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date: 17 November 2018

(p. 453) Index

(p. 453) Index

A
Aarøe, L., 230
Aber, J.L., 229
absolute invisibility, 117
Abu-Nimer, M., 395
acceptance
identity, 211
accountive positioning, 321
acculturation orientations
of immigrant groups, 305–306
Acharya, A., 131
action(s)
citizenship and, 74
collaborative
respect in fostering, 392
collective
anger in motivating, 392
cultural citizenship and, 77
cultural citizenship–related
recommendations related to, 76–78
emotions impacting, 392
in response to social injustice, 28–30
social
alliance building for, 397–398
activism
inclusionary
challenges of, 49–52
science
commitment to, 14–16
activist identities
embracing, 16
Activist Scholarship: Antiracism, Feminisms, and Social Change, 198
Acts of Meaning, 17
Adair, J.G., 145
Adams, G., 283
adolescent females’ sexual desire
study of, 22
Adorno, T., 4
advantage
concentration of
lauding “makers” and, 233–235
aesthetic experiences
anesthetic experiences vs., 430
affective psychological processes
in critical-dialogic model of IGD
communication processes fostering, 391
Afghanistan
contested storylines in, 324–326
Africana Center
at Cornell University, 132
African American(s). see also under Black
African American immigrants
White immigrants vs., 132
agency(ies)
ex-slave, 133
“Age of Enlightenment/Age of Discovery”
justice and power in aftermath of, 261
Ahluwalia, M.K., 287, 289, 292
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), 226
SSDI and
comparison between, 232–233
Alarcon, R.D., 167
alcohol use
sexual objectification impact on, 182
Algeria, M., 287
alienation
psychological experience of, 6
Allen, A., 229
Allen, M.W., 212
alliance(s)
building of, 390–391
for social action, 397–398
described, 397
alliance with subordinate, 31
in social psychology of social justice, 11–12
Allik, J., 143
Allport, G., 4, 14, 28–30, 99, 183, 209, 282, 304, 354, 362, 368–373, 375, 434
American(s)
“American can-do,” 234
American colonization and decolonization
inceptions of, 264–266
“American dilemma”
as moral dilemma, 102
American Dream narrative, 6, 25, 228, 248–249, 310
American Karma: Race, Culture, and Identity in the Indian Diaspora, 286
American Psychiatric Association, 406–407, 414
Board of Directors of, 410
American Psychological Association (APA), 142, 414, 444
Office and Committee on Socioeconomic Status of, 236
SPSSI of, 405
Task Force on Appropriate Therapeutic Responses to Sexual Orientation, 413–414
analysis
positioning theory for, 326–327, 327t
analysis of resistance
in social psychology of social justice, 12–14
anchoring, 274
in temporal organization for societies, 262
Anderson, J.D., 132, 133
anesthetic experiences
aesthetic experiences vs., 430
anger
in motivating collective action, 392
Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India
toxic pollution in, 46–47
Ankleshwar Industrial Association report, 46
“An Obsession Renewed: Islamophobia in the Netherlands, Austria, and Germany,” 294–295
Ansley, F., 77
antimilitarism–militarism continuum
negative pole of, 332
antipathy
to indignity, 98–100
anxiety
intergroup, 305
Anzaldúa, G., 21, 158, 160, 164–166
borderlands theory of, 164–166. see also borderlands theory
concept of “nos-otras” of, 168
Aotearoa/New Zealand
colonization and decolonization of, 269–276
Apartheid, 268–269
APA Task Force
on Resources for the Inclusion of Social Class in Psychology Curricula, 254
on SES, 249
Appelbaum, L.D., 229, 232
(p. 454) Archer, M.S., 266
argumentative discourse
racist discourse as, 97–98
Aristotle, 43, 183
on distributive justice, 5, 25
Arnett, J.J., 26, 142, 144
Art as Experience, 430
art forms
indigenous
restitution of self through, 167
Asch, S.E., 12, 444
Asian(s)
Asian Americans and
psychology of, 144–145
shared roots, divergent paths of, 144–145
psychology of
setting agenda for more critical, 153–154
social psychology of
as “East Asian” social psychology, 145
toward more critical psychology of, 141–156
cultural differences revisited, 149–151
indigenous psychology as answer to, 151–152
individualism-collectivism construct in, 145–148
reification of group differences, 148–149
shifting contexts, shifting theories related to, 152–153
Asian American(s)
Asians and
psychology of, 144–145
shared roots, divergent paths of, 144–145
psychology of
setting agenda for more critical, 153–154
toward more critical psychology of, 141–156
cultural differences revisited, 149–151
indigenous psychology as answer to, 151–152
individualism-collectivism construct in, 145–148
reification of group differences, 148–149
shifting contexts, shifting theories related to, 152–153
Asian American Journal of Psychology, 145
Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 144–146
Asian Values Scale, 151
assimilation, 306
Association for Psychological Science (APS), 142, 444
Astuti, R., 149
attitude(s)
generalized militaristic, 332–333
negative
power of, 253
toward outgroup related to perceptions of threat, 305
in social psychology of racism, 97
toward war and military interventions, 332–335
Attitudes Towards Lesbians and Gay Men, 207–208
Austin, J., 321
authoritarianism
reprise of, 4
authorship
lack of diversity in
in JCCP, 143
automatic perceptual processes
racism and prejudice attributed to, 353, 354
Autonomous Women’s Movement, 198
autonomy
“relational,” 168
Auyero, J., 233
Ayala, J., 168
Aztecs
colonization impact on, 264
B
Baert, P., 321
balance theory, 373–374
Bandura, A., 334
Banks, W.C., 136
“barbarism,” 104–105
Barker, D., 290
Barnes, E., 47
Bar-On, D., 336, 361, 362
Barrio Logan, San Diego, 77
Bar-Tal, D., 384
Barvosa-Carter, E., 168
Battle of Little Big Horn, 267
Baumeister, R., 253
BBC Prison Study (BPS), 14
behavior(s)
hegemonic vs. counter-hegemonic, 69
norms in, 9–11
belief(s)
about poverty and wealth
children’s, 234–235
negative
power of, 253
in Protestant work ethic, 234
Bell, A., 293
Bell, L.A., 379–380
belonging
as key concept in new global order, 27
sense of
in cultural citizenship, 71–72
Bem, S.L., 21
benevolent heterosexism, 205–219
benevolent sexism, 208–210
Bentham, J., 5
Bentsen, L., 321–322
Berry, J.W., 145, 305–306
Bersani, L., 214
Best, D.L., 143
Beyond Homophobia, 420
Bhabha, H., 296
Bhata, K.S., 290
Bhatia, S., 27, 281, 286, 435
bicultural identities, 26
biculturalism
in New Zealand, 274, 275
symbolic, 275–276
Bierce, A., 42
bifocality
critical
concept of, 17
Bigger Thomas, 135
Biko, S., 296
bin Laden, O., 284, 288, 289
bisexuals
“choice” question responses by, 412–413
Bizumic, B., 332
Black identity, 129–140
historical and psychological research on, 129–140
legacy of slavery and, 130–132
posttraumatic slave syndrome and oppositional identity, 131–132
research findings on, 135
social justice and
future research on, 137–138
“black is beautiful,” 72
Black Lives Matter social movement, 3
Blackmun, H., 44
Black-on-Black crime, 134
Black people
contemporary negative achievement attitudes of
post-slavery experiences and circumstances and, 133
normality of, 129–140
racial angst of, 134
self-hatred among
counternarrative to, 134–137
well-being among, 137
Black poverty, 130
blame the victim analysis of, 130
Black Power movement, 137
Black Power period, 136
Black psychological functioning, 129–140
research findings on, 135
Black Reconstruction, 132, 133
Black schools
operating in factory-style shifts, 134
Black self-esteem, 136
historical and psychological research on, 129–140
Black self-hatred
