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date: 18 November 2017

(p. 563) Index

(p. 563) Index

ability-to-pay principle (APP), in mitigation, 469, 475
abrupt change, 467
accidents, 114, 116, 392. See also essence-accident ethics
acidification, of oceans, 2, 465, 469–70, 474, 484n7
acid rain, 267–68, 279, 369, 370
adaptation, 465. See also climate adaptation
CBA and, 466–67
climate change and, 108–9, 466
humanist view of, 63
incremental, 477
IPCC definition of, 484n8
justice in, 7
low-income countries and, 7, 467–69
of nature, by humans, 63–65
transformational, 477, 478
adaptive management, 452–53
Ad-hoc Working Group, on Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, 492, 498n10
Adorno, Theodor, 293, 439
aesthetic experience, 5, 187, 193–94, 194n3
aesthetic judgments, 187, 192
noncognitivism, 188–89, 194n2
scientific cognitivism and, 188
aesthetic sensibility, of Sandler, 191
aesthetic theory, of Kant, 188, 189, 190
aesthetic values, 5, 186–87, 194
appreciation, 188
environmental ethics and, 192–93
integrated, 189
natural beauty, 191
of natural world, 15, 404
pluralism and, 188–92
ugliness, 191–92
agent-centered deontology, 216–20
agents versus victims, in sacrifice, 548–49
aggregationism, 212–13
agrarianism, 410
The Agrarian Vision (Thompson), 442
agriculture, 6, 409–13
animals suffering in production of, 93, 99n4
public interest in, 404–5
stories on, 406–8
air pollution, 51, 369, 494
human health harms from, 27
WHO on, 391
Alley, Richard, 65
altruistic behavior, of animals, 120–21
American Wind Energy Association, 395
Animal Liberation (Singer), 15, 201
animals, 80. See also conscious animals; non-human entities
altruistic behavior, 120–21
existence struggles, 118
as experiment subjects, 31, 115
Leopold on, 119
medical research, 228, 372
moral status of, 23n6
rational, 114
rights of, 16, 115, 201, 215, 227–28
utilitarianism liberation of, 115
welfare, 16, 227–29
animal suffering, 92, 95–96, 99n2
in agriculture production, 93, 99n4
biocentric egalitarianism on, 103
climate change and, 108
animism, 257n1, 257n2
Annex 1 parties, of Kyoto Protocol, 489–90
Anscombe, G. E. M., 200–201
Anthropic climate, 68–69
Anthropocene Epoch, 4, 128
attitudes toward, 62–63
Bendik-Keymer and, 63
biosphere and technosphere, 64–65
ethics and respect for nature, 69–71
future of, 71, 85–87
(p. 564)
geoengineering, 66–67
Leopold and, 63
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 63–64
perspective on, 1–2
planetary management, 65–66
sustainability focus, 62
Thompson and, 63
anthropocentric instrumental value, 82
anthropocentric intrinsic value, 81–83
anthropocentric theories, 15, 22n2
weak intrinsic value, 20, 79, 82, 83, 87n4, 87n6, 88n8, 88n11
anthropocentrism, 3, 4, 15, 77–88, 199, 519. See also ethical anthropocentrism
conceptual, 78, 79, 82, 86
in environmental law, 55
EVE and, 226–27
forms of, 81–83
hermeneutics and, 166–67
human-centered, 77–79, 84, 143
of human rights, 301
moral ontology, 114
moral status and, 277
Norton and, 20, 88n8, 523
ontological, 78–79
policy perspectives, 19–20
pragmatism and, 19–20
strong, 79, 87n6
of sustainability science, 532
Varner and, 523
anthropogenic climate change, 54
biocentric ethics and, 106–10
from GHGs and carbon dioxide, 474
moral responsibility in, 107
Nolt on, 107
anthropogenic mass extinction, 6
anthroponomy, 433–34
anti-consequentialism, 212–15
antirealism, 141, 148n7
applied philosophy of science, 439, 443–44
appreciative virtues, 188–91
appropriation, 164–66
Aristotelian, 49, 86, 219, 291
Aristotle, 232n1
on character traits, 228
on rationality, 114, 160n8
on responsibility, 266, 399
assessment. See also risk assessment
EPA on science evidence, 29, 36n5
of ethical anthropocentrism alternatives, 83–85
tools, in science, 29
Assessment Report, of IPCC, 477
Attfield, Robin, 86, 87
deontological ethics, 105
on flourishing, 105, 106
inegalitarianism of, 201
autodestruction
cultural value, 431
environmental justice, 431
mass extinction and, 430–31
moral corruption of techno-optimism, 431
Bachelard, Gaston, 174, 175
back-to-the-land movement, 252
Bacon, Francis, 438, 439
Bali Action Plan, 490
banality of evil, 432–33
Barndt, Deborah, 297
Bayesian response, to utility theory, 322, 323
Bayes’ Theorem, 28, 33, 36n1, 36n2
deBeauvoir, Simone, 174, 294
being-in-the-world, of Heiddeger, 174, 176, 181
Bendik-Keymer, Jeremy, 63, 67, 69
beneficiary-pays principle (BPP), in mitigation, 469, 475
Bentham, Jeremy, 80
nonanthropocentric ethic precedent, 115
as utilitarian founder, 115, 201
Berliner, Michael, 542, 544
best available technology (BAT), for pollution elimination, 375
Betz, G.
