in language learning, 113
mothers and infants, 205–206
(p. 728) Joseph, R. & T. B., 577
Joshi, M. S., 134
jouvana, Hindu Indian concept of young adulthood, 639, 650n7
Judaism, perspectives on advancing age, 690
Jugendweihe, 338, 339
jukunen, Japanese concept of mature age, 644
Jung, Carl, 667
K
Kagan, J., 131, 133
Kagia, J., 84
Kağitçibaşi, Çiğdem, 410–424
autonomous-relatedness, 417, 418, 420
contextual and global considerations in education, 220
cross-cultural perspective on family relations, 278
family change theory, 381
Majority World, 421
self theory of, 416
socioeconomic status and family life, 278
Value of Children Study, 413
Western origins of scientific psychology, 63
Kahn, R. L., 668
Kakar, Sudhir, 611–612, 641, 649
Kaluli society
language socialization, 115
shaming in, 117
Kama Sutra, 580
Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP), 302
Kan, Chiemi, 666–679
Kanbur, R., 609
Kane, E. W., 314
Kanner, B. G., 321
Kansas City Studies of Adult Life, 667
Kaoleni children in Kenya, play and household work, 188
Kapadia, Shagufa, 241, 307–324
Kapur, M., 370
Karasawa, Mayumi, 175, 666–679
karma, Hindu concept of, 691, 692
Kärtner, J., 130
Kasumagic, L., 688
Kathuria, R., 67
Katz, M. M., 613
Kaufman, J. C., 257
Kawakami, Norito, 666–679
Kayan Lahwi people in Burma, beauty-enhancing practices among, 572
keguldo (eliciting stepping reflex in infants), 82
Keller, Heidi, 586–601
and ecocultural perspective, 165
infant care practices across cultures, 277
maternal care of infants, 137
maternal expectations of emotional development, 136
proximal vs. distral caregiving, 278
social smile in infants, 130
Keller, M., 428, 429
Kelly, P., 686
Kemmelmeier, M., 379
Kempen, H. J. G., 33–34
Kenya
childcare by siblings, 169, 170
children as caregivers, 293–294
communication among toddlers, 300
definition and status of elders, 698
developmental timetables of mothers, 271–272, 274
Kaoleni children, 188
Logoli people of, 310
Kenyan villages
children's peer relationships in, 427
children's' perceived competence, 217
perspective on practical vs. academic intelligence, 221
Kephart, W. M., 577
Kern, M. L., 684
Kessler, E. M., 686
Kessler, R. C., 646
Kharkhurin, A. V., 264
Kilbride, C. P., 66
Kilbride, P. L. & J. E., 65, 84
Killen, M., 237
Kim, H. Y., 49
Kim, K. H., 266
Kim, M., 427
Kim, S. D., 313
Kim, T. C., 656
Kim, U., 413
King, P. E., 238, 684
Kinnvall, C., 32
kinship terms, as used by street kids, 342
Kipsigis people of western Kenya
child language socialization, 282
infant developmental milestones, 81
involvement of fathers in family life, 284–285
parental expectations, 271–272
parenting practices, 594
Kitayama, Shinobu, 117, 379, 430, 666–679
Kleiber, D., 686
Kleis, Astrid, 597
Klingstedt, Marie-Louise, 502–518
Klohnen, E. C., 670
Knight, R., 273
Knoche, L., 427
Koentjaraningrat, 428
Kogan, N., 261
Kohlberg, L.