counternarrative to, 134–137
Black’s Law Dictionary, 53
Black social movement, 136
Black underclass, 130
Blackwater, 328
Black well-being, 137
(p. 455) Blackwell, M., 131
Blair, T., Prime Minister, 328
blame the victim analysis, 130
Blanc, L., 6
Bland, S., 3
Bleisemann de Guevara, B., 339
Bloch, M., 149
Blumer, H., 103
Blunden, B., 334
boarding schools
indigenous children forcibly sent to, 115–116
Boehm, J.K., 147
Boggio-Cosadia, F., 326
Bolin, B., 47
borderlands
defined, 165
borderlands theory, 445
Anzaldúa’s, 164–166
described, 165
in experiential documentation of social identity theory, 166
intersectionality and, 164
intersectionality through to social identity theory, 165
intersectional understandings of, 160
for social action and coalition building, 165–166
Bourdieu, P., 26, 70, 251
Bourdouliex, G., 104
Bousfield, L., 86
Bowen, R., 229
Bower, M., 328
Bowers v. Hardwick, 421
Boxer, L.J., 320
Brah, A., 294
Brown, J., 416
Brown, M., 3
Brown, R.J., 359, 384
Brown v. Board of Education, 28, 129, 282, 368, 405, 406, 421
Brown, W., 52
Bruner, J., 17
Bruno, K., 46
Bullard, R., 46
Bullock, H.E., 14–15, 25–26, 223, 235, 251, 253, 436–438
Burack, J.A., 113, 119, 434, 435
Burbules, N.C., 394
Burman, E., 151
burqa, 325
Busby, J., 271, 272
Bush, G.W., Pres., 63, 64, 157, 328
Butchart, R., 132, 133
Butler, E.A., 151
Butler, J., 255
Butz, D.A., 237
C
Cahn, E., 42
California
Proposition 8 of. see Proposition 8
California Supreme Court
on sexual orientation, 408, 409
Callins v. Collins, 44
Cameron, D., Prime Minister, 232, 303
“Cancer Valley”
toxic pollution in, 47
Cantor, E., 233
capabilities framework
environmental injustice viewed through, 51–52
capability(ies)
distributive justice as, 51–52
capital
cultural
defined, 251
economic
defined, 251
social
defined, 251
capitalism
citizenship vs., 64
as economic structure in understanding citizenship, 64
inherent injustices of, 6
voracious
researching consequences of, 436–437
cardiovascular stress responses
ethnic prejudice and, 178
Carr, E.R., 182
“cash value”
of Whiteness, 247
Cass, V., 211–217
Castile, P., 3
Cesari, J., 294
Chandler, M.J., 113–114
change(s)
culture-related
theory of, 119–121
education for
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 386–389
inclusionary
rights and challenges of, 52
social
psychologists for, 246–247
“change forever welfare, as we know it,” 131
charmed circle, 209
Chauncey, G., 414
Checker, M., 50–51
chemyon, 151
Cherribi, S., 294–295
Cheung-Blunden, V., 334
Cheung, F.M., 151
Chicanas
sense of self of, 165
social identity of, 164–167
subordination of, 165
children
beliefs about poverty and wealth, 234–235
Children of Bondage, 137
Chin, V., 286
Chiricos, T., 232
Chiu, C.Y., 150
choice
families of, 213
realm of, 105
sexual orientation and, 412–413
“choice” question
sexual orientation and, 412–413
chong, 151
Christopher, A.N., 234
Chryssochoou, X., 27, 301, 433
Cicero, 319
circuits of dispossession
social and financial, 295–296
cissexism
defined, 23
transphobia and, 23
citizen(s)
defined, 60
justice-oriented, 62, 69–71, 76, 78
education curricula for, 65
participatory, 62, 66–68
personally responsible, 62, 65–68
citizen-as-consumer, 64–65
citizen-as-laborer
examples of, 63–64
citizenship, 59–82
action in, 74
acts of, 69
capitalism in understanding, 64
capitalism vs., 64
civic republican, 61–62
communitarian, 61
conceptualizing, 61–62
as construct
consequences of, 59
constructions of
described, 60
social landscapes shaping, 62–67. see also specific types and social landscapes, in shaping citizenship constructions
contemporary models of, 67–69
cultural. see cultural citizenship
cultural pluralism and, 68
cultural practices and
in post 9/11 era, 284–286
defined, 68
described, 59–60
dissenting
described, 295
dominant notions of
cultural citizenship as alternative to, 70–74
from economic landscape, 63–65
enaction of, 60
(p. 456)
environmental, 67–68
global, 67
from historical landscape, 62–63
idea of, 17
importance of, 59–60
inclusive, 68
intimate, 68, 69
from legal landscape, 63
liberal, 61
for liberty and equality, 68
migration and
in post 9/11 era, 283–284
of mistaken identities
in post 9/11 era, 288–289
from multicultural “melting pot” landscape, 66–67
neoliberalism and, 64
performance of, 60, 75–76
as practice, 68
resistance and
in post 9/11 era, 291–292
role of work in performance of, 64
from schooling landscape, 65–66
service-learning conceptualization and, 65–66
shaping of, 60
social construction of, 59–82
social landscape shaping, 75–76
through volunteerism, 65–66
transnational, 67
turban and, 289–291
types of, 61–62
citizenship models
contemporary, 67–69
focus on cultural pluralism in, 68
types of, 67–68
citizenship practices
assessment of, 69
contemporary
in US and Europe, 282
hegemonic vs. counter-hegemonic behaviors, 69
City University of New York (CUNY), 15
Graduate Center at, 439
Public Science Project of, 15
Civic Education Study, 64
civic republican citizenship, 61–62
Civil Rights Movement, 28–29, 137, 282, 285, 385
Civil War(s), 133
Claβen, E., 340
claiming of public space
in cultural citizenship, 72
claiming of rights
in cultural citizenship, 72
in process of belonging, 72
claiming of space
in cultural citizenship, 73
Clark Doll Studies, 129
Clark, K.B., 14, 129, 282, 368–373, 375, 405
Clark, M.P., 14, 129
Clark, W., 267
class(es)
inequality of
social psychological research on, 236–239
as “lumpy” groups, 250
microaggressions based on, 252
middle
described, 250
owning
described, 250
privileging
targeted critical research agenda of, 236–237
relevance of, 247–248
social. see social class
social psychological analysis of, 223–243
societal divisions related to, 27–28
talking about, 248–249
upper middle
described, 250
working
described, 250
class entitlement
consequences of, 236
class exploitation
fight against
historical background of, 246
class hierarchies
creation of, 251
classification(s)
quasi-suspect, 408
suspect, 408
class inequality
ideology and material conditions intersect to produce and maintain, 225
social psychological research on, 236–239
classism
defined, 225, 251
described, 225
dimensions of, 225
endurance of, 25
institutional vs. interpersonal, 251–252
psychological injustice and, 25–26
relational perspective on, 26
social psychological analysis of, 223–243
from political disclosure to social change, 237–239
research on, 236–239
social psychology on, 25–26
classist ideology, 225
classist stigma and prejudice
against government assistance, 238
Class Matters: Where We Stand, 254
class mobility
prospects for
in US, 228
class privilege
psychological “hardening” of, 236
Cleaveland, C., 230
clinical psychology
approaches to, 142
of Asians and Asian Americans, 141–156. see also Asian(s); Asian American(s)
described, 141
emergence of, 141
goal of, 141
Clinton, B., Pres., 131, 228
Clinton, H., 177, 322
Cloward, R., 231
CNN
series on Black and White childrens’ perceptions of skin color, 129–130
Coast Salish culture
of Tulalip Tribes, 122, 123
coexistence
in coexistence model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 357
coexistence model
of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 355–357
coexistence and limiting discussion of inequality in, 357
ethical relations and changing prejudice in, 357
shady face of togetherness in, 356
traditional, 29
cognitive empathy, 391
cognitive polyphasia
war- and military interventions–related, 337
cognitive psychological processes
in critical-dialogic model of IGD