on contextual values, 34, 36n6
on inductive risk, 34
“Beyond Intrinsic Value: Pragmatism in Environmental Ethics” (Weston), 19
biocentric consequentialism, 5, 202
on animal suffering and climate change, 108
on basic needs, 105
(p. 565)
climate change and, 107–9, 305
on flourishing reduction from climate change, 108
states of affairs valued by, 105
wildness and, 108
biocentric egalitarianism, 4, 81, 102
on animal suffering, 103
on organisms complexity, 108
biocentric ethics, 106–10
biocentric individualists
on moral status of all living things, 16, 80, 84
Schweitzer as, 201
Sterba as, 102, 104
Taylor as, 16–17, 102, 106, 201
biocentric inegalitarianism, 102
moral significance of organisms, 103
organism complexity in, 108
value pluralism of, 103–4
biocentrism, 3, 101, 107–10, 254. See also deontological biocentrism
egalitarian, 4, 81, 102–3, 108
ethical theory and, 104–6
holistic form of, 81
inegalitarian, 4, 201
kinship ethics, 253
life and other values, 103–4
monistic, 4
moral value in all living things, 16, 80, 84
Norton and Varner on, 523
pluralistic, 4, 81
sentiocentrism objections to, 82
value of living individuals, 101–2
virtue, 104–5
biochemical nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, 2
biodiversity
intrinsic value of, 69–70
in low-income countries, 383
Worldwide Fund for Nature on, 383–84
biodiversity markets, 4, 46–47
biodiversity offsets, 2, 69, 133, 350
habitat corridors for, 27
markets for, 4, 46–47
biological tradition, of ethical theory, 120, 121
biophilia hypothesis, 252
biosphere
in Anthropocene Epoch, 64–65
degradation of, 128
Ecological Society of America focus, 64
ethical concern about climate change, 113
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences focus, 64
biotic communities, 1, 119, 122
Birnie, P., 51, 52, 55
Blackstone, William T., 14
body self-sensing, Husserl on, 181–82
Boldt Decision, 237
Bookchin, Murray, 440, 441
bottom-up climate architecture, 491–95
Boyle, A., 51, 52, 55
Braungart, Michael, 543
BTM Consultants, on wind energy, 395
burden of proof, in pollution risk assessment, 375
Burke, Edmund, 338, 362, 364
Byrd-Hagel Resolution, 490, 495
Callicott, J. Baird, 17–18, 81, 86, 207n5
ecocentrism, 83, 202
on ecological illiteracy, 412
non-anthropocentric intrinsic value theory, 82
on values as human valuing product, 88n10, 148n9
CAMPFIRE program, in Zimbabwe, 523–24, 527n16
Cancún Adaptation Framework, 484n9
Cancún Agreement, 492, 495, 498n12, 498n15
Caney, S., 304, 306–7
cap and trade schemes, 41, 44, 46
carbon, 392, 395, 396, 397, 400
offsets, in emissions trading, 45
carbon dioxide emissions, 7, 472
CBDR on, 489
climate change from, 466, 469–70, 489
cumulative carbon metric for, 471
IPCC on ocean as sink for, 465–66
ocean acidification from, 2, 465, 469–70, 474, 484n7
UNFCCC pledges to reduce, 493
carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies, 476
(p. 566) carcinogenicity
EPA risk assessment, 29, 36n5
scientific models on, 31
caring, 234
feminist care ethics and, 241–43
in indigenous environmental ethics, 5, 236–38
Leopold and Naess on, 235
meaningful relationships, 157–59
Carroll, Ronald, 189, 451
Carson, Rachel, 13, 223, 292, 371, 440, 536
natural environmental model of, 188
on sacred in nature, 252
Cartagena Dialogue, 494
Carter, Alan, 204, 207n7
The Case for Animal Rights (Regan), 16
causal responsibility, 266, 270
Character and Environment (Sandler), 205
character ethics, 232
flourishing and, 226–27
virtue ethics compared to, 223
character traits, Aristotle on, 228
China
climate change global action, 495, 496
emission reductions agreement, 490
Chipko Andolan movement, 234, 235, 243
Christian theology
anthropocentrism and, 77, 78
human being’s moral significance, 77
on male domination, 13, 21
circumstances of justice, 385
circumstances of moderate scarcity, 282–83
citizenship
green republicanism on, 6, 334–38, 341
resistance activism, 338, 340–41
sustainable economic, 338–40
civic sustainability service, 336–38
civil disobedience, 238
Clean Air Act, of 1956, in Britain, 51, 391
Clean Development Mechanism, 490
Clean Energy Ministerial, 494
clean power sources, 7
clientelism
democracy corruption from, 335
economic security and, 335
International Labor Organization on, 335
liberal democracy feature of dependent, 334–35
market-based solutions to unsustainability, 336
climate adaptation, 108–9, 466
APP, BPP, and CPP in, 475
CDR technologies and, 476
cultural identity in, 479–84
injustice and, 479–80, 483
material interests and, 478–79, 480
re-imagining, 480–83
resilience increase by, 477, 478
responses to, 476–79
Thompson on, 483n2
UNFCCC on, 474–75
vulnerability, 477
Climate and Clean Air Coalition on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants, 494
climate change, 2
abrupt change in, 467
adaptation and, 108–9, 466
anthropogenic, 54, 68–69, 106–10, 474
biocentric consequentialism and, 107–9, 305
biocentric perspectives on, 106–7
biosphere and, 113
carbon dioxide as factor in, 466, 469–70, 489
as collective action problem, 269
deontological biocentrism and, 109–10, 305
emissions reduction for, 476, 483
environmental harms from, 265, 269–72, 304
environmental law and, 55–56, 58, 59
ethical concern about, 113
flourishing and, 107, 108
fossil fuels and, 392
Gardiner on, 269, 383
global, 7, 20, 68, 113, 122, 495, 496, 498n13
global policy concern of, 308
human impact on, 128
human rights-based approach to, 304–5
Jamieson on responsibility for, 272, 273
(p. 567)
justice and, 27
market knowledge and, 47–48
mitigation for, 465, 474–75, 492, 510
population reduction from, 350
Preamble to the Paris Agreement, 293
rectification for, 476, 477, 483
sink enhancement for, 465–66, 476, 483
SRM for, 476, 483, 484n7
sustainable development and, 468–69
US-China Joint Presidential Statement on, 496
climate diplomacy, 7, 497–98
Cartagena Dialogue, 494
Clean Energy Ministerial, 494
Climate and Clean Air Coalition on Short-Lived Climate Pollutants, 494
climate-related initiatives, 494–96
individual agreements on, 494
beyond Kyoto Protocol, 491–94
Major Economies Forum, 494
UN climate negotiations, 487–91
climate emergency, 508
climate engineering, 7, 510
climate governance, 508
climate justice, 475, 506, 508
climate negotiations, bottom-up architecture for, 491–95
climate scientific models, 31
coal, 391, 392, 395, 396
cognitivism
in metaethics, 140, 143, 145, 148n8
scientific, 5, 188, 189
collaboration, 453
collective action problems, 14, 268
climate change as, 269
collectives formed for, 271
collective harms, 5–6, 271–72
collective responsibility, 274n1
collective rights, human rights and, 304–5
collectives. See ecological collectives
collectivist system, 53–54
command-and-control legal mechanisms, 4, 52–54, 56, 58, 451, 453
command of ecological space, 6, 315–17, 318n9, 319n6
common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR), 488–89
distributive justice in, 493–94
Kyoto Protocol and, 490
A Common Faith (Dewey), 536–37
common-goods approach to water, 416, 422, 423n8
common-pool resources, 357–59
communal goods, 365n11, 365n12
communitarianism, of sustainability, 6, 348
community harm and, 363