cognitive developmental sequence, 233, 235
and ethics of autonomy, 241
levels of moral reasoning, 233, 234
moral prescriptions of, 246
Kokwet community of western Kenya, 271–272, 274, 283
Kolarz, C. M., 671
Koller, Silvia, 456–470
König, J., 34–35
Konner, M., 426, 613
Koo, J., 413
Korea
affection in friendships, 428
definition and status of elders, 699
demographics of aging in, 682
entrepreneurship and self-employment in, 559
integrating creativity into classrooms, 261
intimacy in friendships, 425, 427–428
public opinion on creativity, 259
respect for elders in, 669
trainees and temporary migrant workers, 566
Value of Children Study in, 413
youth outside both school and work, 561
Korean adolescents
autonomy and relatedness among, 416–417
exclusivity in friendships, 430
Korean-American adolescents, 528–529
Korean adults
beliefs regarding aging and memory, 628–629
identifying emotions, 630
meaning of death for elderly, 702
positivity bias among older adults, 629, 630
relationships with deceased spouses, 705
Korean families
behavioral inhibition among children, 133, 134
distal vs. proximal caregiving, 279
Internet use and parental closeness, 524–525
parental expectations of children's friendships, 427
parent-child conversations, 206
Korn, S. J., 286
Kornadt, H. -J., 386–387
Kotre, John, 656–657, 660, 661
Koutrelakos, J., 415
Kpelle-speaking people of Liberia
children taking initiative in activity, 295
ethnotheories about children's play, 187
observational learning among children, 205
Kraemer, H. C., 84
Kremer-Sadlik, T., 284
(p. 729) Kuczinski, L., 281
Kumru, A., 427
!Kung tribesmen, Africa
developmental timetables, 275–276
love and marriage among, 579
play and household work, 188
sharing and cognitive development, 205–206
Kuypers, J. A., 668
Kwak, K., 417
Kwanga people of Papua New Guinea, death and bereavement rituals, 704
Kwon, Y. -E., 413
Kwon, Y., et al., 629
Kyratzis, A., 312–313
L
Labouvie-Vief, G., 670
Lachman, M. E., 671
Lamb, Michael, 280, 604, 609, 610, 615
Lamb, Sharon, 309, 689
Lamm, Bettina, 586
TheLancet
adolescent health interventions, 371
series on adolescent health, 357
Lancy, D. F., 188, 207, 295, 589, 592
Langer, E., 628
language acquisition
culture paths to, 114–116
and gender socialization, 313–314
membership in community of speakers, 113–114
researching second language acquisition, 122
and socialization of children, 114–115, 294
vocabulary structure, 115–116
language development across cultures, 111–126
affective and epistemic stances, 116–119
cultural pathways to language, 114–116
future directions for research, 121–123
linguistic politeness, 119–121
mechanisms of cultural influence on language development, 122
scope of cultural influence on language development, 121–122
social factors in language development, 112–116
languages
and acculturation, 53, 54
English proficiency among immigrant children, 51–52
English proficiency among immigrant parents, 51
implications for self-identity, 31–32, 404–405
multilingualism and multicultural identity, 264–265
and narrative, 400–401
normative and subversive potential of, 402
referential nature of, 114–115
role in cognitive development, 203
and spatial cognition, 6
universal grammar vs. sociocultural perspective on, 112
using bicultural and bilingual researchers, 56
Lapidus, I. M., 690
Larson, R., 493, 687
Larson, R. W., et al., 245
Latchem, C. R., 444
Latin America
adolescent sexual activity in, 366
movement for gay rights in, 482
socioeconomic status and child labor, 458
youth entrepreneurship in, 560
Latino families
civic engagement by undocumented youth, 479
gender socialization in United States, 311
quinceanera, 338
sexual socialization in, 346–347
Latzko, B., 232
Lau, S., et al., 264
Lavallee, N., 65, 85
Lave, J., 208
Lavelli, M., 138
Lawton, A., 431
leadership, styles of, 687
Leaper, C., 314
learning
coexisting ways of, 302–303
formal vs. informal, 443, 444
measuring relevancy and outcome, 446
media resources for, 443–444, 445