communication processes fostering, 391
cognitive revolution
architects of, 17
Cohen, D., 150
cohesion
social
defined, 68
Cohler, B.J., 215–216
Cohrs, J.C., 28, 331–334, 337, 341, 342
Cole, E.R., 149, 170
collaborative action
respect in fostering, 392
collective action
anger in motivating, 392
cultural citizenship and
relationship between, 77
collectivistic cultures
interdependent self-construal from, 146
Collins, J., 179
Collins, P.H., 159
Collins, T., 47
Colón, A.W., 161
(p. 457) colonization, 261–280
American
inceptions of, 264–266
analysis of, 266–267
common remainders of, 268
described, 262–263
diachronic analysis of, 264–266
historical background of, 261–262
history and, 263–269
of indigenous people, 19
power in, 267–269
resistance to, 267–269
in shaping contemporary world, 261–262
colonized
power regarding, 267
colonizer(s)
described, 262–263
power regarding, 267
Columbia University School of Public Health
WE-ACT with, 50
Comas-Diaz, L., 166–167
“coming out”
contented, 205
by LGBQ persons, 210–216
communication
critical-dialogue, 397–398
communication processes
affective and cognitive psychological processes resulting from, 391
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 390–391
communitarian citizenship, 61
community(ies)
diasporic, 294
environmentally burdened
impact of industrial development on, 48
“imagined”
modern nation as, 284
Community Relation Division
of Montgomery County Police Department, 290
comparison
identity, 211
compassion
defined, 239
“value redefinition” of, 239
compulsory heterosexuality, 23
concept of “nos-otras”
Anzaldúan, 168
concern(s)
moral
in rehumanizing other, 361
social
questions of meaning as, 85
Condor, S., 106–107
conflict(s)
protracted ethnopolitical
intergroup contact in settings of, 353–365
conflicting agenda
in joint projects model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 358
conflict transformation
narrative and confrontation in, 361–362
confrontation
in conflict transformation, 361–362
in confrontational model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 361
confrontational model
developed in Israel, 29
of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 360–361
confronting perspectives of other side in conflict in, 360–361
dangers of confrontation in, 361
confusion
identity, 211
Connell, R., 322
Connolly, P., 358
Connor, A., 115
conscientización, 196–197
“conscientización”
state of, 165
conscientization
defined, 13
described, 13–14
consciousness
differential, 165
double, 18, 164
dual, 227
group
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 385–386
hybrid, 165, 166
mestiza (hybrid), 21, 165, 166
oppositional, 196
consensus
“dissensus” vs., 68
Constitution, Civil Rights, and Human Rights Hearing on Solitary Confinement
US Senate Judiciary Subcommittee on, 15
“constructing defenses of peace”
implications of
in social representations of war and military interventions, 343–344
contact(s)
confronting limits of
in revolting times, 433
extended
friendship and, 370f, 371–372
between groups
in reducing prejudice, 28
imagined, 371
friendship and, 370f, 371–372
intergroup. see intergroup contact
“sedative” effects of, 394
substance of
power and inequality and, 375–376
utopian optimal, 370
contact hypothesis, 29
of Allport, 354
origins of
historical analysis of, 29
prejudice and, 304
contact–prejudice problematic
emergence of, 368–369
contact theory
imagined, 371
in prejudice reduction, 367
Contarello, A., 342
contemporary citizenship models, 67–69
types of, 67–68
contemporary citizenship practices
in US and Europe
factors shaping, 282
contemporary negative achievement attitudes
of Blacks
post-slavery experiences and circumstances and, 133
contemporary world
colonization in shaping
historical background of, 261–262
contented “coming out,” 205
contextually based intersectional identities
construction of, 162–163, 163f
continuity
cultural. see cultural continuity
in temporal organization for societies, 262
Cook, J., 269, 270
Coon, H.M., 149–150
Cooper, A., 129–130
Cornell University
Africana Center at, 132
Counseling the Culturally Different, 148
counter-hegemonic behaviors
hegemonic behaviors vs., 69
court(s)
communicating findings from social science research on sexual orientation to, 405–425. see also sexual orientation, social science research on
Covarrubias, R., 113, 118, 119, 434, 435
Cozzarelli, 253
Craig, A., 122
Crenshaw, K.W., 158–160, 195
crime
Black-on-Black, 134
CRIS (Cross Racial Identity Scale), 137
critical analysis
aims of, 102
hermeneutic principles of, 101
of racism. see also critical analysis of racism; racism
framework for, 97–111
(p. 458) critical analysis of racism. see also critical analysis
described, 19, 98, 101
directions for, 106–107
principles of, 101–103
critical bifocality
concept of, 17
critical-dialogic model
critical-dialogue communication, 397–398
critical interpretive paradigm, 8
critical juncture(s), 262
independence for US from Great Britain as, 265
critical junctures theory, 261, 265–267, 438
described, 262, 276–277
forms of temporal organization for societies in, 262
in New Zealand, 269–276
critical ontologies
principle of, 30
in social psychology of social justice, 7–9
described, 7–8
historical knowledge in, 8
interpretive paradigm related to, 8
in social justice research, 8–9
suspicion of social structure in, 9
critical processes
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 390
critical psychology, 194
of Asians and Asian Americans
setting agenda for, 153–154
in revolting times, 429–440
situating inquiry in precarious junctures between darkness and light, 437
social psychological incites, 432–435. see also social psychological incites, in revolting times
theorizing subjectivities forged in contentious times, 435–437
critical race theory (CRT), 20
critical reflection, 390–391
critical thinking
in IGD, 384
cross-cultural differences
in self-construal, 146
cross-cultural psychological research
individualism-collectivism construct in, 145–148
cross-cultural psychologists
on cultural differences, 149–151
cross-cultural psychology, 145
cross-cultural research
defined, 142
“cross-group friendship,” 371
Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS), 137
Cross, W.E., Jr., 19–20, 129, 136–138, 434, 435, 444
Crow, J., 132
Csíksentmihályi, M., 184
cultural capital
defined, 251
cultural citizenship
actions for
recommendations related to, 76–78
as alternative to dominant notions of citizenship, 70–74
claiming of public space in, 72
claiming of rights in, 72
collective action and
relationship between, 77
components of, 71–72
concept of “social” in, 293–294
defined, 70–71
described, 17, 69–76, 285
examples of, 73–74
goals related to, 75
historical background of, 70
implications for social psychology of social justice, 74–76
importance of, 71, 75, 289
by Latina/os, 73
membership in, 71
multi-racial and multi-ethnic groups performing, 73
normative power of, 294
in post 9/11 era, 284–286
research recommendations related to, 76–78
sense of belonging in, 71–72
as social intervention, 71
space-claiming in, 73
theories of power and liberation aligned with, 70–71
cultural contexts
decolonization of, 119–121
cultural continuity
protective feature of striving for
among North American indigenous peoples, 114
striving for
self-governance in measurement of, 120
cultural diversity
described, 301
in Europe, 302–304
historical background of, 303–304
feeling threatened by, 304–307