intergenerational ethics and, 362
communities
caring relations within, 5
environmental conflict and, 517
harm, 362–63
justice, 280–81
Leopold on motivational repertoire and, 155
participation in adaptive management, 453
complexity theory, 322, 324
computation science models, 31
conceptual anthropocentrism, 78, 79, 82, 86
Conference on Environment and Development, UN. See Rio Earth Summit
Conference on the Human Environment, UN, 305
Conferences of the Parties (COPs), of UNFCCC, 488, 492, 493, 496
conflict, environmental, 526–27
community and, 517
conflicting priorities and values, 128, 518–20, 525
ecology as economics, 522–24
ethics and, 521–22
habitable principles, 517
ideals and compromise, 520–21
interests in, 521
markets and, 522–24, 526n7
natural enemies, 524–25
preservationism, 522–23, 526n8
conflict resolution, justice relationship with, 7, 517, 521–22, 526n13
conscious animals
characteristics of, 96–98
interests of, 91–93, 96–97, 99n2
objective list of, 95
predation problem, 1, 93–95
(p. 568)
respect of other animals, 98–99
subjective theories of well-being, 95–96
beyond suffering, 95–96
unnecessary suffering, 92–93, 99n2
consciousness
historically affected, 163–64
political, 7, 553–54, 558–59
sentience and, 84
consensus, hard won, 30, 36n8
consensus, in science, 30
consequentialism, 207–8. See also biocentric consequentialism; non-consequentialism
aggregationism and, 212–13
Anscombe on, 200–201
anthropocentric view of value, 199
anti-, 212–15
consequences of, 212–15
demandingness objections, 214
ecocentric, 5, 202
Elliot on, 203, 207n4
holism, 199
human action’s disruption of natural system, 203
multidimensional, 204
on non-human entities intrinsic value, 199, 204–6
objections to, 211
rule-, 205
sentient, 201, 202
system, 202–4, 206
utilitarian, 5, 199
welfarism and, 212
consequentialist ethical theory, 4, 5
conservation, 125, 128, 518–19
biology, 531, 533
economically based, 458
as human expression of values, 69–70
large-unit/deep branching, 434
Norton on, 526n8
Pinchot on benefit of, 200
conservative non-anthropocentric moral ontology, 114–16
conservers society, in Parfit’s Paradox, 361
constitutive goods, for flourishing, 156
constructionist approach, to religion, 249
contestatory politics, 340–41
contextualist view, on moral status of nature, 168
contextual values, in science, 32–35, 36n6, 36n7
contractarians, on intergenerational ethics, 348
contrast value, for wild, 130
contributor-pays principle (CPP), in mitigation, 469, 475
contributory responsibility, 266–67, 272–73, 274n1
convergence hypothesis, 20, 533
cooperatives
Gardiner on, 364n6
worker, 339–40
Copenhagen Accord, 488, 492, 495, 498n12
corporate capitalism, 555–56
cost-benefit analysis (CBA), 6, 215, 307
adaptation and, 466–67
in environmental policy formation, 4
incommensurability and, 330n4
natural world and, 21
on pollution, 375
PP and, 376
RCPP objections compared to, 326–27
for risk assessment, 321–24
of shadow prices, 41
water and, 423n6
Cradle to Cradle (McDonough and Braungart), 543
cradle-to-cradle industrial design, for pollution, 372, 377
Cranor, Carl, 375, 444
The Crisis of European Sciences (Husserl), 177
critical environmental hermeneutics, of van Buren, 169
critical pluralism, 189–91, 193
critical theory of technology, 439–41
cross-habitat diversity, 360
Crow members, cultural identity of, 481
Crutzen, Paul, 68, 510
cultural identity, 7, 484n15
in climate adaptation, 479–84
of Crow members, 481
of Inuit people, 479–81
(p. 569) cultural value, autodestruction and, 431
cumulative carbon, for carbon dioxide metric, 471
Curse of Cain, 115
Dancy, Jonathan, 155–56, 158
dark green religion, 254–56
Darwin, Charles, 250, 253
ethics evolution, 117–19
on group selection in environmental theory, 120
death of environmentalism thesis, 535
The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scientific Revolution (Merchant), 295
d’Eaubonne, Françoise, 20
debt-based consumer capitalism, 334
decision making
Bayesian response, 322, 323
CBA in, 321–24
ecological ethos facilitation of, 58
ex ante, 321, 325
risk in, 321
uncertainty in, 29, 321–25, 327
unknown unknowns and, 330n1
utility theory, 322, 323
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, UN, 237
deep ecology, 3, 23n4, 23n6
holism, 18–19
intrinsic value to all living things, 19
Naess on, 217, 371
Deep Ecology movement, 18, 106
deep uncertainty, 29
deforestation, 296, 466, 476
demandingness objections, of consequentialism, 214
democracy, 6, 335
for change, 7, 547, 555–56
technology and environment, 444–46
deontological biocentrism
climate change and, 109–10, 305
Deep Ecology movement and, 18, 106
human duties toward rights of living things focus, 106
moral relevance of climate change, 109
deontological ethical theory, 4, 5
sentiocentrism and, 80
Taylor and, 16, 105, 106
deontology, 204
agent-centered, 216–20
non-consequentialism and, 215–17
patient-centered, 216–17
ratiocentric, 224–26
Department of Energy (DOE), US, 395, 396
dependent clientelism, 334–35
depleters society, in Parfit’s Paradox, 361
desires, reasons and, 152
developing world narrative, 411
Dewey, John, 529, 534, 536–37
Dialectic of Sex (Firestone), 290
Difference Principle, of Rawls, 506–7
dirty energy, 393
intention excuse for, 399
readiness excuse for, 394–95
Sunstein on, 398
Dirty Virtues: The Emergence of Ecological Virtue Ethics (van Wensveen), 21
disciplinary zoning, 533
discounting, of costs and benefits, 346–47, 364n4
discount rates, 365n6
dissimilar groups criterion, in mass extinction, 428
distantiation, 164–66
distributive justice, 280, 282, 303
in CBDR, 493–94
climate change and, 305
Rawls on, 56–57, 279
water justice and, 419–20
domestic justice, 279
domination, 293
Christian theology on male, 13, 21
geoengineering concerns, 506–7
nature by humans, 62, 63, 65
Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, 492, 498n10
duty not to deprive ecological space, 317
dwelling, poetic, 175, 183–84
earth, 180–81, 253
Earth Day, 439
dark green spirituality after, 254–55
(p. 570) Earth Policy Institute, 533
Earth: The Operator’s Manual (Alley), 65
ecocentric consequentialism, 5, 202
ecocentrism, 80, 254, 318n3
of Callicott, 83, 202
holistic view of, 81
of Rolston, 83
ecofascism, 17–18, 412. See also environmental fascism
ecofeminism, 3, 19–21, 23n6, 252, 289, 295. See also women
ecoholism, 3
ecological collectives, 4, 271
conservative non-anthropocentric moral ontology, 114–16
environmental fascism, 119–20, 202–4
essence-accident ethical theory, 114, 116, 117, 121–23
ethical theory and, 113–14
land ethic, 118–19
new moral ontology, 122–23
non-anthropocentric ethical theory, 116–17
ecological cooperation, 420–22, 423n7
ecological ethos
decision making facilitated by, 58
governance and, 4, 56–59
non-state actors and, 52, 58–59
participatory approach in, 58
rejectionist approach in, 58
state interventionist role, 58–59
ecological footprint, 314, 315, 318n9, 319n12, 383, 385
ecological illiteracy, Callicott on, 412
ecological integrity, 360, 450–51, 454, 455
ecological modernization, 441
ecological niche, 312, 318n6, 318n7
ecological restoration, 20, 23n5, 193, 456–57
