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date: 23 February 2019

(p. 711) Index

(p. 711) Index

Page references for figures are indicated by f and for tables by t.

Abrahamse, Allan F., 643
Abrams, David S., 641
abuse, prisoner
prevalence, 195
on suicide risk, female, 171
abuse, sexual, 298, 313n6
abuse and neglect, childhood
in female vs. male offenders, 167
on suicide risk, 553554
in females, 172
accountability, process-focused goals, 95
“active” drug dogs (ADDs), 279
Adams, Kenneth, 169, 584
Adams County Correctional Facility, 660
Aday, Ronald H., 171
addiction. see also drugs, in prison; substance abuse
before imprisonment, 135
vs. pains of imprisonment, 135
prevalence among prisoners, 195
administrative controls
as harmful, 696699
theory, 235, 241243
treatment programs as, 535
administrative segregation (ad seg), 63, 150151, 340359
background, 340
clinical practice, proactive, 354356
incentives to leave, 356
inmate monitoring, 355
mentally disordered offenders, 354355
prevention, 355356
effects, 341342
Florence Federal penitentiary, 374, 378, 390n13
on mentally ill, 385, 589590
prison life effects, 342344
deep freeze theory, 342343
deterrence theory, 343
importation theory, 342
“schools of crime” theory, 343344
problem and solution, 350352
research, proactive, 352354
individual differences, 352353
punishment, 353
“real culprit” to effect size estimates, 353
researcher accountability, 353
sensory deprivation, 351352, 352f, 357–358nn2–4
sensory deprivation, 344346
studies, prison, 346350, 347f, 349t
suicidal prisoners, discharge planning, 571
suicide risk, 554555, 573
in mentally ill, 570
Adorno, Sergio, 138
Adult Internal Management System (AIMS), 402403
Affordable Homes Programs (AHP), 456
cost-effectiveness, 464465
employment outcomes, 461462
recidivism outcomes, 463
African Americans
imprisonment rates, U.S., 4, 89, 13, 14, 21–22n7
inmate population, 30, 3536
mass incarceration, 13, 114116
suicides, imprisonment, 552
African Americans, men
drug offenders, 273274
incarceration of, 191
incarceration rates, 198
age, inmate population, 30, 3435
aggression, correctional settings, 292 (p. 712)
Agnew, Robert, 245
Akoensi, Thomas D., 136
Albany prison riots, 372
Alcatraz
closure, 369370
mental health consequences, 384
alcohol, homemade prison, 276
alcohol abuse. see also substance abuse
programs, for female prisoners, 176
suicide risk, 553
Alexander, Michelle, 13, 114116
Alexander, Myrl, 369370
Allen, Terry D., 416
Anderson, Barbara, 438
Anderson, David A., 632, 633, 645n5
Anderson, Henrik Steen, 589
Andrews, Donald A., 355, 397398, 403, 411, 412t, 433435, 438, 459, 509, 533, 534, 669, 670
Aos, Steve, 432, 463, 464
Apodaca, Mexico (Feb. 19, 2012), 266
Appreciative Inquiry, 219220
Apprenticeship-Focused Training, 458
Arboleda-Florez, Julio, 406
Archambeault, W. G., 657
Arditti, Joyce A., 78, 170, 178, 192, 196
Arnold, Helen, 381
Arya, Neelum, 607608
assessment and classification, custodial settings, 397418
applications, 397
assessment-classification concept, 397
brief risk assessment for institutional security, 400401
fourth generation risk assessment tools, 417
historical, 398
historical to recent developments, 398405
importance, 408417
favorable outcomes, 408409
financial costs, high security, 412417, 414t, 415f (see also costs, high-security prisons)
harm minimization, 410411
prison safety, 409410
rehabilitation and reintegration, 411412
risk, needs, and responsivity (RNR) principles, 397398
risk and needs, 670672
security–offender risk matching, 398399
for sex offender treatment, 480
special cases and contexts, 405408
integrity of assessment, 408
mental health problems, 406407
professionals, 407408
reclassification and reintegration preparation, 407
women prisoners, 405406
suicide risk, 564567
traditional prison classification, 399400
for treatment, 402405
Level of Service, 404405
personality-based, 402403
risk, needs, and responsivity, 403405
assimilation, inmate, 238
Attica State Correctional Facility (Sept. 9-13, 1971), 263264
attrition rates, prison treatment programs, 536537
Auerhahn, Kathleen, 643
Augustus, John, 603
Austin, James, 89, 615616
Avi-Itzhak, Benjamin, 633
Bachman, Ronet, 296298, 300
Bales, William D., 335, 528, 638
Ball, David, 11
Ball, Jeremy D., 617
Bandyopadhyay, Mahuya, 136
Bauer, Rebecca L., 343
Baxter v. Palmigiano, 329
Beaman, Arthur L., 431
Beccaria, Cesare, 118, 631, 645n5
Beck, Allen, 300, 330, 699
Becker, Gary, 629630, 645n5
Beckett, Katherine, 110, 111
bed space forecasting, 29, 30, 31, 34, 39, 40, 41, 4647
Beech, Anthony, 480
Beetham, David, 367
Bell, Brian, 640
Bell, William, 333
Bell v. Wolfish, on suicide prevention, 556
Bench, Lawrence L., 416
Bentham, Jeremy, 336, 629, 631, 645n5 (p. 713)
Berk, Richard A., 415
Bernard, Thomas J., 131
Bernfeld, Gary A., 533
Bernsen, Herbert L., 533
Berzofsky, Marcus, 300
Beto, George, 59, 331
Bewley, Marshall T., 586587
Beyer, Marty, 609, 610
bibliotherapy
for cynics, 429
for suicidal inmates, 569
Biggs, Ronnie, 368
“Big House,” 127128
Birkbeck, Christopher, 136
Birmingham prison, 221t, 222223
Bishop, Donna M., 610611, 612
“black box”
of correctional programs, examination, 429430
treatment constituents, empirical validation, 438440
blacks. see African Americans
Blackstone, Erwin A., 656, 658
Black Widow, Operation, 332333
Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne, 617
Blakey, David, 275, 277, 278
Blatchford, Laurel, 332, 333
Blevins, Kristie R., 245
Blinton, Bill, 274
Blitz, Cynthia L., 584
Bloom, Barbara, 176
Bloomberg, Thomas G., 54
Blumstein, Alfred, 34, 237, 634, 643, 699
Blumstein, James F., 658, 662
Bogue, Brad, 408
Bohmert, Miriam Northcutt, 461465
Bohn, Martin J. Jr., 402
Bonner, Ronald L., 554