orientations of individuals and groups regarding, 306–307
as outcome of economic migration, 303
produced in European nation-states by individual and family immigrants, 301–317
roots of, 301
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 143
cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), 26
cultural identity confusion, 27
culturally diverse societies
roots of, 301
cultural mismatches
impact of, 119
cultural mismatching
theory of, 119
cultural pluralism
citizenship and, 68
ethic of, 30
cultural practices
citizenship and
in post 9/11 era, 284–286
cultural psychology, 8
expand methods in, 154
cultural rights
defined, 72
cultural tendency(ies)
problematizing of poverty as, 224
culture(s)
changes in existing, 145
Coast Salish
of Tulalip Tribes, 122, 123
collectivistic
interdependent self-construal from, 146
complications associated with, 114
conceptions of
diversity within psychology, 153–154
defined, 70, 114, 141
described, 114–115
equality in
vs. recognition in merit, 311
individualistic
independent self-construal from, 146
influence of, 145
non-WEIRD, 114
social policies impacting, 223–243
breaking grip of, 236–239
societal divisions related to, 27–28
WEIRD, 114
culture change
theory of, 119–121
culture cycle(s), 19, 114–115
changes to
research example of, 121
features of, 115
traditional
disruption of, 115–119
culture x person x situation (CuPS), 150
cumulative privilege
researching consequences of, 436–437
Cundiff, J.L., 143, 144
CuPS (culture x person x situation), 150
D
(p. 459) daily diary methods
of discriminatory events, 177
Daiute, C., 86
Dame Whina Cooper’s Land March, 274
Darius, King, 320
“darker” side of human nature and group life
narratives of, 13
Dasgupta, M., 292
David, E.J.R., 152
Davis, A., 137
Davis, K., 129
Dawtry, R.J., 236
Deaux, K., 168
decolonization, 261–280
American
inceptions of, 264–266
analysis of, 266–267
historical background of, 261–262
history and, 263–269
power in and resistance to colonization and, 267–269
Decolonizing Knowledge, 437
Deep Like the River, 132
Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), 408, 411, 416
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA) executive order, 64
Degruy, J., 131, 132
dehumanization
defined, 101–102
de jure segregation
elimination of, 130
Delawari, N., 326
delegitimization(s)
defined, 101–102
deliberative processes, 52
Delors, J., 105
“Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics,” 158
deontological theory of justice, 5
desegregation
fading reality of, 369–372, 370f
deservingness
judgments of, 227–228, 232
perceived, 232
Dettmer, E., 417–418
Deutsch, M., 43, 44, 430
development
industrial
impact on environmentally burdened communities, 48
moral
model of, 324
narrative identity, 14
sexual identity, 205–219
sociopolitical, 13–14
“deviant(s)”
detection of
Rorschach in, 11
Devil’s Dictionary, 42
Dewey, J., 430
diagnosable mental condition
legitimate social identity vs., 11
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
on homosexuality, 406–407
dialogic processes
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 390
dialogue(s)
transdisciplinary
diversify conceptions of culture within psychology through, 153–154
Dialogue Across Difference: Theory, Research, and Practice in Intergroup Dialogue, 389–390, 393
Diamond, J., 270
Diamond, L., 410, 411
diasporas, 294
diasporic communities, 294
dichotomy(ies), 149
Difference Principle, 42
differential consciousness, 165
Dilthey, W., 17, 444
Dingwall, R., 86
Discourse Action Model, 323
discriminating marginality, 290–291
described, 289
discrimination
in classism, 225
defined, 99
gender and well-being effects of
social psychological research on, 177–179
physical and mental health effects of, 178
sexual orientation–based, 406
discriminatory events
daily diary methods of, 177
disempowering others
impact of, 263
disengagement
moral
war- and military interventions–related, 334
disharmony
“politics of,” 276
disjunction
defined, 135
disorganization
societal
defined, 262
dispossession
circuits of
social and financial, 295–296
“dissensus”
consensus vs., 68
dissenting citizenship
described, 295
distribution(s)
of goods
distributive justice research on, 43
just, 48
distributive justice, 6, 43
Aristotle’s theory of, 5, 25
as capabilities, 51–52
described, 43, 48
distributive norms in, 43–44
norms associated with, 43
in post 9/11 era, 282–283
research on
distributions of goods–related, 43
distributive norms
in distributive justice, 43–44
diverse population groups
diversity in highly respected psychology journals related to, 143
diversity
cultural. see cultural diversity
of feminisms, 194
master statuses vs., 162
sexual
new vocabulary in understanding, 11–12
dividend taxes, 235
Dixon, J., 29, 99, 103, 214, 217, 367, 370, 374, 396, 430, 433, 434
Doise, W., 312
Dollard, J., 4, 137
domination
historical understanding of
ideas about social justice formed by, 6
double consciousness, 18, 164
Dovidio, J.F., 388
Downs, A., 213
dream(s)
“mobility,” 310
DREAMERS
defined, 76
drunkorexia, 182
in weight control, 182
D’Sa, D., 48, 50–51
dual consciousness, 227
Du Bois, W.E.B., 14, 18, 21, 132, 133, 164
Dunwoody, P.T., 341
Durrheim, K., 29, 103, 367, 370, 374, 430, 433, 434
dusmic strength, 167
Dutt, A., 198
duty(ies)
defined, 319
in positioning theory, 28, 323–324
Dweck, C.S., 124
E
“East Asian” social psychology
social psychology of Asians as, 145
(p. 460) Eckles, D.L., 333
economic capital
defined, 251
economic inequality, 27
economic justice
breaking grip of “makers” vs. “takers” in, 236–239
economic landscape
citizenship from, 63–65
economic migration
cultural diversity as outcome of, 303
economic structures
in shaping citizenship, 63–65
economic systems
increase in inequality structured into, 42
economy(ies)
“green,” 65
Edelman, L., 216
Edmonson, M., 137
education
for change
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 386–389
colonization of North American indigenous peoples in, 118–119
for social justice
educational dynamics
post-slavery, 133–134
educational reform
Fine on, 30
Edwards, D., 323
Ehrenreich, B., 253
Eichenberg, R., 333
1882 Chinese Inclusion Act, 285
Elcheroth, G., 338
Elejabarrieta, F., 336–337
Elimination of Violence Against Women (EVAW) law, 325–326
elite(s)
as given “free pass,” 229–230
emotion(s)
in fostering understanding of inequalities, 392
impacting actions, 392
military interventions and, 334–335
moral
military interventions and, 334–335
empathy
cognitive, 391
in IGD, 384
empirical evidence
in legal record
introducing, 439
empowered
defined, 267–268
empowering marginality
described, 289
engaging self, 390
Engels, F., 6, 25
Enriquez, V.G., 151
entitlement
class-related
consequences of, 236
environmental citizenship, 67–68
environmental injustice
described, 45
through capabilities framework, 51–52
environmental justice initiatives
in South Africa, 50–51
environmental justice movement
birthing of, 46
in Warren County, North Carolina, 46
environmentally burdened communities
impact of industrial development on, 48
environmental pollution
long-standing, 45
epistemology, 443–444
hermeneutic/interpretivist orientation to, 444
equality
achievement of, 68
citizenship for, 68
defined, 43, 68
in justice, 7
marriage, 88–89
equality in culture
recognition in merit vs., 311
equal protection
considerations for, 409
sexual orientation and, 407–409
Equal Protection Clause, 415
equity theory, 42
Erikson, E., 211
Esch, J., 338