Ecological Society of America, 64
ecological space, 279, 318n4
command of, 6, 319n16
descriptive meaning of, 311–14
duty not to deprive, 317
ecological footprint, 314, 315, 318n9, 319n12, 383, 385
ecological niche, 312, 318n6, 318n7
endosomatic use of, 317
environmental harm and, 311, 318n3
ethical implications of, 311, 318n1
exosomatic use of, 317, 318n10
as human rights concern, 316–17, 319n17, 319n18
natural relations, 311, 318n2
normative significance of, 314–16
occupation of, 6, 315, 319n14, 319n15
radical inequalities, 317, 319n20
realized niche of, 312–13, 318n7, 318n11
resources and, 311, 313–14, 316, 319n16
ecological systems thinking, 452
ecology. See also deep ecology
defined, 312
as economics, 522–24
of land, 119
shallow, 18
sustainability defined by, 355
economic growth, 41
environmental and social limits to, 48–49
sustainability defined by, 355
technologically oriented, 336
economic narrative, 411
economic over-exploitation, 357–59, 361–62, 363
economic regulation, of pollution, 374
economics, ecology and, 522–24
economic security, clientelism and, 335
economists, weak sustainability advocated by, 356, 359
The Economy of the Earth (Sagoff), 274n4
ecophenomenology, 174
chiasm, 181–83
earth, 180–81
elements, 180–81
lifeworld, 178, 179–80
poetic dwelling, 175, 183–84
ecosystem health, 455
ecosystem management, 7, 459, 527n15
adaptive management, 452–53
collaboration, 453
conceptual challenges, 454–55
directional change, 455–57
dynamism challenge, 455–57
ecological integrity, 360, 450–51, 454, 455
ecological restoration, 20, 23n5, 193, 456–57
(p. 571)
ecological systems thinking, 452
ecosystem health, 455
ecosystem services, 63–64, 155, 457–58
evolution of, 449–51
key ideas in contemporary, 451–53
resilience, 457–58
stability, 454–55
sustainability, 450–51
ecosystems, 449
environmental change and, 1–2
intrinsic value and, 19, 81
Leopold on value of, 203, 360
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment on, 65–66
properties of, 454
Rolston on systemic value to, 18
sentient beings and, 19
Thompson and Bendik-Keymer on, 67
value of, 203, 360
values as integral parts of, 520–21
ecosystem services, 63–64, 155, 457–58
effective history, 163–64
electricity, 394–98, 400
elements, 180–81
Elliot, Robert, 20
on consequentialism, 203, 207n4
on EVE, 205
on nature’s intrinsic value, 131
Ellis, Erle, 64
Emerson, Ralph Waldo, 250
emissions. See also carbon dioxide; greenhouse gases
reduction for climate change, 476, 483
US per-capita, 497n3
emissions trading, 31
cap and trade schemes, 41, 44, 46
carbon offsets, 45
ethical defensibility arguments, 45
grandfathering, 44
quotas in, 53
rights for, 4
solidarity arguments, 45
empathy, 4, 98–99
emplacement, 170
emplotment, 166, 170
empowerment
human rights and, 307
of women, 292–93, 295
Endangered Species Act, No Surprises regulation in, 526n11
endosomatic use, of ecological space, 317
energy choice, ethical, 391
energy ethics and future, 400–401
environmental ethics issues, 393
expense excuse, 394, 396–97
fossil fuels harms, 6, 392–94
intention excuse, 394, 399–400
intermittency excuse, 394–96
nuclear energy, 392–93
readiness excuse, 394–95
regulations excuse, 394, 398–99
third-order analysis in, 393–94
entangled empathy, 98–99
environment
ecophysical features of, 6
food narratives on, 405–12
history on food, agriculture and, 407
legal rights of natural objects in, 14
liberal conception of, 281–84
as private property, 283
public interest in agriculture and, 404–5
stories on food, agriculture and, 406–8
technology on, 409–10, 444–46
environmental action, 552–60
democracy for change, 7, 555–56
global climate change, 495, 496
legitimacy of, 554–55, 559
environmental aesthetics, 187
environmental commitment, practical reasons, 151–60
environmental degradation
of biosphere, 128
from human arrogance, 143
humans responsibility for, 65–66
impact of, 21
of wildness, 125
environmental discourse, sacrifice in, 541–42
environmental ethics, 229
in landscapes, 66
meaning and, 167
pollution significance to, 371–72
(p. 572) environmental ethics history, 2, 23
Blackstone’s environmental ethics conference, 14
Carson’s Silent Spring impact, 13
ecological feminism, 20–21
EVE, 21–22
Hardin’s “The Tragedy of the Commons” impact, 13–14
holistic theories, 17–19
individualistic theories, 15–17
1970s emergence of, 14–15
pragmatism and anthropocentrism, 19–20
Rolston’s “Is There an Ecological Ethic?,” 14
Routley’s “Is There a Need for a New, an Ecological Ethic?,” 14
Stone’s “Should Trees Have Standing,” 14
White, Jr.’s “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” impact, 13
environmental fascism, 118–20, 202–4
environmental goods
cap and trade schemes, 41, 44, 46
preferences and, 43–44
property rights and, 41, 42
shadow prices over, 40–41, 47
social relations and ethical commitments for, 43, 48
environmental harms. See also responsibility, for environmental harms
acid rain, 267–68, 279, 369, 370
from air pollution to human health, 27
from climate change, 265, 269–72, 304
collective, 5–6, 271–72
communities, 361–63
contributory responsibility, 266–67, 272–73, 274n1, 303
ecological space and, 311, 318n3
from fossil fuels energy, 6, 392–94
human rights and, 6, 303, 307
individual contribution to, 271–72
individual responsibilities and, 266–67
from nuclear power, 6, 392–93
environmental hermeneutics, 172
approaches compared to, 168–70
critical, of van Buren, 169
environmental philosophy and, 166–71
interpretation role, 162–63
meaning and, 167, 169
place and, 167–68
recent contributions to, 170–71
environmental history, 249–54, 538
environmentalism
deontic perspective, 5
Leopold on, 151
pragmatic approach to, 5, 206
spirituality, 5, 248, 254–55
thesis on death of, 535
virtue perspective, 5
Williams on wild nature basis for, 131
“Environmentalism and Human Sacrifice” (Prager), 541–42
environmental justice, 6, 176, 444
autodestruction and, 431
command-and-control legal mechanisms, 4, 52–54, 56, 58, 451, 453
environmental law and, 52, 54
liberalism conception of, 281–84
market-based protection mechanisms, 4, 52, 53
movement, 276, 280, 281
resistance to, 278
environmental law. See also state environmental law
anthropocentrism in, 55
challenges of, 52
climate change and, 55–56, 58, 59
environmental justice and, 52, 54
intergenerational justice, 55
international, 51, 54–55, 302, 307
markets and, 4, 52, 53–54
environmental philosophy, 2–3, 552
environmental hermeneutics and, 166–71
social constructivist view, 169, 255, 257
environmental policy, 6, 62, 349, 445
anthropocentric perspectives on, 19–20
CBA formation of, 4
global justice and, 6
in landscapes, 66
environmental protection, 7, 192–93, 255
human rights link to, 306–7
market-based mechanisms, 4, 52, 53
strong sustainability and, 361
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US, 29, 36n5, 51, 243
environmental rights, 306
(p. 573) environmental virtue ethics (EVE), 21–22, 86, 87, 205
animal rights, 227–28
anthropocentrism and, 226–27
characterization of, 224–26
right action and, 230–31
environment-economy relations, 282
error-statistical account of evidence, 29