Bonta, James, 342, 343, 355, 385, 397398, 403, 408, 411, 412t, 415, 435, 438, 669, 670
boom, imprisonment, late 20th century. see imprisonment boom, late 20th century
Boothby, Jennifer L., 586587, 591
Bottomley, A. Keith, 387
Bottoms, Anthony, 139, 219, 243, 244, 375
Bouffard, Jeffrey A., 465, 536
Bounds v. Smith, 57t
Bourgon, Guy, 438
Bowring v. Godwin, 67
Braga, Anthony A., 695
Braman, Donald, 192, 193
Brazil, prison subculture, 137138
Breed, A. F., 370
Breed v. Jones, 605
Brief Jail Mental Health Screen, 591
brief risk assessment for institutional security, 400401
Briggs, Chad, 62, 353, 387
Britain. see United Kingdom; specific topics
Britain, dangerous prisoner management
1980s+ political populism, 378–379
Control Review Committees, 376383, 387
dangerous severe personality disorders unit, 380
disorder and dispersal (1960 to 1979), 371373
Management of Challenging Behaviour Strategy, 381
Mountbatten Report, 368369
overcrowding, sanitation, and riots, 377378
Terror Acts prisoners, 381
Violence Reduction Program, 380
Woolf report, 378
Brown, Elizabeth, 111
Brown v. Plata, 16, 17, 59, 64, 387388, 409
Bucklen, Kristofer Bret, 459
Budden, Ashwin, 304
bulk detection, 280
Burke, Peggy B., 515, 516
Burke, Todd W., 680
Bush, George, 274
Bush, Jack, 439
Byrne, James M., 534535, 540
C2-SPECTR, 442443
Caeti, Tory J., 608
Cahalan, Margaret Werner, 56, 6f, 54
Cain, Kevin C., 638
Calderon, Felipe, 266
Califano, Joseph, 271 (p. 714)
California. see also specific prisons and topics
2011 Realignment law (A.B. 109 2011), 5, 16–18, 20
prison population stabilization, 1617
Brown v. Plata and Realignment, 5, 1617
county jail overcrowding, 1718
Proposition 8, 641
Public Safety Realignment (A.B. 109 2011), 5, 1618, 20
state to county jail prisoner transfer, 73n5
Cameroon, prison subculture, 136137
Camp, Camille G., 151
Camp, George M., 151
Campaign for Youth Justice, 606, 607, 617
Campbell, Mary Ann, 436
Canada. see also specific topics
drug users and abusers in, 274
imprisonment rates (1992-2010), 78, 8f
Canadian School, 429430. see also specific topics and programs
cognitive behavioral therapy, 429
Rideau and Correctional Treatment Centre, 438
Canela-Cacho, José, 634, 643
canine detection units, 278279
capital punishment, on prison–crime relationship, 641642, 645n12
Caplow, Theodore, 165
Carceral, K. C., 133
Carrabine, Eamonn, 244
Carroll, Leo, 132, 240, 300
case management, risk assessment, outcome evaluation, and, 426, 441442
Casey, B. J., 617618
Castellano, Thomas, 62, 353, 387
Census of State Adult Correctional Facilities, 54, 72n1
Center for Employment Opportunities (CEO), 458, 467
Central Eight risk/need factors, 411412, 412t
Chalfin, Aaron, 629, 642
Chamlin, Mitchell B., 642
change agent, prison treatment programs, 532533
“Changing Lives and Changing Outcomes: A Treatment Program for Offenders with Mental Illness” (Morgan et al.), 594
Charles, Kervin Kofi, 642
Chen, M. Keith, 411, 637
childcare providers, incarceration on, 193, 195196
child molester treatment, 488
children
on female prisoners
as positive influences, 168
relationships with, on prison misbehavior, 170
parental incarceration on, 193
Childrey, Julia, 533
Child Savers movement, 604
Choudhury, Suparna, 617
Circles of Support and Accountability (CoSA), 492
Clare, E., 387
Clark, Danny, 537
Clark, Valerie, 638
Clear, Todd R., 118, 189
Clements, Carl B., 586587, 591
Clemmer, Donald, 127, 148, 213, 238239, 375
climate, institutional, 208227. see also correctional officers and institutional climate; environment, prison
origins, 427
climate, institutional climate, institutional
in deprivation, institution, importation framework, 139, 148
prison treatment program support, 539
Clinical Care and Intervention Task Force, 557
Clinical Care and Intervention Task Force, on suicide prevention, 558559
Close Supervision Centers (CSCs), Britain, 379383, 387
Cloward, Richard, 148
Cochran, John K., 642
Cochran, Joshua C., 437, 638, 689
coercive controls, 242
coercive mobility, 189, 191
cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 672
Canadian School, 429
effectiveness, 433, 434, 435
on neural level, 441
validation, 438
for female prisoners, 175176 (p. 715)
in-prison programs, 530
Rideau and Correctional Treatment Centre, 438
cognitive functioning, low, sex offender treatment with, 488489
Cohen, Albert, 148
Cohen, Jacob, 432
Cohen, Jacqueline, 34, 237, 634, 643
Cohen, Lawrence, 307308
Cohen, Mark A., 658, 662
Cohen, Stanley, 34, 16, 18, 19, 21, 214
Coleman v. Wilson, 556, 569
Coles, Ron, 672
collaboration
in reentry, community, 503, 512516 (see also under reentry, community)
in suicide prevention, 561
collaborative management philosophy, 59
Collective Clemency Bill, 640
Colvin, Mark, 242243
Comfort, Megan, 192193, 195
command, prison riots, 262
communities, incarceration on, 189201
collateral consequences, 189, 190194 (see also under families and communities, incarceration on)
effect variability, 190, 194197
immigration and justice nexus, 190, 199200
Latinos, 190, 197199
penal harm movement, 189
community reentry, 502520. see also reentry, community
community well-being, vs. rehabilitation focus, 45
confinement conditions, mass incarceration and, 5373
data on, 53, 72n1
evolution of prison environment, 5460
judicial intervention, 5659, 57t
population growth and prison construction, 5456, 55f
professionalization, 54, 5960
prison conditions, 6070
health and medical care, 6466
mental health, 6669, 73nn8–9
programs, 6970
violence and disorder, 6163, 62f
confinement deprivation, 290, 313n2
consensual model, prison management, 241
containment, in juvenile delinquency and criminology, 210, 226n1
“contested” cultures, 221t, 222223
contingency management, on prison treatment programs, 535
