- Oxford Library of Psychology
- The Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture
- Oxford Library of Psychology
- About the Editor
- Cultural-Developmental Scholarship for a Global World: An Introduction
- Ethical Considerations in Research on Human Development and Culture
- Human Development in Today’s Globalizing World: Implications for Self and Identity
- Migration Between and Within Countries: Implications for Families and Acculturation
- Indigenous Social Science at the Intersection with Human Development: Implications for and Lessons from African Ecocultures
- Charting Infant Development: Milestones Along the Way
- Comparative and Developmental Anthropology: Studying the Origins of Cultural Variability in Cognitive Function
- The Emergence and Development of Language Across Cultures
- Early Emotional Development in Cultural Perspective
- The Evolution of Attachment Theory and Cultures of Human Attachment in Infancy and Early Childhood
- Early Contexts of Learning: Family and Community Socialization During Infancy and Toddlerhood
- Childhood Practices Across Cultures: Play and Household Work
- Cognition in Childhood Across Cultures
- Cultural Manifestation of Intelligence in Formal and Informal Learning Environments During Childhood
- Moral Reasoning: Developmental Emergence and Life Course Pathways Among Cultures
- The Interaction Between Culture and the Development of Creativity
- Parental Ethnotheories and the Development of Family Relationships in Early and Middle Childhood
- In and Out of the Classroom: The Intersection of Learning and Schooling Across Cultural Communities
- Gender Across Cultures: Sex and Socialization in Childhood
- Leaving Childhood: The Nature and Meaning of Adolescent Transition Rituals
- Adolescent Risk and Resiliences Across Cultures
- Global Concerns in Adolescent Health with a Case Study of India
- Cultural Roots of Values, Morals, and Religious Orientations in Adolescent Development
- Identity, Politics, and the Cultural Psychology of Adolescence
- Family in Adolescence: Relatedness and Autonomy Across Cultures
- Cultural Templates for Child and Adolescent Friendships
- Education and the Youth Phase: Patterns, Purposes, and Problems in Global Perspective
- Child Labor: Homes, Streets, Armies, Factories, and Stores
- Adolescent Civic Development Across Cultures
- The Cultural Psychology of Emerging Adulthood
- The Intersection of Culture, Health, and Risk Behaviors in Emerging and Young Adults
- New Media, Social Change, and Human Development from Adolescence Through the Transition to Adulthood
- Social Mobility in the Transition to Adulthood: Educational Systems, Career Entry, and Individual Agency
- Work and Work Migration Within and Across Countries in Emerging and Young Adulthood
- Love, Sex, and Marriage Across Cultures
- Dual and Communal Parenting: Implications in Young Adulthood
- Fathering Diversity Within Societies
- Cognition in Adulthood Across Cultures
- Midlife Narratives Across Cultures: Decline or Pinnacle?
- Explorations in Generativity and Culture
- Adult Development in Japan and the United States: Comparing Theories and Findings About Growth, Maturity, and Well-Being
- Community Leadership and Non-attachment in Later Adulthood
- Death and Bereavement in Later Adulthood: Cultural Beliefs, Behaviors, and Emotions
Abstract and Keywords
The contexts of early learning and socialization are diverse and complex but not without predictability. The tension between predictability and variation fascinates researchers interested in childhood and culture and motivates careful exploration of different developmental niches to better understand socialization during infancy, toddlerhood, and early childhood. Contexts of early socialization vary in the people and activities present, and the beliefs and norms of caregivers and daily companions. The chapter utilizes anthropological constructs (household structure and composition, settlement patterns and subsistence level, mothers’ workload, gender division of labor, intimacy levels between husbands and wives, and cultural roles and norms pertaining to sibling caregiving and fostering of children) to better understand how parents, siblings, grandparents, extended kin, foster families, early childhood centers, and welfare institutions work together to raise healthy children. The authors explore how opportunities and constraints as well as expectations and demands influence children in enduring ways.
Carolyn Pope Edwards is Willa Cather Professor at the Departments of Psychology and Child, Youth, and Family Studies, University of Nebraska Lincoln.
Lixin Ren is a doctoral student at the Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Jill R. Brown is Associate Professor of Psychology at Creighton University.
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