essence, moral, 114–16
essence-accident ethics, 114, 116, 117, 121–23
ethical anthropocentrism, 79
alternatives to, 80–81
assessment of alternatives to, 83–85
Christianity and, 77, 78
Hargrove on, 82
Norton on, 82
ethical commitments, environmental goods and, 43, 48
ethical defensibility arguments, 45
ethical nonanthropocentrism, 87n6
biocentrism, 80
ecocentrism, 80
on nature’s intrinsic value, 79, 87n3
Rolston’s view of, 81
sentiocentrism, 80
ethical theory
biocentrism and, 104–6
biological tradition of, 120, 121
consequentialist, 4, 5
ecological collectives and, 113–14
essence-accident, 114, 116, 117, 121–23
moral intuition and, 114
moral philosophy and, 113–14
non-anthropocentric, 116–17
value and normativity in, 223
ethical values, 5, 505
ethics. See also intergenerational ethics; metaethics; nonanthropocentric ethic; virtue ethics; water ethics
alterity, 175
biocentric, 106–10
environmental conflict and, 521–22
eudaimonistic virtue, 227
evolution, 117–21
feminist care, 5, 241–43
intergenerational obligations and, 360–63
intertemporal, 361
of place, 167
of reciprocity, 347–48
on SSI, 505–7
temporal scope of, 352–53
ethos, water, 421–22. See also ecological ethos
eudaimonistic virtue ethics, 227
European Environment Agency, 325
European settlers, 250
evidence, in science, 27, 36n4
assessment tools, 29
Bayes’ Theorem, 28, 33, 36n1, 36n2
defined, 28
EPA assessment of, 29, 36n5
error-statistical account of, 29
IPCC on, 29
ex ante, 321, 325
excellence concept of virtue, 227
exosomatic ecological space, 317, 318n10
expanding circle of moral considerability framework, 4
expense excuse, for energy choice, 394, 396–97
experience, revindication of, 177
Merleau-Ponty on intentional relatedness, 176
natural attitude of, 175, 176
naturalism and, 176
Experience and its Modes (Oakeshott), 552
experientialism, 91, 99n1
externalism, 152, 153–54, 159n5, 160n6
intrinsic value appeal, 156
“Faking Nature” (Elliot), 20
family resemblances approach, to religion, 248
Feenberg, Andrew, 440, 442, 445
feminism. See also ecofeminism
cultural and symbolic associations between nature and, 290, 291
nature and, 289–92
transformative power of, 290
water justice approach, 423n3
Le Feminisme ou la Mort (Feminism or Death) (d’Eaubonne), 20
feminist care ethics, 5, 241–43
(p. 574) Fifth Assessment Report, of IPCC, 483n1
Firestone, Shulamith, 290
First Agricultural (Neolithic) Revolution, 1
First Stewards Symposium: Coastal Peoples Address Climate Change, 238
flesh ontology, of Merleau-Ponty, 175, 182
flexible labor, of women, 297
flourishing, 202. See also human flourishing
Attfield on, 105, 106
character ethics and, 226–27
climate change and, 107, 108
constitutive goods for, 156
of global poor, 430
wild rarity of, 158
food, 6, 404, 413
history on agriculture and environment, 407
narratives on, 405–12
stories on agriculture, environment and, 406–8
technology on, 409–10
food scares, 404–5
Forest Service, US, 200, 450–51, 453
Formula of Humanity, of Kant, 219
fossil fuels energy
climate change and, 392
environmental harms from, 6, 392–94
evidence suppressed on, 373
generated electricity, 400
population reduction from, 351
Sunstein against regulation of, 398
vehicles health risks, 400
Foundations of Environmental Ethics (Hargrove), 15
Frasz, Geoffrey, 21
freedom as nondomination, 337
free-market environmentalists, 398
fusion of horizons, Gadamer on, 164, 171n2
future generation rights. See intergenerational justice
future generations
fossil fuels and, 351
future people, 344–47
intergenerational ethics, 347–48
nonhumans future generations, 351–52
non-identity problem, 109–10, 348–49
population reduction, 350–51
Repugnant Conclusion, 350
temporal scope of ethics, 352–53
future people
economic approaches for, 345
existence of, 344
risks and, 345
spatiotemporal separation of, 345–47, 364n4
utilitarianism responsibilities to, 347
welfare of, 345
G8 parties, UNFCCC and, 488
Gadamer, Hans-Georg, 162, 171n1
on effective history, 164
on fusion of horizons, 164, 171n2
on historically effected consciousness, 164
romantic hermeneutic criticism, 163
Gardiner, Stephen, 430, 553
on climate change, 269, 383
on cooperatives, 364n6
on geoengineering, 7, 20, 501–12, 512n7
on intertemporal relationships, 364n4
on PP, 325–26, 329
on RCPP, 326, 329–30
gender. See women
gender, environmental ethics and, 6, 289, 291–92, 298
global injustice and, 293
naturalizing of, 296
gendered work, 296–97
genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 52, 370, 409
genetic pollution, 369
from GMOs, 52, 370, 409
Geneva Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, 308
geoengineering, 7, 512n4, 543
climate case example, 509–11
climate emergency, 508
climate governance, 508
control and domination concerns, 506–7
Crutzen on, 68
defining features, 502–5, 511n2
ethics, 505–7
Gardiner on, 7, 20, 501–12, 512n7
global climate change, 68
human relationship to nature, 507
(p. 575)
implications, 504–5
intervention, 503–4
Jamieson on, 272–73, 502, 504
justificatory question for, 508
perfect moral storm analysis, 510
policy framings for, 507–9
procedural justice, 507
Rolson on, 65–68
social contexts of, 67
universal benefit claim, 509
welfare, 506
geological carbon capture (GCC), 512n7
global action, for climate change, 495, 496
The Global Climate 2001-2010, A Decade of Extremes, UN report, 68
global climate change, 7, 20, 68, 113, 122, 495, 496, 498n13
global commons, in water justice, 419
global economy, 283
global injustice, 293
global justice, 316, 317, 419, 431
policy formation of, 6
population and, 383, 386–88
global warming potential (GWP), 470–72
goal- or end-directed living individuals, 101, 102
Godlovitch, Rosalind, 15
Goodpaster, Kenneth, 102, 217
governance, 4, 51
ecological ethos and, 4, 56–59
environmental law and state, 52–56, 58
Government Accountability Office (GAO), 396
grandfathering of emissions markets, 44
Great Acceleration, after World War II, 1–2
Great Britain
Clean Air Act, of 1956, 51, 391
Great Smog of 1952, 51
London’s Great Smog, of 1952, 51
Public Health Act of 1848 on industrial emissions, 51
Great Chain of Being, 78
Great Smog of 1952, in Britain, 51
Green Belt Movement, 244
green chemistry, for pollution, 372, 377
green citizenship, 6, 334–36
civic sustainability service by, 337
contestatory politics and, 340–41
Green Climate Fund, 492, 496
greenhouse development rights, 388n2
greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, 27, 269, 270, 308. See also carbon dioxide emissions
Kyoto Protocol on, 489–90
mitigation for, 474–75
UNFCCC pledges to reduce, 492–93
green political theory, 336
green republicanism, 6, 335
for civic sustainability service, 336–38
debt-based consumer capitalism, 334
dependent clientelism antipathy, 334
instrumental and intrinsic value of citizenship, 337
unsustainability and, 341
green technology, 387
group agency, in water ecological cooperation, 421, 423n7
Habermas, Jürgen, 5, 219
habitable principles, in environmental conflict, 517
habitat corridors, for biodiversity offsets, 27
Hardin, Garrett, 364n3
environmental ethics and population, 382
tragedy of the commons, 13–14, 268–69, 355, 357, 421