Esses, V.M., 305
Estrosi, C., 104
ethic(s)
of cultural pluralism, 30
Protestant work
belief in, 234
social psychology and, 445–446
ethical relations
in coexistence model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 357
ethnic groups
in claiming cultural citizenship, 73
ethnic hierarchy
ideology of, 18
ethnic minority research
defined, 142
ethnic prejudice
exposure to
psychological and cardiovascular stress responses related to, 178
ethnocentrism
reprise of, 4
ethnopolitical approach, 167
ethnopolitical conflict
protracted
eudaimonic well-being, 183
research on, 183–184
Europe
cultural diversity in, 302–304
moral exclusion in
fate of Roma related to, 103–105
multiculturalism in, 27
social justice in, 301–317. see also multicultural Europe
European Congress of the German Social-Democratic Party, 105
European societies
multiculturalism in
moral dilemmas related to, 102
European Union, 105–106
European Values Scale, 151
Everett, B.S., 143
evidence
empirical
introducing in legal record, 439
narrative, 18
exclusion
moral, 44, 433
social. see social exclusion
exclusionary contexts
fostering inclusion in, 41–56
exclusionary/inclusionary justice, 6, 44–45
experience(s)
anesthetic vs. aesthetic, 430
experimental psychology, 8
expert witness
serving as
observations from, 416–418
explicit sexual harassment, 180
ex-slave(s)
mindset of, 133
ex-slave agency, 133
extended contact
friendship and, 370f, 371–372
F
Factories Act of 1987, 46
factory-style shifts
Black schools operating in, 134
fairness
in justice, 7
procedural, 44
faith
in scientific authority, 9
“families of choice,” 213
Fanon, F., 296
Fassin, D., 102
(p. 461) Faulkner, W., 261
female(s)
adolescent
sexual desire study of, 22
feminism(s)
diversity of, 194
Third World, 195
transnational
in psychology, 193–203. see also transnational feminism
Feminism & Psychology, 197
feminist liberation psychology, 196–197
praxis in, 197
in transnational feminism paradigm
potential for, 196–198
feminist perspectives
psychology and, 194–198
feminist psychologists
on gender and well-being in social justice, 175–191
feminist theory, 21
Fernald, J.L., 235
Fernández, J.S., 17, 59, 281, 289, 438
Fernandez, L., 198
Fine, M., 21, 22, 30, 48, 86, 282, 284, 295, 296, 429, 432, 444, 450
Finkeilkraut, A., 100
First Amendment
to US Constitution, 408
“First World Feminists,” 159
Fisher Onar, N., 269
Fiske, S., 22, 209, 406
Fitna, 295
“flip-flopping”
by politicians, 324
Flores, W.V., 73
flow
defined, 184
Foa, E.B., 43, 48
Foa, U.G., 43, 48
folk psychology, 8
food stamp recipients
stereotypes of, 231
Forbes, 48
Fordham, S., 131–133
Foucault, M., 7–9, 26, 320
Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, 406, 407
fracture points
in revolting times, 432–433
Frazier, E.F., 131
Fredrickson, B., 21
freedom
defined, 68
“free pass”
middle class as given, 229–230
Fregoso, R-L, 159
Freire, P., 13, 196, 254–255, 387, 388, 390
French people
colonization impact on, 266
Friedan, B., 158
friendship
“cross-group,” 371
extended contact and, 370f, 371–372
imagined contact and, 370f, 371–372
Friends of Shelter Associates, 450
Friling, D., 337
Frost, D.M., 18, 83, 435, 444
Fryberg, S.A., 19, 113, 116–119, 122, 123, 434, 435
Fu, A.S., 238
fungibility, 269
of identity space into technology of state, 274
future-forming social psychology
with social justice orientation, 297
futurism
reproductive, 216
G
Gaertner, L., 334
Gaertner, S.L., 305
Gans, H.J., 231–232
Gay Identity Questionnaire, 212
gay men
“choice” question responses by, 413
gaze(s)
male, 21
gender
discrimination related to
social psychological research on, 177–179
ideologies associated with
in conspiring to subordinate certain groups, 23
impact on life satisfaction, 183
scientific study of
contributing to subordination of women, 21
social justice perspective on, 175–191
well-being related to
social justice perspective on, 175–191
workplace incivility and harassment related to, 179–181
gender harassment, 181
non-sexualized, 180
gender identity, 23
gender neutrality, 21
gender polarization
eradication of, 21
generalized militaristic attitudes, 332–333
George, R.M., 291
Gergen, J., 266–267
Gergen, K.J., 297, 431, 432, 441
Gertz, M., 232
Gibson, S., 344–345
Gilbert, D., 249
Gingrich, N., 231
girl(s)
sexualization of
pervasiveness of, 181
Gjerde, P.F., 141, 151, 152, 154
Glick, P., 22, 209
global citizenship, 67
Global Feminisms Project (GFP), 197–198
globalization, 26–28
migration and belonging in, 27
psychological consequences of, 27
psychological perspectives on, 26–27
social justice implications of, 27
social psychology of
rethinking, 292–295
globalized migration
new conflicts in
nation-states in era of, 308–309
goal(s)
of critical-dialogic model of IGD, 382–385
social justice as, 379
Godfrey, E.B., 227–228
“Golden Corridor”
in Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India
toxic pollution in, 46–47
Goldman, A., 157
good(s)
distribution of
distributive justice research on, 43
Goodman, D.J., 255
“good thinking”
described, 119
in Native American contexts, 119
Gorski, P.C., 229, 394
government(s)
in forcibly uprooting children from families and tribal communities, 115–116
government assistance
classist stigma and prejudice against, 238
Grabe, S., 22, 193, 198
Graduate Center
at CUNY, 439
Great Britain
independence for US from
as critical juncture, 265
Great Depression, 231
Great Recession, 231, 237, 247
“Great Society,” 238
Greene, A.D., 227
“green economy,” 65
Greene, M., 430, 437
Greenslate, J., 231
Grey, G., British Gov., 273
Grineski, S., 47
gross domestic product per capita
capabilities approach with, 52
groundWork, 50
group(s)
contact between
in reducing prejudice, 28
emphasis on
justice-related, 6
(p. 462)
immigrant
acculturation orientations of, 305–306
separation of
as cause of prejudice, 28
Group Areas Acts, 47
group-based inequalities
develop intergroup understanding of, 383
group consciousness
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 385–386
group differences
clinical psychology related to
reification of, 148–149
group identity(ies)
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 385–386
develop intergroup understanding of, 383
group learning processes
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 386–389
group life
“darker” side of
narratives of, 13
group membership(s), 301, 302
importance of, 99
social identities tied to, 162
“group-ness”
prevailing sense of
in indigenous peoples, 113
group power
majority and minority
in joint projects model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 358–360
GROWS, 123
Gruskin, S., 176–177
Grusky, D.B., 250
Guetzkow, J., 238
Guided Autobiography, 89
guns, germs, and steel, 270
Gurin, P., 29–30, 164, 168, 379, 385, 434, 450
H
Hakovirta, M., 233
Halabi, R., 373–374
“half-blindness of privilege,” 225
Haliburton, 328
Hall, G.C.N., 142
Hall, R.L., 86
Halpin, S.A., 212
Halverscheid, S., 339
Hamedani, M.G., 238
Hammack, P.L., 3, 87, 215–216, 296, 357, 431, 441, 444, 450
han, 151
Haney, C., 14, 15, 30
happiness
social psychological research on, 182–184
harassment
gender, 181
non-sexualized, 180
heterosexist, 181
racial, 181
sexual, 180–181
workplace
gender- and well-being-related, 179–181
social identities–related, 181
social psychological research on, 179–181
Harell, A., 232
harmony
“irony” of, 394
Harré, R., 322
Hartmann, W.E., 142–143
Haslam, N., 144
“haves,” 237
Hayek, F.A., 205
Hazlett, E., 227
health. see also mental health; physical health