contraband, 284n4
control model, prison management, 241
Control Review Committee (CRC), Britain, 373, 376378
controls
coercive, 242
definition, 245
remunerative, 242
types, 246
control theories
administrative control theory, 235, 241243
on inmate misconduct, 246247
conventional crime narrative, 12
Conventry, G., 89
convict subculture, 240
Cook, Philip J., 632
cooperation, in prisons, 255
Cooper v. Pate, 56, 327328
correctional officers, as peacekeepers, 210
correctional officers and institutional climate, 208227
containment, 210, 226n1
Gladstone Report, 215, 226–227n5
masculine strength, idealized, 211
measuring staff culture and institutional climate, 219224
Appreciative Inquiry, 219220
“contested,” 221t, 222223
ethnography-led measurement, 220, 224
Measuring the Quality of Prison Life, 219220, 221t, 227nn7–9
“professional-skilled,” 221t, 224
“traditional-relational,” 221t, 223
“traditional-resistant,” 210, 220222
as moral dualists, 210211
origins, 427
other-oriented values, 210211
practical consciousness, 211
professional authority embodied, 210211
“professional-supportive” cultures, 209
Psychologically Informed Planned Environments, 221t, 224, 226n2, 227n10 (p. 716)
“resistant-punitive” cultures, 209
“traditional-professional” officers, 210, 217, 226n1
“traditional-resistant cultures,” characteristics, 211216, 217, 226n4
tragedy, cynicism, relationships, and power, 216219, 217t, 218t
“tragic” perspective, 210, 217, 217t
variations, within-district, 208209
Correctional Program Assessment Inventory (CPAI), 534, 536
2010®, 437, 439, 442
Corrections Corporation of America (CCA)
billing scandal, 658
escapes, prisoner, 660
federal contracts, 655656
growth, 654, 664665
history, 653654
low-security prisons, 657
marketing strategy, Securities and Exchange Commission filing, 654655
Mississippi prison closure, 658
In the Public Interest examination, 656
quality issues, 659660
riots, 659660
slowing and decline, 654
staffing problems, 663
Cortoni, Franca, 492
costs
high-security prisons, 412417
assessment and classification for, 412413
offender classification effectiveness, 413415
supermax, U.S., 413, 414t, 415f
marginal cost of crime, 627, 644n2
mentally ill inmate treatment, 583
private prisons, 651, 652, 656659
private prisons, reducing recurrent, 89
Côté, Gilles, 343
counting rules, cross-national imprisonment, 8283
COURAGE program, 616
courts
“get tough” policies, 43
on inmate population, 4243
juvenile, 606608
containment, 226n1
imprisonment prevalence, 606
reverse waiver, 618n3
Coventry, G., 89
Covington, Stephanie, 176
Cox, Stephen D., 125, 127
Crants, Doc, 664
credit
earned, 675676
good-time, 675
Cressey, Donald R., 138, 239240
Crewe, Ben, 133135, 139, 213, 380
crime, 627628
definition, 235
deterrence and/or criminogenesis, 627628
inmate, defined, 235
marginal cost, 627, 644n2
crime and deviance, behind bars, 332336
detecting and investigating, 332333
processing, 333334
punishing, 335336
crime rates
female vs. male, cross-national, 80
imprisonment on, failure of, 106
vs. incarceration rates, 526527
cross-national, 77, 79
research on, 108
on inmate population, 42
mass incarceration, 105, 106108
Criminal Alien Requirement prisons, 651
criminal network connections, prison, 527
criminogenesis, 627628
concept and examples, 627
crime and, 627628
deterrence and, 644n2
estimates, 636641
experience of prison, 637638
sentence length, 638641, 645n11
vs. incapacitation, 627628
criminogenic needs, in sex offender treatment, 482483
cross-national contexts, imprisonment, 7796
conceptual drivers, multiple, 78
counting rules, 8283 (p. 717)
crime rates vs. incarceration rates, 77, 79
factors, overview, 7778
female vs. male crimes, 80
incarceration efficacy, 7980
international incarceration rates, compared, 7980, 81t, 82t
“new penology,” 7879
policy
on incarceration rates, 77
transfer between countries, 84
prevalence, world, 80
punitiveness differences, 79
remand (bail), 83
research, methodological limitations, 8183
sentencing
population sentenced, 83
practices, 8384
sociocultural, political, and economic domains, 78
systemic factors, 8495
countries selected, 84
managerialism, 78, 8485
private prisons, 8590, 86t–87t (see also private prisons)
risk assessment, 78, 85
supermax facilities, 9095 (see also supermax prisons, cross-national)
Crouch, Ben, 239, 631
Crowley, Michael, 408
Cruz v. Beto 405, 57t
Cullen, Francis T., 12, 69, 110, 410, 428, 441, 442, 443, 528, 637, 679
cultural deviance models, 240
cultural drift, 148
culture, prison. see also subculture adaptations, to incarceration
Appreciative Inquiry, 219220
Brazil, 137138
Cameroon, 136137
“contested,” 221t, 222223
definitions, 487
gang, 130 (see also gangs, prison)
Ghana, 136137
on misconduct, 534535
“past-oriented,” 211212, 226n4
“professional-skilled,” 221t, 224
“professional-supportive,” 209
racism, 212
“resistant-punitive,” 209
sexism, 212
South Africa, 137138
staff and institutional, measuring, 219224 (see also under correctional officers and institutional climate)
“traditional-relational,” 221t, 223
“traditional-resistant,” 211216, 217, 226n4
characteristics, 211216, 217, 226n4
measuring, 210, 220222
Cunningham, Mark D., 293
custody as treatment, failure, 435
Custody Rating Scale (CRS), 401
“cynical” perspective, correctional officers, 210, 213
Muir’s typology, 217218, 217t
officer orientations, safety, 218219, 218t
cynical view, 217218
D’Alessio, Stewart J., 642
“dangerous groups,” supermax prisons, 9395
dangerous prisoner management, British vs. American, 367390
1960 to 1979, 368–372
1960 to 1979, Britain
disorder and dispersal, 371372
Mountbatten Report, 368369
prison escapes, 368369
Radzinowicz subcommittee, 369370
1960 to 1979, U.S.