hard won consensus, 30, 36n8
Hargrove, Eugene, 15, 22n2, 86
on conceptual anthropocentrism, 82
on ethical anthropocentrism, 82
nonanthropocentric intrinsic value theory of, 82, 83, 87n4, 88n11
Harsanyi, J., 326
hedonistic utilitarianism, 224, 225
Heidegger, Martin, 441, 442
being-in-the-world of, 174, 176, 181
on earth, 180
hermeneutics development by, 162
on metaphysics, 178
on modernist assumptions, 178
phenomenology and, 174
on poetic dwelling, 175, 183–84
on technological rationality, 439
(p. 576) hermeneutics. See also environmental hermeneutics
anthropocentrism and, 166–67
Heidegger development of, 162
interpretation, 5, 162–64, 171n2, 171n4
phenomenology and, 168–70
philosophical, 162–66, 170, 172n7
place and, 166, 167–68, 171
social constructivist environmental philosophy and, 169
Hetch Hetchy Valley dam, 200, 251–52
historically affected consciousness, 163–64
historical or process-based approaches to values, 132–33
“The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis” (White, Jr.), 13, 77
history, on food, agriculture and environment, 407
holism, 17, 84, 217
biocentrism as form of, 81
Callicott on, 17–18
consequentialism, 199
deep ecology, 18–19
ecocentrism view, 81
on individual living things intrinsic value, 156
Rolston on, 18
Holland, Alan, 168
on environmental responsibility, 267
on natural, 127
pragmatism of, 191
Horkheimer, Max, 293, 439
human-centered anthropocentrism, 77–79, 84, 143
human chauvinism, 84, 85, 168
human flourishing, 19, 69, 158
climate change and, 109
EVE and, 22
human identity, place and, 175
humanist view of adaptation, 63
human marginal cases, for rationality, 115
human rights, 308–9
anthropocentrism of, 301
challenges for approaches of, 303–6
climate change and, 304–5
collective rights and, 304–5
defense of approaches of, 306–7
ecological space concern, 316–17, 319n17, 319n18
empowerment and, 307
environmental harms and, 6, 303, 307
environmental protection link to, 306–7
international law and, 302, 307
justice and, 303
moral foundations of, 302–3
moral responsibility and, 301
to water, 6, 417–18
humans
air pollution harms to health of, 27
arrogance, environmental degradation from, 143
biosphere and technosphere, 64–65
as caretakers of values, 66
Christian theology on morally significant, 77
environmental degradation responsibility, 65–66
Kant on special status of, 156
as moral agents, 86
natural system disruption by, 203
nature adaptation by, 63–65
nature dominated by, 62, 63, 65
nature relationship with, 507
planetary management by, 65–67
realized niche of, 312–13, 318n7, 318n11
as value source, 141–42
Hume, David, 117, 121, 148n9
hunting, 524, 527n17
Husserl, Edmund, 439, 441
on body self-sensing, 181–82
on intentionality, 174, 176, 181
on natural attitude, 176
on nature, 177–78
phenomenology and, 174
Idle No More movement, 238
Ihde, Don, 441, 442
The Imperative of Responsibility (Jonas), 443
incommensurability, 329–30
in CBA, 330n4
of RCPP, 326
(p. 577)
uncertainty and, 327
incremental adaptation, 477
indigenous environmental movements, 281
Boldt Decision, 237
caring in, 5, 236–38
civil disobedience, 238
Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, 237
Idle No More, 238
Inter-American Court, 237
Kari-Oca 2 declaration, 237
knowledge, responsibility, reciprocity and moral repair in, 238–41
philosophy articles of, 237
indigenous people
adaptation initiatives for, 482
communities, 281
illness decimation of, 250
Indigenous Peoples Kyoto Water Declaration, 239
Indigenous Peoples Parallel Forum of the Fourth World Water Forum, 239
indirect responsibility, 266–67
individualism, 15–17, 23n3, 81, 84, 144
individual moral responsibility, 273, 274
individual responsibility, 266–67, 271–74, 274n1
inductive risk, 33, 34
industrialism, mass extinction and, 429–30
industrialization, 438–39
inegalitarian biocentrism, 4, 201
inherent value
of sentient beings, 16, 80
Taylor on all living things, 16, 88n11, 201
injustice
in climate adaptation, 479–80, 483
fight against, 340
global, 293
instrumentalist framing, 5
instrumental value, 77, 87n2, 207n1
green republicanism on citizenship, 337
of wild, 129–30
integrated aesthetic values, 189
Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, 493
intensive farming, 15
intentionality, Husserl on, 174, 176, 181
intention excuse, for energy choice, 394, 399–400
Interagency Ecosystem Management Task Force, 450
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR), Inuit people and, 307
Inter-American Court of Human Rights, 237, 479
interdependence, 234, 236, 238, 241, 252
interests, in environmental conflicts, 521
interests, of conscious animals, 15, 91
avoiding suffering, 92–93, 99n2
Mill on satisfaction of, 96–97
interference guidelines, in risk assessment, 373
intergenerational ethics, 6, 352–53
communitarianism and, 362
contractarians and, 348
ethics of reciprocity, 347–48
obligations, 360–63
intergenerational justice, 279–80, 431
environmental law limitations, 55
Oposa v. Factorian on, 55–56
water justice and, 419–20
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 29, 32, 350, 476
adaptation definition, 484n8
on carbon dioxide, 471–72
Fifth Assessment Report, 483n1
on mitigation, 465
on ocean as sink for carbon dioxide, 465–66
on transformation, 477
uncertainty in forecasts, 29, 323
intermittency excuse, for energy choice, 394–96
internalism, 152–54, 160n6
International Commission on Stratigraphy, 2
international cooperation, 487, 490, 496
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 308
International Energy Agency, 395
International Labor Organization, on clientelism, 335
international law, 51, 54–55
human rights and, 302, 307
IACHR and Inuit people, 307
interpretation, 5, 162–64, 165, 169, 171n2, 171n4
(p. 578) intertemporal ethics, 361
intertemporal relationships, 364n4
interventionist role, of state, 58–59
intrinsic values, 5, 87n2, 207n1. See also weak anthropocentric intrinsic value theory
of all living things, 18, 19, 87n3
anthropocentric, 81–83
of biodiversity, 69–70
consequentialism on non-human entities, 199, 204–6
Dancy on appeal to, 155–56, 158
dark green religion on, 254
ecosystems and, 19, 81
ethical nonanthropocentrism on nature’s, 79, 87n3
green republicanism on citizenship, 337
Hargrove’s nonanthropocentric theory of, 82, 83, 87n4, 88n11
holism on individual living things’, 156
of humans, 77
kinship ethics and, 250
metaethics and, 142–43, 148n10
naturalism on pleasure identified with, 142
of nature, 131, 207n9
of non-human entities, 78, 80, 86, 142, 199–206
practical reasons appeal to, 155–56
responsibility and, 267, 274n2
Rolston on, 14, 18, 87n3, 131, 142
of species, 14, 22n2, 81, 83–84, 142
of wild nature, 69, 70, 130–32, 168
Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC), 479, 494n12
Inuit people, 484n11
climate adaptation and, 479–84
cultural identify of, 479–81
IACHR and, 307
IPAT equation, 383, 386, 387, 388n1
irreversible damage, in PP, 326
“Is There an Ecological Ethic?” (Rolston), 14
“Is There a Need for a New, an Ecological Ethic?” (Routley), 14
itemizing approach to environmental values, 168
Jamieson, D.