discrimination effects on, 178
lesbian
IOM on, 410–411
“health riskscape”
of South Los Angeles, 49–50
hedonic well-being, 183
hegemonic behaviors
counter-hegemonic behaviors vs., 69
Heidelberg Institute for International Conflict Research, 331
Heine, S.J., 143, 150
Henrich, J., 143, 144, 148
Henry, P.J., 230
Herek, G.M., 14, 15, 23, 30, 207–208, 405, 439, 450
Hermans, D., 323
Hermans, H.J.M., 149
hermeneutic/interpretivist orientation
to epistemology, 444
hermeneutic principles
of critical analysis, 101
Herodotus, 320
Herrera, M., 338
Herrmann, R.K., 333–334
heterophobia
defined, 97
heterosexism
benevolent, 205–219
cultural context of
structural disadvantage related to, 23
defined, 23, 207
described, 207–208
from homophobia to, 206
modern, 206, 208
traditional, 208
heterosexist harassment, 181
heterosexuality
compulsory, 23
Hewstone, M., 384
hierarchy(ies)
class
creation of, 251
ethnic
ideology of, 18
Hika, H., 270–271
Hill, A., 157, 170
Hilton, D., 275
historical knowledge
in critical ontologies in social psychology of social justice, 8
historical landscape
citizenship from, 62–63
historical model
of psychology, 10
history
how it happens, 263–269
social justice and, 6
Hobson, W., 271, 272
Hockaday, M., 3
Hofstede, G., 145–146, 153
Hogan, M.J., 232
Hollway, W., 320
Homans, G., 42
homophobia
defined, 206
described, 206–208
to heterosexism, 206
homosexual(s)
as social categories, 11–12
homosexuality
DSM on, 406–407
as form of pscyhopathology, 406
as mental illness
declassification of, 23
as trend or fashion, 413
Hook, D., 296
Hooker, E.E., 11–13, 15, 24
hooks, b., 249
Hopkins, N., 162
housing
after Hurricane Katrina, 232
Howarth, C., 343
Hoyt, S.K., 253
Huddy, L., 335
Huelskamp, T., 231
human behavior(s)
norms in, 9–11
human nature
“darker” side of
narratives of, 13
human rights
as framework for justice research, 438–439
social justice issues for women through lens of, 22
social structures in defining access to, 176
human sexuality
“fluidity” of, 413
Hume, D., 5
Hurrado, A., 435–436
(p. 463) Hurricane Katrina
survivors seeking housing support after, 232
Hurston, Z.N., 135, 137
Hurtado, A., 20–21, 157, 160, 161, 165, 168–169, 445
Hussein, S., 328, 338
hybrid consciousness, 165, 166
Hyde, J.S., 149
hyphenated identities
examination of, 281
Hyun, K.J., 153
I
identification
intersectional, 168
identification with leaders, 9, 26–27
identity(ies)
activist
embracing, 16
bicultural, 26
Black, 129–140. see also Black identity
cultural
confusion about, 27
gender, 23
group
in critical-dialogic model of IGD, 385–386
develop intergroup understanding of, 383
hyphenated
examination of, 281
intersectional, 158, 162
migrant
in post 9/11 era, 281–299. see also migrant identity, in post 9/11 era
mistaken
citizenship in post 9/11 era, 288–289
multiple
examples of, 162
oppositional
counternarrative to, 132–137
and posttraumatic slave syndrome, 131–132
racial, 291
sexual
development of, 205–219
sexual minority
“normalization” of, 24–25
social. see social identity(ies)
vs. personal, 160
Trans-African, 268
identity acceptance, 211
identity comparison, 211
identity confusion, 211
identity formation
stages of, 211
identity pride, 211
identity salience
in IGD, 384
identity space
fungibility of
into technology of state, 274
identity synthesis, 211–212
identity tolerance, 211
ideology(ies)
classist, 225
gender- and sexuality-related
in conspiring to subordinate certain groups, 23
of racism, 98
unjust
lived experience of, 13
US
small businesses in, 234
idiographic aims
of narrative research, 87, 88
illness(es)
poverty and, 247–248
imagination
radical
challenging dominant discursive binaries binding, 437–438
“imagined community”
modern nation as, 284
imagined contact, 371
friendship and, 370f, 371–372
imagined contact theory, 371
immigrant(s)
outside-inside relationships between different, 285
White vs. African American, 132
immigrant groups
acculturation orientations of, 305–306
immigrant workers
day-to-day living of
US government immigration laws influencing, 285
immigration
in Europe, 302–304
“inspection upon,” 62
incivility
tolerance of, 180
workplace
gender- and well-being-related, 179–181
inclusion
defined, 53
in exclusionary contexts
fostering of, 41–56
moral, 44, 433
inclusionary activism
challenges of, 49–52
inclusionary change
rights and challenges of, 52
inclusionary/exclusionary injustice
described, 49
inclusionary/exclusionary justice, 6, 44–45
inclusionary justice
described, 49
in post 9/11 era, 283
inclusive citizenship, 68
inclusive society
toward more, 254–255
income
social class–related, 249
independent self-construal(s)
from individualistic cultures, 146
indigenous art forms
restitution of self through, 167
indigenous people
colonization of, 19
North American
ongoing psychological colonization of, 113–128. see also North American indigenous peoples
prevailing sense of “group-ness” of, 113
indigenous psychology, 151–152
indigenous students
redefining public education for
QCTE School in, 121–124
indigenous youth
forcibly sent to boarding schools, 115–116
underperformance of
education-related, 118–119
indignados
Spanish
gatherings of, 255
indignity
from antipathy to, 98–100
harm inflicted by
prejudice as, 99–100
prejudice, 100
individualism
comparison of media representations of, 226
individualism-collectivism construct
in cross-cultural psychological research, 145–148
individualistic cultures
independent self-construal from, 146
individual merit
prosperity and
association between, 234
strong belief in, 226
industrial development
impact on environmentally burdened communities, 48
inequality(ies)
class-related
ideology and material conditions intersect to produce and maintain, 225
social psychological research on, 236–239
economic, 27
emotions in fostering understanding of, 392
empirical contributions to studying, 167–169
group-based
develop intergroup understanding of, 383
(p. 464)
increase in
structured into economic and political systems, 42
intersectionality in studying
advantages of, 169
intersectional understandings of, 157–172. see also intersectionality
labor income, 247
limiting discussion of
in coexistence model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 357
substance of contact and, 375–376
widening
researching consequences of, 436–437
inequity(ies)
environment perpetuating women’s subordinate status due to, 195
influence processes
in joint projects model of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 358–360
Inglehart, R., 101
Ingram, H., 232
injustice, 445
environmental
described, 45
through capabilities framework, 51–52
inclusionary/exclusionary, 49
inherent
of capitalism, 6
interrogating
roadmap for, 16–30
justice vs., 42
problematizing of, 196
procedural, 48–49
psychological
classism and, 25–26
resistance of, 13
social. see social injustice
subordination of women as, 21–23
understanding
generating new frameworks for, 438
victims of
study of, 13
In re Marriage Cases, 409
“inspection upon immigration,” 62
Institute for Research on Women and Gender
at University of Michigan, 197
Institute of Medicine (IOM)
on lesbian health, 410–411
institutional classism
interpersonal classism vs., 251–252
insular nationalism, 30
integration, 306
of minorities
and multicultural Europe, 312–314
segregation vs., 135
of social representations of war and military interventions, 342–345
interactional justice, 6
interdependence
fostering of, 238
interdependent self-construal(s)