open and distance outreach learning, 444, 445
role of cultural traditions in, 445
Lebanese-born mothers, developmental timetables of, 273
Ledbetter, P. J., 120
Lee, J. C., 558
Lee, O., 428
Leiderman, P. H. and G. F., 84
Lento, T., 526
Lerner, R. M., 419
Lescano, C. M., et al., 346
Lessons from Africa (LeVine), 66
Leung, A. K., 35, 263, 264, 265
Levenson, M. R., 685–686
Levenson, R. W., 129
Levey, T., 311
Levine, Cynthia, 666–679
LeVine, R. A., 208, 277–278, 282, 296, 301
LeVine, R. A. & B. B., 65, 66
Levine, R., et al., 578
Levit, D. H., 687
Levy, B., 628
Levy-Bruhl, L., 69
Lewis, C., 284
Leyendecker, B., 414, 415
Li, D., 431
Li, M., 431
Li, S.-C., 623, 630
Li, X., 609, 610
Li, X. E., 280
Li, Y. J., 386–387
Liang, C.-H., 280
Lianyungang Social Welfare Institution, China, 177
liberation theology, 444
Liberia, 187, 205, 295
Libório, R. M. C., 463
Liechty, Mark, 9
life course
Anglo-American narratives of midlife, 645–646, 647
and definition and status of elders, 699
Dharmasastric model of, 640–641
Dharmashastras, 238
divisions of, 9
in Hindu Indian tradition, 639
hypothetical lifespan trajectories, 538
indigenous African views, 398–399
life transitions and recovery from abuse, 343
model of developmental regulation, 539
moral development over, 246
motivational theory of lifespan development, 537–540
service learning and volunteerism, 687
and social mobility, 536
theory of emerging adulthood, 488
trajectories in independent vs. interdependent models of personhood, 667
youth transitions to adulthood, 447–448
Life History and the Historical Moment (Erikson), 656
Likert scales, cross-cultural use of, 631
Lim, H. C., 84
Lin, Cynthia, 471–484
Lin, Z., 629
Lindegger, G., 37
linguistic mediation, and cultural psychology, 398, 399
linguistic politeness, 119–121
linguistic tone, heritability of, 98
literacy
role in cognitive development, 203
youth literacy rates around the world, 439, 440, 440
Liu, J., 383
Liu, Jia Li, 271–291
Lobel, S., 378
local inquiry, in developmental research, 89
localization
global vs. local identities, 33–34
as response to globalization, 32–33
Lock, M., 642
Logan, R. I., 656
Logoli people of Kenya, 310
(p. 730) long-term memory among older adults, 625
Lonner, W. J., 344
Lord's Resistance Army, Uganda, 349
loss, symptoms of among cultures, 345
Louie, J. Y., 136
love
future trends in love and marriage, 582–583
historical perspectives on, 580–581
marriage for love, strengths and weaknesses of, 578–579
marriage for love in modern-day societies, 577–578
marriage for love in tribal societies, 575–576
passionate vs. companionate, 570–571
the romantic, marital, and sexual ideal, 571–574
transient nature of, 579–580
undesirable characteristics in a partner, 574–575
universality of, 571
Love, Gayle D., 666–679
“loving dead,” in indigenous African belief, 70
low-income families
gender and emotional socialization, 316
significance of instrumental aid in friendships, 429
Loyola Generativity Scale, 658, 659, 660, 662
Lubart, T. I., 257, 259
Lubiewska, K., 414
Lucca, N., 427
Lui, I, 317
Luisi-Mills, Helyn, 471–484
Lundman, B., 308–309
Lusi-Kaliai of New Britain, 702
Luther, Martin, 656
Lutz, C., 286
Luxembourg
study on divergent thinking, 262–263
vocational education programs, 558
youth outside both school and work, 560
Luyten, P., 689
M
Maccoby, E. E., 309
Machel Report, on children and armed conflict, 349
MacLean, M., 134
Maddox, W. W., 263, 265
Madureira, A. F., 34
Magnusson, C., 507
Magnusson, D., 510
Magnusson, E., 310
Mahajan, R., 281
Make-a-Person Test, 67
Malaysia, sources of fathering diversity in, 607
Mali
definition and status of elders, 699
work migration in, 564
Malti, T., 232
MAM Movies, 680, 681
Mamprusi children in Ghana, grandparents as caregivers, 171
Manago, Adriana, 519–534, 530
Manav Sadhana, social movement, India, 693
Manigione, Heather, 174, 292–306
Manu, ancient Hindu philosopher, 641
Maori culture, and memories of early childhood, 628
Marecek, J., 310