Alcatraz closure, 369370
racial tensions and violence, Federal penitentiaries, 370371
1980 to mid-1990s, 372–379
1980 to mid-1990s, Britain
1980s+ political populism, 378–379
Control Review Committee dispersal reduction order, 376377
dispersal, 373
overcrowding, sanitation, and riots, 377378
Woolf report, 378
1980 to mid-1990s, U.S.
concentration in ordinary penitentiaries, 372
DiIulio and supermax prisons, 375 (p. 718)
Marion Control Unit, 372379
Oak Park Heights, Minnesota, 373374, 377, 384
Pelican Bay and Madrid v. Gomez, 375376
firearms ban, U.K. prison officers, 367
legitimacy, 367
mid-1990s to present, 379388
mid-1990s to present, Britain
Control Review Commitees and dispersal prisons, 379383
dangerous severe personality disorders unit, 380
Management of Challenging Behaviour Strategy, 381
Terror Acts prisoners, 381
Violence Reduction Program, 380
mid-1990s to present, U.S., supermax prisons, 383388
order and control within walls vs. escape fears, 367
Darke, Sacha, 136, 137, 138
Dastouri, Serenna, 280, 282
data registries, C2-SPECTR, 426, 442443
Davidson, William S. II, 433
Death in Custody Reporting Act, 551, 552
decentralization, prisons, 5960
Decker, Scott H., 146, 147t
deep freeze theory, 342343
defiance
high-level (see riots, prison)
low-level, 255
deinstitutionalization, mentally ill, 580
Deis, D. R., 657
Deitch, Michele, 611, 614, 615
DeLisi, Matt, 258, 293
democracy-at-work thesis, 12, 109110
demographics, inmate population, 29, 3436
age, 30, 3435
gender, 36
race and ethnicity, 30, 3536
deniers, sex offender treatment, 490491
deportations, criminal activity in, 199200
deprivation, 128, 139
confinement, 290, 313n2
framework
challenge, 138
deprivation, institution, importation, 139, 148
misconduct prediction, 294
supermax prisons, 129
on treatment programs, in-prison, 534
deprivation, sensory, 357–358nn2–4
administrative segregation, 344346, 351352, 352f
definition, 351
perceptual, 357–358n2
deprivations of incarceration, 703704
deprivation theory
limitations, 243244
misconduct, inmate, 235, 238239
deterrable states of mind, 530
deterrence, 524525, 627631
administrative segregation, 343
concept, 627
on crime, 627628
criminogenesis and, 644n2
estimates, 636641
experience of prison, 637638
sentence length, 638641, 645n11
general, 524
imprisonment for, failure of, 526530
vs. incapacitation, 627628
perceptual, 631633
policy changes on, 628
rehabilitation and, 644n1
specific, 524
strategies based on, 108
theory, 343344
treatment programs, 524525
de Tocqueville, Alexis, 288, 312
development, juvenile, incarceration on, 602, 609610
deviance behind bars, 332336. see also crime and deviance, behind bars
formal responses to, 327330
diathesis-stress model of suicidal behavior, 554
DiClemente, Carlo C., 477
DiIulio, John, 241, 375, 643, 694, 696, 697
Dirks-Linhorst, Ann, 533 (p. 719)
discharge planning. see also reentry, community
suicidal prisoners, 570572
disciplinary procedures, prison, 320337
bureaucratic and legalized guidelines, 321322
crime and deviance behind bars, 331336
detecting and investigating, 332333
processing, 333334
punishing, 335336
due process and formal responses to inmate deviance, 327331
Baxter v. Palmigiano, 329
Cooper v. Pate, 56, 327328
Hewitt v. Helms, 329
Hughes v. Rowe, 329
Hutto v. Finney, 329
Meachum v. Fano, 329
momentum, building, 327329
Montanye v. Haymes, 329
Ponte v. Real, 329
Superintendent v. Hill, 329
time-bound nature, 330331
Vitek v. Jones, 329
Wolff v. McDonnell, 57t, 328329, 330
evolution and free world parallels, 321
historical context, 321327
change agents and legal landscape, 326327
emerging formal disciplinary mechanism, 324326
near complete discretion, 322324
Texas (1975 vs. 2012), 321322
risk groupings, 321
social distance, between keeper and kept, 321
disorder, in prison, 6163, 62f. see also misconduct, inmate; riots, prison
dispersal theory of behavioral control, 93, 96n5
dog programs, prison, 680
Donohue, John J., 642
Doob, Anthony N., 645n11
Dowden, Craig, 533
Dowker, Fay, 90
Drago, Francesco, 411, 638, 640
Drake, Elizabeth K., 432, 464
Drake, Robert E., 593
Drozdek, Boris, 303
drug dogs, 278279
drug offenders. see also War on Drugs
female, 10, 273
gender, 273
in prisons, 29, 4546, 270
U.S., 273274
world, 274
racial background, 273274
drug offenses
felony filings, 4, 910, 10f, 22nn8–9
female incarceration
nonviolent, 163, 164165
rates, 10, 116, 273
incarceration rates for, 43
state decriminalization, 20
drug programs, for female prisoners, 176
drugs, in prison, 270277. see also gangs, prison
addiction prior to, 135
assessment and classification on, 409
availability and prevalence, 270
Brazil, 137
England and Wales, 134, 274
false positive canine detection, 279, 284n4
gangs in, 133134
problems from, 270271, 275277
drug-seeking behavior, 275276
illicit prison economy, 276
trafficking, 276
violence and staff safety, 276277
on survival, 131
U.S., 271275, 273f
drug policy on prison population, 274275
imprisonment and, 271273, 272f
substance-involved offenders, 273274
drugs, in prison, managing, 277283
availability, 277278
control and care, 271
interdiction approaches, 278281
bulk detection, 280
canine detection units, 278279
effectiveness, 282283
mandatory drug testing, 275, 280281
overall strategy, Blakey’s, 278
trace detection technology, 279280
search and seizure, 281282 (p. 720)
drug use and abuse
criminalization, 270
false positive canine detection, 279, 284n4
in imprisonment, U.S., 270
inmate population, 30, 3738
mental health and, 30, 3738
pharmaceutical interventions, 283
psychoactive drugs, 284n1
psychosocial interventions, 283
suicide risk, 553
U.S. prevalence, 272273
dual arrest policies, mandatory, 165
Du Cane, Edmund, 227n5
due process, in prison, 327331. see also specific cases