from collectivistic cultures, 146
intergenerational tensions, 27
intergroup anxiety, 305
intergroup collective project(s) (ICP), 385, 434
intergroup contact, 28–30, 353–365
effects of
generalizing, 369–372, 370f
emergence of contact–prejudice problematic and, 368–369
fading reality of desegregation in, 369–372, 370f
power dynamics and, 372–373
psycho-behavioral model of, 373–374, 374f
in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 353–365
models and modes of, 355–362. see also specific models
planned encounters between Israeli-Jews and Palestinians, 354–355
for social change in social psychology, 367
struggle for social justice and, 367–377
substance of, 29
substance of power and, 373–375, 374f
intergroup dialogue (IGD), 29, 434
critical-dialogic
theoretical model of, 389–393, 389f
critical-dialogic model of, 379–403
alliance building for social action, 397–398
cognitive and affective psychological processes as mediators in, 391–393
communication processes fostering affective and cognitive psychological processes in, 391
described, 381–385
education for change and group learning processes in, 386–389
fostering individual and collective capacities promoting social justice in, 385
goals of, 382–385
group composition and leadership in, 382
group identity and consciousness in, 385–386
illustrative educational activities in, 382–385
pedagogy and communication processes in, 390–391
personal scholarly roots of, 385–389
pitfalls related to, 394–396
possibilities offered by, 396–397
research evidence for, 393–394
critical thinking in, 384
criticisms of, 394–396
defined, 381–385
described, 380–385
education for social justice and, 379–403
empathy in, 384
identity salience in, 384
introduction, 379–381
at University of Michigan, 386
intergroup encounters
models and modes of
in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 355–362. see also specific models, e.g., coexistence model
intergroup relationships
building of
across differences, power, and conflicts, 382–383
norms in, 9–11
intergroup understandings
developing
in IGD, 383
international
transnational vs., 193
International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 145
interpersonal classism
institutional classism vs., 251–252
interpretive paradigm
critical, 8
intersectional identification, 168
intersectional identities, 158, 162
contextually based
construction of, 162–163, 163f
intersectional identity constellations
examination of, 167
intersectionality, 20, 149, 195
borderlands theory and, 164
from borderlands theory through to social identity theory, 165
defined, 159
described, 169–170
development of, 158–160
empirical contributions to studying inequality, 167–169
examination of complexities of
quantitative methods in, 169
in inequality, 157–172
master statuses as embodied in social identity and, 162–164, 163f
social identity theory and, 158, 160–161
in studying inequality
advantages of, 169
intersectionality theory
connections proposed by, 168
intervention(s)
motivations for
rethinking, 255
(p. 465) intimate citizenship, 68, 89
intrapersonal level
narrative function on, 84
invalidation(s)
described, 253
invisibility
absolute, 117
relative, 117
theory of, 117
Iraq
contested storylines in, 324–326
“irony of harmony,” 394
Isin, E.F., 286
“Islamic Fundamentalism,” 284
Islamophobia: A Challenge for Us All, 294
Israel
“confrontational” model developed in, 29
Israeli(s)
Palestinians and
efforts among, 29
Israeli-Jews
Palestinians and
planned encounters between, 354–355
ius sanguinis
principle of, 303
ius solis
principle of, 303
Ivey, A.E., 254
“I was Born with Two Tongues,” 66–67
J
Jackman, M., 99, 208–209
Jackson, L.E., 334
Jacobs, N., 374
Jahoda, M., 4, 14, 15, 183, 430, 436
Jay-Z, 228
Jefferson, T., Pres., 266
joint projects model
of intergroup encounters in settings of protracted ethnopolitical conflict, 357–360
conflicting agendas in, 358
majority and minority group power and influence processes in, 358–360
Jones, J.M., 144
Jost, J.T., 234
journalism
peace
defined, 343–344
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology (JCCP), 143, 145
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (JPSP), 142–143
Journal of Social Issues, 86
judgment(s)
of deservingness, 227–228
juncture(s)
critical, 262
just distribution, 48
justice. see also social justice
in aftermath of “Age of Enlightenment/Age of Discovery,” 261
components of, 42
defined, 41, 43, 319
deontological theory of, 5
described, 41
distributive. see distributive justice
early views on, 5–6
economic
breaking grip of “makers” vs. “takers” in, 236–239
exclusionary, 6
focus on principles, 42
fostering of
in unequal contexts, 51–52
fundamental questions related to, 44
group emphasis in, 6
inclusionary, 6
described, 49
in post 9/11 era, 283
injustice vs., 42
interactional, 6
multicultural Europe and, 312–314
notions of fairness and equality central to, 7
Plato’s conception of, 25
procedural. see procedural justice
psychological models of, 42–45
distributive justice, 43
exclusionary justice, 44–45
inclusionary justice, 44–45
procedural justice, 43–44
in sacrifice zones, 48–49
research on
human rights as framework for, 438–439
scope of, 16, 44, 98, 433
social. see social justice
social psychological approaches to
fundamental questions in, 282–282
spheres of
moral exclusion and, 105–106
tumbling toward, 439–440
justice-oriented citizen, 62, 69–71, 76, 78
education curricula for, 65
justification(s)
worth-related, 101
Justinian I, 319
Jyllands-Posten, 295
K
Kallio, J., 233
Kamin, L., 430
Kant, I., 5
Karzai, H., 325, 326
Kashima, Y., 144
Kay, A.C., 234
Kelman, H.C., 344
Kemmelmeier, M., 149–150
Kempen, H.J.G., 149
Kempf, W., 340
Kennedy, E.M., 15
Kennedy, J., Pres., 322
Kennedy, Justice, 420
“kill the Indian, save the man,” 115–116
Kim, H.S., 147
Kim, U., 151
Kitayama, S., 146
Kitzinger, C., 107, 207, 215
Klineberg, O., 406, 407
knowledge production process
in psychology, 154
Knowles, E.D., 229
Koch, C., 48
Koch, D., 48
Koch Industries, 48
Kohlberg, L., 324
Kondo, D., 286
Koudelka, J., 45
Kowalewski, D., 344
Kraus, M.W., 228
Krieger, N., 175, 178
Kühn, F.P., 339
Kumashiro, K., 398
Ku, M.C., 250
Kuusisto, R., 338
Kymlicka, W., 301, 312, 313
L
labor income inequality, 247
la facultad, 165
Lamoreaux, M., 150
landscape(s)
economic
citizenship from, 63–65
historical
citizenship from, 62–63
legal
citizenship from, 63
multicultural
citizenship from, 66–67
social
in shaping citizenship construction, 62–67. see also specific types and social landscapes, in shaping citizenship constructions
Langdridge, D., 24–25, 205, 434, 435, 444
Langhout, R.D., 17, 59, 281, 289, 438
Lasswell, H., 336, 340
Latina/o(s)
cultural citizenship performance by, 73
social identities of, 164–167
Lauderdale, P., 42
Laumann, E.O., 411
law(s)
EVAW, 325–326
laypeople’s representations
of war and military interventions, 336–337
(p. 466) leader(s)
identification with, 9
Leavitt, P., 116–117
Lee, D., 439
Lee, R.M., 151
legacy of slavery
Black identity related to, 130–132
legal landscape
citizenship from, 63
legal prohibition
of same-sex marriage
justification for, 88–89
legal record
empirical evidence in
introducing, 439
legitimate social identity
diagnosable mental condition vs., 11
Lennon, M.C., 229
Leondar-Wright, B., 250
lesbian(s)
“choice” question responses by, 412–413
health of
IOM on, 410–411
lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBT) social movement
“coming out” by, 210–216
perceived successes of