Marín, G. & B. V., 662
Maritim, Arap, 270
Markus, Hazel R., 379, 430, 666–679
Marlow, C., 526
Marlowe, F. W., 168
marriage
changing customs worldwide, 582, 583
child marriages, 360–361, 366
desirable characteristics in a partner, 571–574
and effects of parenting, 591
and emerging adulthood, 496–497
forced early marriage, 561–562
historical perspectives on, 580–581
as life transition ritual, 328
marriage for love, strengths and weaknesses of, 578–579
marriage for love in modern-day societies, 577–578
marriage for love in tribal societies, 575–576
polygamy vs. monogamy, 575
possible future trends in, 582–583
semiarranged marriage, 497
and transnational families, 55
undesirable characteristics in a partner, 574–575
marriage, arranged
and family goodwill, 307
in Hindu India, 638
in modern-day societies, 576–577
semiarranged marriage, 497
strengths and weaknesses of, 578–579
in tribal societies, 575–576
Marsella, A., 29, 37
Marshall, J. P., 689
Marta, Elena, 660
Martin, C. L., 319
Martini, T. S., 135, 143, 280, 316
Masten, A. S., 342
mathematical achievement, and household responsibilities, 222
Matsingenka people of Peru
attentiveness among toddlers, 297
collaborative communication among children, 299
mismatched school and home cultures, 302
self-care among children, 293
Matsui, Tomoko, 111–126
Matsumoto, H., 430
Mauss, Marcel, 706
Mavridis, Caroline Johnston, 271–291
Mayan children
collaborative communication between teachers and children, 300
effect of maternal schooling, 301
joint attention of mothers and infants, 206
participation in daily activities, 208
sibling care of, 594
Mayer, B., 381, 387, 413
Mayes, L. C., 316
Mazahua people, Mexico
children taking initiative in activity, 295
collaborative communication between teachers and children, 300
cultural patterns of collaboration, 299
learning through third-party attention, 297–298
McAdams, Dan, 653, 656, 662
McCagg, P., 118
McCall, G. J., 425–426
McCandless, M. A., 428
McCrae, R. R., 670
McDonald, K., 431
McGraw, Myrtle, 80, 81
McIssac, C., 418
McKenzie, J., 30, 33
McNeill, T., 312
McShane, K. E., 414, 417
Mead, George Herbert, 29
Mead, Margaret, 287
media
and identity development, 527–530
new media and family relationships, 524–526
new media and peer relationships, 526–527
new vs. old media, 521–523, 527–528
and sociocultural change in youth development, 523–524, 531
Meehan, C. L., 613
Meehl, P. E., 433
Meeus, W., 417
Mehta, D., 688
Mehta, K. K., 685
Mejía-Arauz, R., et al., 295–296
Mekeel, Scudder, 655
memory and attention, in infant development, 85–86
men, and marriage before age 18, 362
menarche
decline in age of, 514
and societal expectations of adolescent girls, 327
Mendelson, C., 691
Méndez, R. M., 285
Menon, Usha, 637–652, 669
menopause
(p. 731) reported symptoms among Anglo-American women, 646
view of among Indian and Japanese women, 649
mental health
among adolescent populations, 369–371
of demobilized child soldiers, 465, 466
mental scales, in assessing infant development, 84
mentoring
and community leadership in later adulthood, 686–689
in later adulthood, 680
United States vs. Japan, 688
meritocracy and social inequality, 549, 550
Merrick, Joseph Carey, 574
Mesch, G. S., 525, 526
Mexican-American children
and coexisting ways of learning, 302–303
collaborative communication, 299, 300
cultural patterns of collaboration, 298
effect of maternal schooling, 301
and gender socialization, 316–317
learning through third-party attention, 297
Mexican-American families
acculturation among, 663–664
concept of fatalismo, 662–663
concept of la familia, 662
concept of personalismo, 663
generativity among, 662–664
quinceanera ceremonies, 338
Mexican children
observational learning among, 205
participation in daily activities, 208
taking initiative in activity, 295, 296
Zinacanteco siblings as caregivers, 169
Mexican families
gender differences and household chores, 308
and telenovela series, 528
Mexican Institutional Revolutionary Party, 481–482