momentum, building, 327329
time-bound nature, 330331
Durlauf, Steven N., 528, 629, 642
Duwe, Grant, 461465, 638, 678679
Dye, Meredith H., 171
earned release (credit), 675676
Ecclestone, C. E. J., 351
economics, cross-national differences, 78
economy, illicit prison, drugs, 276. see also gangs, prison
education
of inmate population, 30, 3637
of staff, on mental illness, 592
educational and rehabilitative programs, 6970
GED, 681682
inmate population, 30, 32, 33, 39, 47
gender-specific, 36
reduction, 40
vocation, 37, 39, 454469 (see also employment and vocation programs)
mass incarceration conditions, 6970
Eichenthal, David, 331332, 333
Eighth Amendment, 703704
Eighth Amendment cases, 16, 58
Estelle v. Gamble, 57t, 64
Madrid v. Gomez, 375
programs and, 69
elite manipulation, 111
Elliot, Kenneth W., 372, 376
Emery, Robert E., 430
employment
criminal behavior and, 454
incarceration on, 191
inmate population, 37
recidivism and, 455, 458459
employment and vocation programs, 37, 39, 454469
effective characteristics, 455, 466468
employment effects, 460466
employment and crime, inverse relationship, 460
prison based employment programs, evaluations, 455, 461465
cost-effectiveness, 454, 464465
employment outcomes, 461462
recidivism outcomes, 462464
prison-based programs, evaluations and limitations, 465466
historical context, 455458
prison industry programs, 456457
vocational training and services, 457458
prison-based, rationale, 458460
employment and recidivism, 455, 458459
need for, 459460
engagement, treatment, 425, 440441
England. see Britain; United Kingdom
enhancement of offending, prison gangs, 149
environment, prison. see also climate, institutional
evolution
judicial intervention, 53, 5659, 57t
population growth and prison construction, 5456, 55f
professionalization, 54, 5960
female adjustment to, 164, 169172
misconduct, 169170
self-harm and suicidal behavior, 170172
Psychologically Informed Planned Environment, 221t, 224, 226n2, 227n10
on sex offender treatment, 474
on treatment program implementation, 534535 (p. 721)
administrative control, 535
contingency management, 535
importation and deprivation, 534
legitimacy, 535
prison culture and misconduct, 534535
Escobedo v. Illinois, 324
Estelle v. Gamble, 57t, 64, 67
mental health professionals, 587588
mental health treatment, 588
ethnicity, inmate population, 30, 3536
ethnography-led measurement, 220, 224
evaluator involvement, 433
Exum, M. Lyn, 535
Fabiano, Elizabeth A., 433
facilitation, prison gangs, 148149
Fagan, Jeffrey, 610, 612, 617, 642
faith-based prison programs, 678679
families and communities, incarceration on, 189201. see also communities
collateral consequences, 189, 190194
African American men, 191
children, minor, 193
coercive mobility, 189, 191
family emotional difficulties, 192
family systems, 192, 194195
female loved ones, 192193
grandparents and childcare providers, 193, 195196
male marriageability, 191
social capital decline, 191
effect variability, 190, 194197
immigration and justice nexus, 190, 199200
Latinos, 190, 197199
penal harm movement, 189
preexisting hardships vs. incarceration impacts, 196
family model, 674
family systems, incarceration on, 192, 194195
family violence crimes, by female prisoners, 165
Farmer v. Brennan, 291, 556
Farrington, David P., 533
Faulkner, Paula L., 132
Faulkner, William R., 132
Fazel, Seena, 554
fear
of crime, in mass incarceration, 109 (see also “tough on crime”)
escape fears, 367
Federal Sentencing Reform Act of 1987, 700
Feeley, Malcolm, 694, 697
Feinburg, Joel, 289290
Feld, Barry C., 606, 612
Fellner, Jamie, 583, 588
felony conviction
California, three strikes, 645n9
firearm possession, 645n8
Felson, Marcus, 307308
Felson, Richard B., 295, 585
females. see women
firearm, felony possession, 645n8
Fishbein, Diana, 441
Fisher-Giorlando, Marianne, 293
Fishman, Joseph, 148
Flanagan, Timothy J., 456457
Fleisher, Vincent J., 146, 147t
Fligstein, Neil, 258259
Florence, Colorado Federal penitentiary, 374, 378, 390n13
Flynn, Patrick M., 532
Fornango, Robert, 510
Forst, Martin, 610
Foucault, Michel, 530
Franke, Derrick, 682683
Frankland prison, 221t, 223
Psychologically Informed Planned Environment, 221t, 224
Franklin, Cortney A., 343
Franklin, Travis C., 343
French, Sheila, 436, 437, 534
Friedman, Nancy, 354
Friestad, Christine, 171172
Fritsch, Eric J., 608
from “tough on crime” to Right on Crime, 20
Frost, Natasha A., 118
Frueh, Christopher, 439
Gaes, Gerald G., 150, 462, 463, 466, 657, 662
Galbiati, Roberto, 411, 638, 640
Gallagher, Catherine A., 682
Galyean, Kevan, 441
(p. 722) gangs, prison, 143158, 527
administrative segregation, 150151
assessment and classification for, 409
Brazil, 137138
correctional officer training on, 151
definition, 145
global South, 137
jacketing, 151
prevalence, state and federal prisons, 143
prison activity, 146149
emergence and growth, 146148
explanation, emergence and violence, 148149
prison gang members on, 153157
impact on leaving gang, 156157
prison to street, 153154
race role/salience, 155156
technology, 155
from prison to street, 152154
on programs, 144
recidivism, 143, 152153
responding to, 150151
street vs. prison, 145146, 147t
supermax prisons, 94, 130
on violence in prisons, 143
violent offenders, 143
warehouse prisons, 132133
white hate groups, 158
on workplace safety, 143144
gangs, street, 145146, 147t
Garland, David, 13, 84
Gates v.Collier, 58
Gear, Sacha, 138
GED education programs, 681682
gender. see also males; women
crimes and, cross-national imprisonment, 80
inmate population, 30, 36
Gendreau, Paul, 340357, 385, 405, 410, 429430, 434, 436440, 458, 532, 533, 534, 535, 589, 679
general model of harm, 302312
assumptions, 302304
market for harm, 304312, 304f
demand and supply curves, 313n10–11