on climate change responsibility, 272, 273
on geoengineering, 272–73, 502, 504
on moral responsibility, 266
Johnson, Baylor, 20, 104
Joint Implementation program, 490
Jonas, Hans, 439, 442–43, 445
Journal for the Study of Religion, Nature and Culture, 257n5
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 404
justice, 6, 276, 285. See also distributive justice; environmental justice; global justice; intergenerational justice; water justice
adaptation and, 7
circumstances of, 385
climate, 475, 506, 508
climate change and, 27
community, 280–81
conflict resolution and, 7, 517, 521–22, 526n13
environmental ethics and, 277–78
fight against injustice, 340
human rights and, 303
liberal conception of environment, 281–84
liberal theories of, 278–81
natural resources and, 420
procedural, 507
Rawls’ principles of, 56–57, 506
as remedial virtue, 278
as social practice, 278
Kant, Immanuel
aesthetic theory of, 188, 189, 190
Formula of Humanity, 219
on humans special status, 156
intergenerational ethics and, 347
on rationality, 114
Keith, David, 511n2, 512n5, 512n6
kinship ethics, of Leopold, 250, 253
knowledge
in indigenous environmental movements, 238–41
markets and climate change, 47–48
Kolers, Avery, 318n11, 319n16
Korsgaard, Christine, 97, 219
Kyoto Protocol, of 1997, 308, 470, 495, 498n14 (p. 579)
Annex 1 parties of, 489–90
climate diplomacy beyond, 491–94
on GHGs, 489–90
US and, 490, 497n4
Kyoto Treaty, of 2002, 54
Land Ethic, of Leopold, 5, 81, 88n9, 154, 217, 256
all living things and, 17
Callicott’s proponent of, 17–18
on ethics evolution, 118–19 120–121
on land community regard, 5, 155, 156, 223, 253, 362–63, 454
“The Land Ethic” (Leopold), 118, 122, 202, 454
landscapes, 1, 5
management, 65–67
naturalness in, 64–65
rewilding, 170, 193
land system use, 2
large-unit/deep branching conservation, 434
Last Man (Routley), 77–78
Late Pleistocene Extinction Event, 1
Lear, Jonathan, 481, 484n16
legal rights, of environment’s natural objects, 14
legitimacy, of environmental action, 554–55, 559
Leopold, Aldo, 17, 63, 87n5, 154, 431, 534–35. See also Land Ethic, of Leopold
on biotic communities, 119, 122
on caring for nature, 235
on collective action, 269
ecocentric consequentialism of, 202
on ecological integrity, 360
on economically based conservation, 458
on economically motivated actions, 155
on ecosystem value, 203, 360
on environmentalism, 151
kinship ethics, 250, 253
on logic of ecosystem, 523
on wilderness, 130
Levinas, Emmanuel, 175, 180
liberal democracy, 333–34
liberal individualism, 281
liberalism, 276, 281–84, 439
liberal theories of justice
on circumstances of moderate scarcity, 282–83
community justice, 280–81
distributive justice, 56–57, 279, 280, 282, 303, 305, 419–20, 493–94
domestic justice, 279
environment as private property, 283
environment-economy relationship, 282
intergenerational justice, 55–56, 279–80, 419–20
participatory or political justice, 280
lifeworld, 178–80
Light, Andrew, 168
on environmental responsibility, 267
on natural, 127
pragmatism of, 82, 191
light pollution, 369
limits to growth, 48–49
living individuals
biocentrism on value of, 101–2
goal- or end-directed, 101, 102
moral significance of, 103
Taylor on, 101–2, 104
value of, 101–2
Living Planet Index (LPI), 383, 386
living things, all
Attfield, Schweitzer on value of, 201
biocentric individualists on moral status of, 16, 80, 84
biocentrism on moral value in, 16, 80, 84
deep ecology on intrinsic value of, 19
identification with, 18–19
land community and, 17
Rolston on intrinsic value of, 18, 87n3
Taylor on inherent value of, 16, 88n11, 201
Lotka-Volterra equations, in scientific models, 31
Love Canal, 438
Lovins, Hunter, 543
low-income countries
adaptation and, 7, 467–69
biodiversity, 383
ecological footprint in, 383
flourishing of, 430
pollution threat to, 6
population policies and, 383
luxury emissions, 45
(p. 580) magnitude criterion, in mass extinction, 428
Major Economies Forum, 494
male domination, Christian theology on, 13, 21
Mandaluyong Declaration, 240
Man’s Responsibility for Nature (Passmore), 15, 87n3
market-based
protection mechanisms, 4, 52, 53
unsustainability solutions, 336
market boundaries, 42
market norms, 4, 41
markets
biodiversity, 4, 46–47
cap and trade schemes, 41, 44, 46
for emission rights, 4
emissions, 44–46
environmental conflict and, 522–24, 526n7
environmental goods, 41
environmental growth limits, 48–49
environmental law and, 4, 52, 53–54
instruments used by, 44–47
knowledge and climate change, 47–48
market economies, 48–49
monetary values extension, 42–44
shadow prices, 40
skepticism of, 41–42
state environmental law and, 53
willingness-to-pay measures, 43–44
market-skeptical positions, 41–42, 48
Marx, Karl, 318n8, 337, 439
Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act, 377
mass extinction, 6, 435–36
anthroponomy, 433–34
autodestruction, 430–31
banality of evil, 432–33
Big Five events, 427–29
dissimilar groups criterion, 428
future, 352
industrialism and, 429–30
large-unit/deep branching conservation, 434
magnitude criterion, 428
material interests, climate adaptation and, 478–79, 480
maximin decision rule, in PP
defense of, 327–28
examples of, 328–29
Harsanyi’s objection to, 326
RCPP for, 325
McDonough, William, 543
McShane, Katie, 86, 87, 455
meaningful relationships, 157–59
meanings
critical environmental hermeneutics and, 167, 169
of hermeneutics text, 163, 164, 167, 171n2
human understanding of, 171n5
nature interpretation, 5, 162–64, 171n2, 171n4
measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV), 490–92, 497n5
Merchant, Carolyn, 250, 295
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, 439
on chiasm, 181–82
on flesh ontology, 175, 182
on naturalism, 176
phenomenology and, 174
metaethics, 4, 139, 147n1, 148
Callicott and Hume on, 148n9
cognitivism in, 140, 143, 145, 148n8
intrinsic value and, 142–43, 148n10
moral facts and, 140, 147n4
naturalism in, 5, 144, 145, 147n4, 148n5
noncognitivism in, 5, 140, 141, 143, 145, 148n7, 148n8
normativity of, 144, 145–47
metaphysical approach, to religion, 249
metaphysical assumptions, 175, 177–78
metaphysical naturalism, 176
Mill, John Stuart, 96, 126, 206
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 63–66
Minteer, Ben, 79, 205, 522, 526n14
mitigation, 466–72
APP, BPP and CPP principles in, 469
for climate change, 465, 474–75, 492, 510
for GHGs emissions, 474–75
IPCC on, 465
social and political inertia, 510
sustainable development and, 468–69
UNFCCC and, 474–75, 492
models. See scientific models
modernist assumptions, 175, 177–78
monistic biocentrism, 4
(p. 581) monoculture, 296–97
Monocultures of the Mind (Shiva), 296
Moore, G. E., 146, 207n8
moral awareness, 553–54
moral facts
metaethics and, 140, 147n4
normativity and, 146
objectivity and, 140, 148n5
realism and antirealism, 141
moral foundations, of human rights, 302–3
moral ontology
anthropocentric, 114
essence-accident terms for, 114, 116, 117, 121–23
ethical theory and, 113–14
moral sentiments and, 117–19, 121–22
non-anthropocentric, 114
on rationality, 115
moral patients
Curse of Cain and, 115
human marginal cases, 115
rationality and, 115
moral philosophy
ethical theory and, 113–14
on rationality, 115
moral relevance
climate change and, 109
Goodpaster on, 102, 217
moral repair, in indigenous environmental movements, 238–41
moral responsibility, 5–6, 15, 17, 266, 346
in anthropogenic climate change, 107
for future, 352
human rights and, 301
of individual, 273, 274
inductive risk and, 33
spatiotemporal separation and, 346