Mexico
education and work migration, 565
2012 Mexican elections, 481–482
P'urhépecha people, 292
youth leaving school too early, 561
youth outside both school and work, 560–561
Micronesia, relationships with deceased elders, 706
middle childhood
economic subsistence patterns and, 275–276
family cultural variability, 278–279, 287
individualism vs. collectivism in, 283–285, 287
interplay of temperament and culture, 285–286
parental expectations of development, 272–275, 287
parent-child relationships across cultures, 279–285, 287
parenting styles across cultures, 277–278, 287
in sub-Saharan agricultural societies, 281–283
time allocated to activities, 283–284
women's workloads and parenting practices, 276–277
Middle East
Arab Spring, 474, 475
youth unemployment in, 556
Midlife in Japan study, 672, 673, 674
Midlife in the United States study, 549, 671, 672, 674
midlife narratives
aging as social maturation, 642
in an Odia Hindu temple town, 638–640, 650n3
Confucian legacy of possibilism, 642
cultural variability in, 637–638
Dharmasastric model of life course, 640–641
the experience of middle age, 645–647
gender-differentiated paths to growth, 642–644
Hindu meanings for the middle years of life, 641
midlife in popular culture, 647
“prime of life,” 644–645
migration
and acculturation, 52–53
complications of acculturation, 53–56
destination states in United States, 46
mass migration vs. individual migration, 46
work migration, 564–566
Milanese adults, beliefs regarding aging and memory, 629
Milgram obedience to authority study, 16
Millennium Development Goals
and adolescent health, 356
and emerging and young adult health, 504
reductions in poverty, 347
universal primary education, 218–219
Miller, Joan G., 14–27, 650n1
Miller, P. J., 280, 281
Mills Longitudinal Study of women, 670
Mind, Self, and Society (Mead), 29
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, India, 371
Mische, A., 476
Mishra, A. J., 692
Mishra, R. C., 387–388, 413
Mistry, J., 238, 692
Mitei family, Kokwet, western Kenya, 271–272
Mittal, R., 687
Miura, Y., 118
Miyake, K., 381
Miyamoto, Yuri, 666–679
Mizera, L., 417
Mizuta, I., 135
Mo, Yu-Ming, 570–585
Mobius band, 309
Model, S., 415
Moffitt, T. E., 514
Mok, A., 263
Molero Samuelson, Y., 510
Monin, B., 232
monogamy vs. polygamy, 575
Moore, C., 118
Moore, L. C., 224
Moors, E., 416
Morais, N. A., 348, 463, 464
moral development
and ethics, 8
intra and interpersonal reasoning, 245–246
moral identity theory, 237–238
morality
expectations of religious groups, 235
hypothetical moral dilemmas, 233
moral exemplars, 236, 237, 238
moral motivations, 236–237
moral purpose, 383–385
moral vignettes, 235, 236
as organizing factor in adolescent development, 379
relationship with values and religious orientation, 387–389
vs. religion, 385
moral reasoning, 230–254
care, beneficence, and prosocial morality, 242–243
cognitive-developmental approach, 233, 233–235
concepts of, 232–233
cultural-developmental approach, 233, 238–242
domain approach, 236
justice vs. care orientation, 242
Kohlberg's levels of, 233, 234
over the life course, 246
social contexts and processes, 243–246
worldviews and theories of, 230–231
Morelli, Gilda, 149–164
Morocco
adolescent attachment and well-being, 417
marriage customs in, 577, 583
Morris, M. W., 263
Morrow, V., 310
Morrow-Howell, N., 688
Moscardino, U., 282, 286
(p. 732) mothers
breastfeeding among Nso people of Cameroon, 596
care of infants and toddlers, 167
developmental timetables of, 273
and gender socialization, 314–315
maternal schooling and generational change, 300–301, 302
profiles of maternal behavior, 168
sibling and maternal childcare in Kenya, 170
styles of mothering across cultures, 276
See also parenting
mothers-in-law, roles and life stages in Hindu India, 640, 650n6
motivational theory of lifespan development, 537–540
hypothetical lifespan trajectories, 538
model of developmental regulation, 539
motor skills
beyond motor performance, 83–87