demand to harm, 305307
predicting and preventing, 309312, 310t311t
supply of victims, 307308
rational choice theory, 302
routine activities theory, 302
violence–victimization interdependence, 304
general strain theory, on inmate misconduct, 245246
Geo Group, Inc. (GEO), 654, 655, 657, 664
Taft Correctional Institution (California), 651, 657, 659, 661
“get tough” policies. see also “tough on crime”
on expenditures, law enforcement and court, 43
on imprisonment
African Americans, 35
female, 165
rates, 37, 580
risk, 107
juvenile focus, 602
politicians on, 111
to Right on Crime, 20
on sentencing
formal rationality and, 693694
practices, 84
Ghana, prison subculture, 136137
Gideon v. Wainwright, 324
Gilbert, Karen E., 428
Gillieron, Gwladys, 528
Gilligan, James, 303
Gladstone Report, 215, 226–227n5
Glass, Gene V., 431
Glaze, Lauren, 169, 271, 406
global South, prisons, 136138
Goggin, Claire, 405, 410, 434, 458, 532
Goldstone, Jack A., 257
Good, Glenn, 90
Good Lives Model, 478479, 676677
self-management and safety planning, 483484
sex offender treatment, 478479
Goodstein, Lynne, 239
good-time credits, 675676
Gottschalk, Marie, 20
governance failure, in prison riots, 257258
Graeve, Christine, 258
(p. 723) Graham v. Florida, 602
grandparents, incarceration on, 193, 195196
grand social experiment, mass incarceration as, 105, 117118, 200
Grassian, Stuart, 346, 348, 354, 385
Gravett, Steve, 280
Gray, Virginia, 701
Greener, Jack M., 532
Greenwood, Peter W., 643
Grendon Underwood therapeutic community, 215
Griffin, Marie L., 149, 295, 610
Grogger, Jeffrey, 642
Group Environment Scale, Moos, 486
groups. see also specific types
activities, supermax facilities on, 94
“dangerous,” supermax prisons, 9395
security threat, 145 (see also gangs, prison)
sex offender treatment, 484486
Grubin, Don, 537
Gunter, Tracy D., 171
Guthrie v. Evans, 58
Hagan, John, 54
Hakim, Simon, 656, 658
Haney, Craig, 129, 340, 348, 350, 353354, 385, 388
Hanson, R. Karl, 475, 476, 481
Harding, Richard W., 87, 257
hardships, preexisting, vs. incarceration impacts, 196
Harkrader, Todd, 680
harm, in correctional settings, 288313. see also specific types
aggression, 292
consequences, 300301
definition, 289290
duty of protection, 290, 313n3
epidemiology, 288
general model of harm, 302312 (see also general model of harm)
market for, 304312, 304f
demand and supply curves, 313n10–11
demand to harm, 305307
predicting and preventing, 309312, 310t311t
supply of victims, 307308
microeconomic theory of choice, 302
minimization, assessment and classification for, 410411
rational choice theory, 302
routine activities theory, 302
harmful policies, 691699. see also specific types
administrative controls, 696699
avoiding, 690
common denominators, 690
consequences, 690691
“get tough” sentencing, and formal rationality, 693694
inmate population composition, 695696
punishment/incapacitation focus, 690
risk assessment emphasis, 694695
trends in decreasing inmate populations, 691693
what prisons should do vs. can tolerate, 690
Harris, Andrew J. R., 481
Harrison, Paige M., 300
Hassine, Victor, 131, 132
Haviland, Amelia M., 642
Hawaii’s Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE) program, 541
Hawes-Cooper Act, 652653
Hawkins, Gordon, 11, 632
Hay, Will, 375
Hayes, Lindsay M., 551, 557, 572
health, in prison, 6466
female offenders, 167
mentally ill, 584
Heide, Kathleen M., 608
Helland, Eric, 529, 640, 641, 644
Helson, Harry, 345
Hemmns, Craig, 608
Henning, Kris R., 439
Hepburn, John R., 149, 216, 295
Herberman, Erinn, 271
Hewitt v. Helms, 329
Hey, Will, 139
Hilmer, Frederick M., 88
Hjalmarsson, Randi, 642
hobbism, 262
Hochestler, Andy, 258
Hodgins, Sheilagh, 343
(p. 724) Hoge, Robert D., 397398, 403
Hollin, Clive R., 540
Holt v. Sarver, 58
Holtzman, Anthony, 617
homicide rates, prison, 61, 62f
Hopper, Jeffrey D., 463
Horton, Willie, 505
Hough, Mike, 527, 540
Houser, Kimberly, 169170
Howard, John, 398
Hua, Jiuzhao, 527, 643
Huebner, Beth M., 153
Hughes v. Rowe, 329
Hummer, Don, 534535, 540
Hunt, Geoffrey, 131132
Hutto, Don, 664
Hutto v. Finney, 329
illicit prison economy. see also gangs, prison
definition, 276
drugs, 276
Illinois Juvenile Act of 1899, 604
1907 amendments, 604
immigration, criminal justice and, 199200
importation
in deprivation, institution, importation framework, 139, 148
prison gangs, 148
on treatment programs, in-prison, 534
importation theory
coping skills, 342
limitations, 243244
misconduct, inmate, 235, 239240, 294
imprisonment. see also prison
cross-national, 7796 (see also cross-national contexts, imprisonment)
effect, 526530
crime-preventive function, 526527
deterrable states of mind, 530
gang and criminal network connections, 527
incapacitation models of crime rates, 527
pains of imprisonment, 529
reconviction and recidivism, 527528
three-strikes legislation, 529
ineffectiveness, 435
prevalence, world, 80, 426
purpose, 426
risk, 107
imprisonment boom, late 20th century, 322
crime
as fluid and constructionist, 4
forms, 4
growth periods, 146147
how and why, 1215
conventional crime narrative, 12
decentralized political structure, 13
locales and their histories, 115
policy adaptation, 13
racial subjugation, 13, 14
sentencing and prosecutors’ role, 1415, 19, 700
sentencing severity narrative, 1314
imprisonment rates, 512
Canada (1992-2010), 78, 8f
collateral consequences, 189, 190194 (see also families and communities, incarceration on)
countries with five largest prison populations (1991-2011), 78, 7f
vs. crime rates
cross-national, 77, 79
research, 108
cross-national
comparisons, 7980, 81t, 82t
efficacy, 7980
policies, 77
in prison vs. jail, data issues, 197
subcultural adaptations (see subculture adaptations, to incarceration)
UK (1992-2010), 78, 8f
U.S.