moral rights, 240
of sentient beings, 16, 84
of water, 417–18
moral sentiments, 117–19, 121–22
moral status, 280–81
of all living things, 16, 80, 84
of animals, 23n6
anthropocentrism and, 277
contextualist view on nature, 168
pluralism approach to, 224, 229–30, 232
right action and, 224, 230–31
moral strength and concern, virtue biocentrism on, 104–5
Mother Earth Water Walk, 234, 235, 239, 244
motivational repertoire, 154, 159n2
Leopold on community and, 155
meaningful relationships and, 158
Williams on, 153
Muir, John, 200, 251, 252
multidimensional consequentialism, 204
multigenerational community, 356, 358, 363–64
Naess, Arne, 18, 23n4
on caring for nature, 235
on deep ecology, 217, 371
on equal rights of living things, 106
nanotechnology, 370, 377, 445
narrative identity, 164–66, 170, 172n7
narratives
agrarian, 410
developing world, 411
economic, 411
on food and environment, 405–12
on GMOs, 409
non-fictional stories functions, 406–8
reconstruction of environmental ethics, 533–35
religious, 412
on respect for water, 418
Romantic, 410
scientific, 408–9
technophobic, 409–10
techno-utopian, 409
travelogue, 411–12
Nash, Roderick, 250, 534
National Academy of Sciences, US, 392
National Environmental Policy Act, in 1969, 51
nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs), 490–91, 494, 497n5
National Park Service, US, 128
(p. 582) National Research Council (NRC), US, 372–73, 531
natural, 127
attitude of experience, 175, 176, 179
capital, 356, 364n2
dimensions of, 64–65
landscapes and, 64–65
legal rights of objects, 14
valuing of, 63–64
natural beauty, 191
Natural Capitalism (Lovins), 543
natural environmental model, of Carson, 188
naturalism
Heidegger, Husserl, Merleau-Ponty on, 176
Husserl on, 177
intrinsic value identification with pleasure, 142
metaethics and, 5, 144, 145, 147n4, 148n5
natural piety, 537
natural resources
Anthropocene proponents on, 70–71
common ownership of, 55
justice and, 420
Pinchot on conversation of, 200
vulnerability of water, 421
natural world, 203
aesthetic values of, 15, 404
CBA and, 21
Christian theology and exploitation of, 13
Hargrove on aesthetic value of, 15
humans, morality and, 144–45
meaningful relationships within, 159
value of, 404
women attunement with, 21
nature
aesthetic values for, 186–87
contextualist view on moral status of, 168
economic approach to, 5
ethical nonanthropocentrism on intrinsic value of, 79, 87n3
feminism and, 289–92
future of, 71
humans relationship with, 507
Husserl on, 177–78
intrinsic value of, 131, 207n9
managerial approach to, 5
Mill on meanings of, 126
race and, 289
respect for, 69–71, 215, 216
rights, rules, and respect for, 211–20
technocratic approach to, 5
Thoreau on sacredness of, 250–51
ugliness of, 191–92
Neolithic Revolution. See First Agricultural Revolution
New Woman/New Earth (Ruether), 20
noise pollution, 369
Nolt, John, 107, 361, 362
non-anthropocentric ethic
Bentham’s precedent for, 115
on future non-human entities, 351–52
on pollution, 371
non-anthropocentric instrumental value, 82
non-anthropocentric moral ontology, 114–16
non-anthropocentric theories, 22n2, 88n10
Callicott’s intrinsic value, 82
on ecological collectives, 116–17
Hargrove’s intrinsic value, 82, 83, 87n4, 88n11
on non-human entities value, 15
of Repugnant Conclusion, 350–52
nonanthropocentrism, 532–33. See also ethical nonanthropocentrism
noncognitivism
in aesthetic judgments, 188–89, 194n2
in metaethics, 5, 140, 141, 143, 145, 148n7, 148n8
non-consequentialism
deontology and, 215–17
normative theory, 5
non-human entities. See also animals
Bentham on, 80
consequentialism and intrinsic value of, 199, 204–6
expression of interests by, 92
future generations of, 351–52
instrumental value of, 77
intrinsic value of, 78, 80, 86, 142, 199, 201, 204–6
sentiocentrism and, 4, 80, 82, 103
value of, 15, 83–84
non-identity problem, 109–10, 348–49
non-instrumental value, 205–6, 229
non-state actors, environmental law and, 58
(p. 583) non-violent direct action (NVDA), 340–41
Nordhaus, Ted, 535, 536, 542
normativity, 5, 202, 223
metaethics and, 144, 145–47
Moore on, 146
moral facts and, 146
values and, 147
virtue ethics and, 224–26, 232, 232n1
North American environmental history, 249, 254
back-to-the-land movement, 252
Carson on sacred in nature, 252
Emerson’s Transcendentalism, 250
European settlers, 250
Hetch Hetchy Valley dam, 251–52
Leopold reverence for earth, 253
Muir anthropocentric theism criticism, 251
Muir on interdependence, 252
Schweitzer on sacred, 252–53
Norton, Bryan, 83
on adaptive management, 452–53
on anthropocentrism and biocentrism, 20, 88n8, 523
on communal goods, 365n11
on conservation, 526n8
convergence hypothesis, 533
on ethical anthropocentrism, 82
on pragmatism, 82
weak anthropocentrism, 20, 82, 88n8
No Surprises regulation, in Endangered Species Act, 526n11
nuclear energy, 6, 392–93, 395–97
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), US, 396
Oakeshott, Michael, 552
objective final values, 226
objective probabilities, 322
objective theories, of welfare, 212
objectivity
moral facts and, 140, 148n5
in science, 32–35, 178
obligation, 270, 271
ocean
acidification, 2, 465, 469–70, 474, 484n7
as sink for carbon dioxide, 465–66
Ogus, Anthony, 53
Omnivore’s Dilemma (Pollan), 411–12
O’Neill, John, 83, 86, 132–33, 156, 168
on environmental responsibility, 267
on human flourishing, 158
on living individuals values, 102
on natural, 127
pragmatism of, 191
On the Origin of the Species (Darwin), 250, 253
ontological anthropocentrism, 78, 85
operative reasons, 151, 153
Oposa v. Factorian, 55
opportunity freedom, of Sen, 362
organisms, 103, 108. See also genetically modified organisms
ought-implies-can principle, 394
overconsumption, human, 4, 125
overdevelopment, human, 4, 125
overpopulation, human
tragedy of the commons on, 357
wildness and, 4, 125
pain
of animals in agricultural production, 93, 99n4
avoidance of, 80, 92–93
capacity, in sentience, 115, 224
Varner on conditions for, 93
pantheism, 257n1, 257n2
Parfit, Derek, 109–10, 350–52
Parfit’s Paradox, 356, 361
Paris Agreement, 293, 488, 492–95
participatory approach, in ecological ethos, 52, 58–59
participatory justice, 280
particular threats concern, of PP, 326
Passmore, John, 15, 89n3
patient-centered deontology, 216–17
perfect moral storm analysis, on geoengineering, 510
person-affecting principles, 349
person-regarding principle, 361, 362
pessimistic catastrophism, technological optimism versus, 543–44
pesticides, 371, 375
(p. 584) phenomenology, 5, 168, 174, 179–84, 439. See also ecophenomenology
experience revindication, 175–77
hermeneutics and, 168–70
metaphysical and modernist critiques of, 177–78
of technology, 441–42
philosophical hermeneutics, 162
appropriation and, 164–66
distantiation, 164–66
effective history and historically affected consciousness, 163–64
narrative identity, 164–66, 170, 172n7
Philosophy and Environmental Crisis (Blackstone), 14
Philosophy of Civilization (Schweitzer), 101
philosophy of technology, 438–40, 441–43
Pinchot, Gifford, 200, 202, 251
place
hermeneutics and, 166, 167–68, 171
human identity and, 175
Planetary Boundaries Analysis
biochemical nitrogen and phosphorus cycle, 2
biodiversity loss, 2
climate change, 2
land system use, 2
ocean acidification, 2
stratospheric ozone, 2
planetary management, 65–67, 278
“Planet of No Return: Human Resilience on an Artificial Earth” (Ellis), 64
pluralism
aesthetic values of nature and, 188–92
critical, 189–91, 193
moral status approach, 224, 229–30, 232
Parsons on, 190
value,