development in agricultural societies, 281–283, 595, 595
infant development milestones, 81–83
means and standard deviations for 4-month-old infants, 134
Mount Hebron, Israel, 519
Mourgues, Catalina, 255–270
Mozambique, child labor in a domestic context, 461
Mroczek, D. K., 670, 671
Much, N. C., 245
Mueller, R. O., 238
Muhammetberdiev, O. B., 311
Mullen, M. K., 206
multiculturalism
and development of creativity, 265
multicultural identity, 31–32, 264–265
Mundy-Castle, A. C., 65
Munroe, R. L., 198–199, 310
Munroe, Ruth & Lee, 168
Munroe, Ruth & Robert, 4–5, 7, 65
Murdock, George Peter, 279
Murre, J. M. J., 627
Mursi tribe in Ethiopia, beauty-enhancing practices among, 572
Muslim countries, marriage customs in, 577
Muslim girls, individualism vs. collectivism in life narratives, 380, 381
mutual constitution, and cultural psychology, 398
N
Nagata, D. K., 281
Na/'hoansi people of Botswana, 700–701
Nakahara, Jun, 666–679
Nakawaza, J., 280
Namibia
foster families in, 173
Himba people, 98–99
Narayan, A. J., 342
narcissism, and use of new media, 530
narratives
cognitive development in children, 206
narrative tasks, 104–105
politics of adolescent identity, 400–404
understanding generativity and culture, 657, 661
National Human Development Report, India, 683
nationality vs. culture, 54
National Liberation Army, Colombia, 465
National Policy for Older Persons, India, 684
National Research Act (1974), 16
nation-states, and the social contract, 476–477, 480
Native Americans
adolescent transition ceremonies among, 332–333
cultural variations and research, 17
Erikson's generativity work among, 655, 658
role of historical loss among, 345
vision quests among, 328, 336
Navajo families, emotional reactivity among infants, 131
Negev Desert, Israel, 519–520
Nelwan, P., 428
neonate smile, cross-cultural differences in, 129
neonatocracy, 589
Nepal
effects of globalization in, 9
emotional display among children, 135
emotion socialization of toddlers, 139–140
Newar people of, 310–311
recruitment of child soldiers in, 465
Netherlands
age distribution of foreign migrants, 565
entrepreneurship and self-employment in, 559
work/study programs, 558
youth outside both school and work, 560
networked individualism, 520, 521, 523
Neugarten, B. L., 649, 667, 670, 675
neuroscience
and cultural-developmental scholarship, 8–9
transition to middle childhood, 208–209
New, R.
10 Country Portraits, 175
Newar people of Nepal, and gender socialization, 310–311
New Britain, elders and care of elderly in, 702
New Guinea
adolescent transition rituals in, 330, 333–334, 335
beauty-enhancing practices in, 572
ethnography of the Sambia, 487
New Zealand
educational system of, 535–536
ethics of community, divinity, and autonomy, 241
immigration from Polynesia, 36
Internet use and parental closeness, 524
postsecondary graduation rates, 563
trainees and temporary migrant workers, 566
Ngaujah, D. E., 67
Ngecha, Kenya, 170
Nguyen, H. T., 623
Nicoladis, E., 313
Nicolaides, Christina, 198–213
Nieto Silva, Carlos José, 456–470
Nieuwenhuys, O., 187
Nigeria
child care and development in, 274
Nigerian immigrant families in Italy, 282
work migration in, 564
Nimrod, G., 686
Nisbett, R. E., 430, 622, 623, 625, 631
Niue, Polynesia, 706
Nkosi, Busisiwe, 698
Noesjirwan, J., 428, 430
nonattachment, philosophy of
benefits in later adulthood, 686
Hindu perspectives on, 691–693
implications in later adulthood, 689–691, 694
significance in India, 681
Norasakkunkit, V., 36, 430
Norenzayan, A., 186, 188
Normative Aging Study, 670
normative conformity, 104, 105, 134–135
norm psychology, 104
North Africa
youth unemployment in, 556
North America, adolescent transition rituals in, 330
North American Indian tribes
adolescent transition ceremonies, 332–333
cultural variations and research, 17
Erikson's generativity work among, 655, 658
role of historical loss among, 345
vision quests, 328, 336
Northern Ireland, and adolescent narratives of identity, 402
Norway