1910-2011, 54–55, 55f
1925-1973, 5–7, 6f
1930-1970, 3
1973-2013, 6, 6f
1992-2010, 7–8, 8f
American exceptionalism, 627
California, stabilization, 1617
vs. Canada and UK (1992-2010), 78, 8f
drug filings, felony, 4, 910, 10f, 22nn8–9
drug law violations (1980-2013), 910, 10f (p. 725)
global notoriety, 4, 78, 7f, 8f
racial disparities, 4, 89, 13, 14, 21–22n7
regional and jurisdictional variation, 4, 7, 1011, 22nn11–15
state level declines, 1516
vs. world, 692
incapacitation, 524
concept, 627
on crime, 527, 627628
vs. deterrence and criminogenesis, 627628
focus, as harmful, 690
public policy, 628
treatment programs, 524525
inmate balance theory, 235, 241, 242
inmate code, 127128, 132
inmate-on-inmate violence
assessment and classification on, 409
inmate population on, 704
supermax prisons on, 353
inmate population, 2947
bed space forecasting, 29, 30, 31, 34, 39, 40, 41, 4647
classification of, 60
critical issues, 691693
decreasing, trends in, 691693
factors, 29, 4147
community well-being vs. rehabilitation focus, 45
crime, 42
drug wars and drug offenders, 29, 4546
importance and uses, 4142
juvenile prosecution as adults, 46
police and courts roles, 4243
structured decision-making shift, 4344
summary observations, 4647
gender, 30
previous incarceration or probation, 30
prisoner reentry, 30, 41
prison management, 30, 4041
time served, 30, 3334
U.S. vs. world, 692
violent offenders, 2930
inmate population, composition, 3139
changing, 695696
demographics, 29, 3436
age, 30, 3435
gender, 36
race and ethnicity, 30, 3536
drug abuse and mental health, 30, 3738
legal factors, 29, 3133
offense and offender types, 3132
prior record, 3233
size, 704705
social demographics, 29, 3638
education, 30, 3637
employment, 37
time served, 3334
inmate rights movement, 238239, 240, 703
inmate sovereignty, in prison riots, 261262
Inner-Change program, 679
In Re Gault 1967, 605
institutional climate, 208227. see also correctional officers and institutional climate
interdiction approaches, to drugs in prison, 278281
bulk detection, 280
canine detection units, 278279
effectiveness, 282283
mandatory drug testing, 275, 280281
overall strategy, Blakey’s, 278
trace detection technology, 279280
internal governance units (IGUs), 255, 258259
interpersonal harm, 290
intervention principles, effective, 425443. see also treatment programs, correctional
application, 434438
custody as treatment, failure, 435
misconducts and RNR, 437438
misconducts as recidivism proxy, 436437
therapeutic integrity on outcome, 430, 434435
treatment in custody, 435
Canadian School, 429430
cognitive behavioral therapy, 429, 433435, 438, 441
Correctional Program Assessment Inventory-2010®, 437, 439, 442
correctional treatment, defined, 425
cost-effective, 440
effective correctional programs (p. 726)
need, 425, 433434
intervention principles, effective (cont.)
responsivity, 425, 434
risk, 425, 433
knowledge construction, dissemination, and fidelity, 443
Martinson review and “nothing works,” 427428
meta-analysis, 430433
next steps
risk assessment, case management, and outcome evaluation integration, 426, 441442
technology, 426, 442443
treatment engagement and retention, 425, 440441
Ohio, halfway houses and community-based correctional centers, 439
prison as context, 426427
rebirth, mid-1970s to mid-1980s, 429430
rehabilitation’s “clay feet,” 427428
Rideau and Correctional Treatment Centre, 438
structured interventions, 425
treatment constituents, empirical validation, 438440
Vermont program, 439
In the Public Interest examination (ITPI), 656
ion-mobility spectrometry (IMS), 279280
ion scanner, 279280
Irwin, John, 55, 56, 127, 131, 138, 239240, 371, 694
IS PATH WARM, 565
Iyengar, Radha, 640
jacketing, 151
Jackson, C. Wesley Jr., 345
Jackson, Michael, 350
Jacobs, James, 132, 150, 240, 327, 331332, 333, 371, 703
Jaitman, Laura, 640
James, Doris J., 169, 406
Jan, I-Fang, 617
Jefferson, Andrew M., 136
Jenkins Correctional Center, 656
Jiang, Shanhe, 293
Jim Crow, new. see African Americans
Johnson, Byron R., 678, 679
Johnson, Candace, 330
Johnson, David T., 642
Johnson, Kristin, 613
Johnson, L. Clark, 638
Johnson, Norman, 370
Johnson v. Avery, 57t
Johnston, Norman, 370
Jones v. North Carolina Prisoners’ Union, 58
Jonson, Cheryl L., 411, 528, 637
judicial intervention, on prison environment, 5659, 57t
jurisdiction policy focus, 669
justice
immigration and, 199200
reinvestment, 540541
juvenile court and imprisonment, 606608
containment, 226n1
prevalence, 606
reverse waiver, 618n3
juvenile incarceration with adults, 601618
Campaign for Youth Justice, 606, 607, 617
case decisions
Graham v. Florida, 602
Miller v. Alabama, 602
Roper v. Simmons, 602
effects, known, 608612
harm and help, 610612
mental health and development, 602, 609610
history, 602606
1990s, 601
after 1990s, 601602
Cook County, Illinois, 601
debate, 601
housing, 614616
juvenile court and imprisonment, 606608
Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, 605
Kent v. United States, 618n1
parens patriae, 603, 604605
Prison Rape Elimination Act, 291, 299, 610
recidivism postrelease, 612614
research findings, 602
reverse waiver, 618n3
sexual assault, 610
state variations, 602
on time served, 602
“youthful offender” facilities, 602
(p. 727) Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, 605
juvenile prosecution as adults, on inmate population, 46
juveniles
due process revolution (1960s-1970s), 605
prosecutorial waiver, 606607
transfer to adult criminal justice system, 604, 606607
Kadela, Karen R., 463
Karacki, Larry, 370, 373, 376, 386
Kassebaum, Gene, 430
Katz, Lawrence, 638
Kelly, E. Lowell, 345
Kent v. United States, 605, 618n1
Kessler, Daniel, 641, 645n11
Killias, Martin, 528
Kimball, Peter, 73n3, 241242
King, Michelle, 678679
King, Roy D., 137138, 372, 374, 376, 384
Kleck, Gary, 632633
Klein, Malcolm, 145
Knowles, Gordon, 301
Knox, George W., 151
Kovandzic, Tomislav V., 528, 642
Kric, Ray, 662
Krienert, Jessie L., 467
Kuhns, Joseph B., 535
Kunstler, William, 263264
Kupchik, Aaron, 611
Kupers, Terry, 346
Kurki, Leena, 56, 383
labor force, incarceration on, 191
labor market perspective, mass incarceration, 113
Labreque, Ryan M., 589
La Eme, 146
Lake Erie Correctional facility (Ohio), 665n2
CCA purchase and operation, 655656
riot, 659660
Lamar v. Coffield, 325
Land, Kenneth C., 642
Landenberger, Nana A., 530
Lane, Jodi, 611
Langley v. Coughlin, 556
Lanza-Kaduce, Lonn, 613
Lapidus, Lenora, 116
Larson, David B., 678, 679
Latessa, Edward J., 437, 439, 442, 443, 533534, 672
Latinos
economics and labor force ties, 198
immigration and justice nexus, 199200
incarceration on, 190, 197199
incarceration prevalence, 197
kin networks, 198
male incarceration rates, 198
suicides, in prison, 552
Lattimore, Pamela K., 505, 519, 520
Law, Moira A., 405
law and order movement, 14, 19, 22n16
law changes, 5
Lawrence, Sarah, 456, 457
Lee, David S., 636
Lee v. Washington, 57t
legitimacy
audiences for, 388
dangerous prisoner management, British vs. American, 367
perceived, differences in, 698
policy and program innovations, 669, 682684
prison order, 243
on treatment programs, in-prison, 535
legitimate subculture, 240
Lehman, Wayne E. K., 532
Le Marcis, Frédéric, 136
Leschied, Alan W., 533
level of command, 262
Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (LS/CMI), 441442
Level of Service (LS) instruments, 404405, 441442
Central Eight risk/need factors, 411412, 412t
Level of Service Inventory - Revised (LSI-R), 72n2, 404405
Level of Service/Risk, Need, Responsivity (LS/RNR), 404405
Levi, Margaret, 683
Levinson, Robert B., 403, 415
(p. 728) Levitt, Steven D., 527, 635, 636, 638, 641, 645n11
Lichtenberger, Eric, 467
Lichtenstein, Alex, 115
Liebling, Alison, 135, 208, 210213, 217, 380381, 684
Liedka, Raymond V., 636
life-course perspective, on misconduct, 248
Lindegaard, Marie R., 138
Linhorst, Donald M., 533
Lipsey, Mark W., 432, 435, 530
Lipton, Douglas, 427, 537
Listwan, Shelley J., 535
Little, Tracy, 434, 458
Lloyd, Charles, 527, 540
location of command, 262
Lockwood, Daniel, 301
Lofstrom, Magnus, 17, 529, 636
Loftin, Colin, 639, 645n7
Lösel, Friedrich, 432, 537
Lovell, Davide, 638
Lovins, Lori B., 439
Lowenkamp, Christopher T., 439, 442, 533534
LuBuglio, Stefan F., 511
Lucken, Karol, 54
Ludwig, Jens, 639
Lyman, Michael D., 145
Lynch, Mona, 11, 15, 385, 388
MacArthur Violence Risk Study, 581
Machin, Stephen, 640
MacKenzie, Doris L., 463, 508, 682
Madrid Compliance Unit, 386
Madrid v. Gomez, 375
Maguire, Kathleen E., 456457
Maguire, Mike, 537
Mair, George, 527, 540
Makarios, Matthew, 437, 439
males
crimes, cross-national imprisonment, 80
marriageability, incarceration on, 191
victimization, of female prisoners, 168
management, prison
administrative control theory, 235, 241, 243
collaborative management philosophy, 59
consensual model, 241
control model, 241
inmate balance theory, 235
inmate population on, 30, 4041
limitations, 243244
of misconduct, inmate, 235, 241243
responsibility model, 241
in women’s prisons, 172175
Management of Challenging Behaviour Strategy (MCBS), 381
managerial approach, cross-national private prisons, 88
managerialism, cross-national, 78, 8485
mandatory drug testing, 275, 280281
mandatory minimum sentencing
cross-national comparisons, 83
in mass incarceration, 116
on time served, 3334
War on Drugs, 116
Mann, Ruth E., 540
Mapp v. Ohio, 324
marginal population control, mass incarceration, 105, 112113
Marholin, David, 430
marijuana, state decriminalization, 20
Marion, Illinois Federal penitentiary, 369371. see also supermax prisons
Marion Control Unit (1980s), 372, 374, 376, 389, 390n6
mental health consequences, 384
Marquart, James W., 239
marriageability, male, incarceration on, 191
Marshall, William L., 481, 482, 484, 485
Martin, John Levi, 18
Martin, Tomas M., 136
Martinson, Robert, 70, 427429, 432, 508, 519
Marvell, Thomas B., 527, 528, 635, 699
masculine strength of correctional officers, idealized, 211
mass incarceration. see also imprisonment rates
beginnings, 4
collateral consequences, 106
confinement conditions, 5373 (see also confinement conditions, mass incarceration and)
decline
crime rates, 105106
economics, 106
definition, 7
labor market perspective, 113
law and order movement, 14, 19, 22n16
mandatory minimum sentencing, 116
policies, 104
prevalence, 104
psychological impact, 21n6
punishment imperative, 117
racial subjugation, 13, 14
regional and jurisdictional variation, 4, 7, 1011, 22nn11–15
theories, 104119
control of marginal populations, 105, 112113
on era of mass incarceration, 105106
grand social experiment, 105, 117118, 200
public opinion, politics, and, 105, 109112
racial disparities and New Jim Crow, 105, 114116
rational response to increasing crime, 105, 106108
value, impact, and wisdom of, debate, 189
War on Drugs, 4, 22n16 (see also drug offenses; War on Drugs)
zenith, 67, 6f
Matsuda, Kristy Nana, 613
Mauer, Marc, 115
maximum security prisons. see supermax prisons
Maxson, Cheryl L., 145, 146
McAdam, Doug, 258259
McCleary, Richard, 244
McCorkle, Richard, 295, 301
McCrary, Justin, 629, 636
McDowell, David, 639, 645n7
McKay, H. Bryan, 428
McShane, Marilyn D., 609610
McSweeney, Tim, 283
McWhinnie, Andrew J., 492
Meachum v. Fano, 329
Mears, Daniel, 335, 383, 638, 689
Measuring the Quality of Prison Life (MQPL), 219220, 221t, 227nn7–9
media, role in mass incarceration, 111
medical care
correctional, of mentally ill, 588
in prison, 6466
medical conditions, inmate
active, 73n7
persistent, 73n6
Meese, Edwin, 265
Megargee, Edwin I., 402
mental health, in prison, 6669, 73nn8–9
female offenders, with substance abuse and victimization, 167
inmate population, 30, 3738
juvenile incarceration with adults on, 602, 609610
screening, 591
substance abuse and, 30, 3738, 593
mental health professionals, qualified (QMHP), 585588
Estelle v. Gamble, 587588
for mentally disordered offenders, 63, 354
in prisons, 72
in Secure Treatment Units, 68
suicide
observation, 567569
prevention, 562563
risk screening, 564
mental illness–substance abuse co-occurrence, 30, 3738, 593
in female offenders, 167170
violence and, 581582
mentally ill inmates, 579595
administrative segregation on, 354355, 385, 589590
classification, 406407
criminal behavior, 580581