age distribution of foreign migrants, 565
Internet use and parental closeness, 525
linguistic politeness among children, 121
vocational education programs, 558
(p. 733) youth outside both school and work, 560
Nsamenang, A. Bame, 61–76
competing images of adolescence, 421
Eurocentric bias of developmental science, 398
social cognition in Africa, 282
Nso infants (Cameroon)
caregiving practices, 277
cultural emotion norms, 136, 137, 137
emotion socialization, 138
social smiles among, 130
Nso people (Cameroon)
parenting practices among, 593–595, 595, 596
role of grandparents in parenting, 593
single mothers among, 598
Nuremberg Code, 15
nutritional status, and concerns in adolescent health, 365
Nwobu, O., 282
Nyakyusa people of Tanzania, 336
Nyansongo, Kenya, 170
Nyasani, J. M., 72
Nydegger, W. F. & C., 429
O
Oakes, K. E., 386
obliges, utterances demanding a response, 120
observation, and cognitive development, 200, 201, 204–205, 209
Ochs, Elinor, 112, 114–115, 119, 121, 294
O'Connor, C., 687
Ogutu, V., 71
Ohuche, R. O., 65
Okavango Delta, Botswana, 205
Okinawan families, gender differences and household chores, 308
Okpara, E., 72
Okun, M. A., 386–387
Older Amercians' Act, 1965, 669
Oles, P., 35–36
Olowu, A. A., 71
One Child Policy, China, 609–610
“ontogeny-recapitulates-phylogeny,” 81
Oosterweegel, A., 417
Open and Closed Mind, The (Rokeach), 29
Optional Protocol on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict, 466
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
demographic changes in member nations, 489
immigration to member nations, 44, 45
reports on formal education in member nations, 451
tertiary education in member nations, 490, 490
youth literacy worldwide, 439, 440
Otaala, B., 65
Otto, Hiltrud, 136, 598
Outliving the Self (Kotre), 656–657
Out of Place (Said), 31
Ovambo culture, socialization of grandchildren by grandparents, 173
overimitation, and cognitive development, 104
Overton, A. E., 685
Oyserman, D., 379, 632
P
Pacific Islander communities
identity confusion in New Zealand, 36
open and distance outreach learning in, 444, 445
Padilla-Walker, L. M., 243
Pakistan
adolescent civic development in, 478
marriage customs in, 578
Palestine
children and armed conflict, 348–349
Value of Children Study in, 413
Palestinian adolescents, project with Israeli and U. S. teens, 396–397, 401, 405
Panchayat Raj program, India, 477
Pandya, N., 241, 242
Panerai, L., 386
Panga Muntu Test, 67
Papua New Guinea
communication with children, 294
death and bereavement rituals, 704
Paradise, R., 297, 299
parental ethnotheories
Asian, 279–281
and developmental timetables, 272–275, 287
economic subsistence patterns and childrearing practices, 275–276
and family cultural variability, 278–279, 287
interaction of temperament and culture, 285–286
parent-child relationships across cultures, 279–285, 287
and parenting styles across cultures, 277–278, 287
regarding children's play, 187
and socialization strategies, 588
in sub-Saharan agricultural societies, 281–283
themes and variations in the West, 283–285
women's workloads and parenting practices, 276–277
parenting
African vs. European practices, 66
and attachment theory, 152
authoritative parenting, 23–24
coexisting discipline and warmth, 415
Confucian traditions of, 280
cultural models of childrearing, 190
and economic subsistence patterns, 275–276
emotion socialization, 315–316
ethnotheories about children's play, 187, 189–190
and expressions of creativity, 260
and friendship patterns of adolescents, 418
gender and emotional socialization, 317
gender socialization, 311–312, 314–315
and giving informed consent for research, 17–18
and increased importance of children's schooling, 301
and individualism vs. collectivism, 277–278
infant learning of emotional norms, 127
and infant-mortality rates, 277
instrumental parentification, 461
Internet use and parental closeness, 524–525
interpretations of parental authority, 377
minimizing harm in research, 19–21