challenges related to, 24
lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer (LGBQ) persons
advancing social justice for, 205–219
Leung, A.K.Y., 144–146, 150
Levine, M., 99
Lewin, K., 4, 12, 106, 282
LGBTQIA+ movements, 76
liberal citizenship, 61
liberalism
in social justice, 205–206
liberal social justice, 206
Rawlsian version of, 206
liberation
cultural citizenship and, 70–71
liberation psychology
emergence of, 194
feminist, 196–197
praxis in, 197
liberty
citizenship for, 68
defined, 68
Liebow, E., 436
life satisfaction
social psychological research on, 182–184
variability of
mediating factors leading to, 183
“life-space”
of prejudice, 100–103
life stories, 83–93. see also under narrative(s)
studying, 84
Lipsitz, G., 247
Litt, W.M., 254
Liu, J.H., 27, 261, 269, 274, 275, 438, 447
Liu, W., 296–297
“locker-room talk,” 4
Lonner, W.J., 145
Lopez, G.E., 388
Lott, B., 25, 224, 251, 436
Lowery, B.S., 229
Lugones, M., 196
“lumpy” groups
classes as, 250
Lykes, B.M., 167
Lykes, M.B., 197
Lyon, A.J., 337
Lyons, E., 337
Lyubomirsky, S., 147
M
MacIntyre, A., 446
Maes, J., 332–333
Mahalingam, R., 287–289
Mail & Guardian, 47
Maira, S., 283, 284–285, 291, 295
Major, B., 229
“makers”
lauding of, 233–235
political discourse surrounding, 233–234
social policies impacting, 235
“makers” vs. “takers,” 223–243
breaking grip of, 236–239
complicating line between, 235–236
divisiveness of
overturning, 238
social psychological analysis of, 223–243
male gaze, 21
Malone, M.F.T., 337
Malthus, T., 5–6
Mania, F.W., 305
Manifesto of the Communist Party, 25
Mãori, 269–276
Mãori King Movement, 272–274
Mãori Renaissance, 274–275
Maoz, I., 29, 353, 362, 433–434
Maramba, G.G., 142
marginality
discriminating, 290–291
described, 289
empowering
described, 289
positive, 13
marginalization, 306
Marienthal, 436
Mark of Oppression, 131
Markus, H.R., 115, 119, 146, 238
marriage(s)
meaning of, 88–89
same-sex. see same-sex marriage
marriage equality, 88–89
Martín-Baró, I., 13, 194, 430, 437
Martinez, T.A., 166, 168
Marx, K., 6
on social justice, 25
social theory of, 26
Maslow, A., 183
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
RCGD at, 282
Massey, S.G., 206, 208, 210
mass media
invisibility of indigenous representations in, 116–118
master statuses
diversity vs., 162
as embodied in social identities
intersectionality and, 162–164, 163f
Matsumoto, D., 145
Mayer, J., 48
Mayn, H., 340
Mazie, S., 42
McAdams, D.P., 84
McCall, L., 168, 169
McCoy, S.K., 229
McGarty, C., 342
McGuire, K., 197–198
McIntosh, P., 254
McKenna, N., 3
Mead, G.H., 26
meaning
of marriage, 88–89
questions of
as social concern, 85
media
discourse on war and military interventions, 339–340
invisibility of indigenous representations in, 116–118
in process of social representational change of war and military interventions, 343
representations of individualism in, 226
“melting pot”
citizenship from, 66–67
as colonizing context, 70
membership(s)
in cultural citizenship, 71
group, 99, 162, 301, 302
Memmi, A., 97–98, 100, 108
mental condition(s)
diagnosable
vs. legitimate social identity, 11
mental health
discrimination effects on, 178
perceptions of sexism impact on, 178
mental illness
homosexuality as
declassification of, 23
merit(s)
individual
and prosperity, 234
strong belief in, 226
(p. 467)
recognition in
vs. equality in culture, 311
terms of, 301, 302
meritocracy, 25
belief in, 229
Merkel, A., German Chancellor, 303
Merlau-Ponty, 288
mestiza (hybrid) consciousness, 21, 165, 166
“methodolatry,” 442
Mexicans
social identities of, 166, 167
Meyer, I.H., 14, 15, 23, 86, 414
Mickelson, K.D., 227
microagression(s), 180
class-based, 252
described, 252
microassault(s)
described, 253
microinsult(s)
described, 253
middle class
described, 250
as given a “free pass,” 229–230
upper
described, 250
migrant(s)
myth of being model minority in US, 286–289
migrant identity
in post 9/11 era, 281–299
citizenship and resistance, 291–292
citizenship and turban, 289–291
citizenship of mistaken identities, 288–289
misembodiments and misrecognition of, 287–288
myth of being model of minority in U.S., 286–289
Sikh Americans, 287–288
toward social justice–oriented social psychology, 295–297
migration
citizenship and
in post 9/11 era, 283–284
economic
cultural diversity as outcome of, 303
globalized
new conflicts in, 308–309
as key concept in new global order, 27
social psychology of
rethinking, 292–295
Milgram, S., 12, 444
militaristic attitudes
generalized, 332–333
military intervention(s)
attitudes toward, 332–335
cognitive construals of, 333–334
elite discourses on, 337–339
emotions and, 334–335
laypeople’s representations of, 336–337
moral disengagement related to, 334
social representations of, 331–350
cognitive polyphasia, 337
historical and political context, 337
implications for “constructing defenses of peace,” 343–344
individual and group differences in relation to, 341–342
integration and, 342–345
media in, 343
research on, 344–345
specific
attitudes toward, 333
in twenty-first century
social representations theory in examining, 28
Miller, T., 284
mindset
of ex-slaves, 133
of slaves, 133
minority(ies)
integration of
and multicultural Europe, 312–314
model
myth of being, 286–289
sexual
psychological research on neglecting documentation and analysis of resistance branch of movement, 24
minority stress theory, 23–24
Minow, V., 322
Mischel, W., 224
mismatch(es)
cultural
impact of, 119
mismatching
cultural
theory of, 119
mistaken identity(ies)
citizenship of
in post 9/11 era, 288–289
Moane, G., 196–197
mobility
class
in US, 228
upward
beliefs about, 228
“mobility dream,” 310
model minority myth
facets of, 286–287
misembodiments and misrecognition
Sikh Americans post 9/11, 287–288
modern heterosexism, 206, 208
modern savagery, 338
modern social psychology
founder of, 282
Moghaddam, F.M., 28, 319, 324, 438
Mohanty, C.T., 196, 199–200, 285
Molina, K., 287
Monnet, J., 105
Montgomery County Police Department
Community Relation Division of, 290
Moon, P., 269–271, 274
moral concern
in rehumanizing other, 361
moral development
model of, 324
moral dilemma(s)
“American dilemma” as, 102
multiculturalism in European societies–related, 102
moral disengagement
war- and military interventions–related, 334
moral emotions
military interventions and, 334–335
moral exclusion, 16, 44, 433
in Europe
fate of, 103–105
spheres of justice and, 105–106
moral inclusion, 44, 433
moral worth, 101
Morling, B., 150
Moschner, B., 332–334, 341, 342
Moscovici, S., 104, 108, 264, 312, 339, 359
“Mother’s Forums,” 326
motivation(s)
to intervene
rethinking, 255
Movimiento Autónomo de Mujeres, 198
Moynihan, D.P., Sen., 131
multicultural Europe, 27, 301–317
historical background of, 303–304
immigration and, 302–304
integration of minorities and, 312–314
justice issues and, 312–314
moral dilemmas in, 102
new conflicts in
era of globalized migration and social injustice and, 308–309
social justice in, 301–317
social identity theory and, 301, 302
social psychological perspective on, 301–317
social representations theory and, 301, 302
social order in
social and cultural representations of, 309–312, 310t
social representations and identity in, 307–308
multicultural landscape
citizenship from, 66–67
multiple identities
examples of, 162
multiple realities
perception of, 165
multiple subjectivities, 165
Murphy, E., 86
Musgrove, L., 342
musket wars, 270–271
(p. 468) Muslim(s)
feelings of
in post 9/11 era, 281
Muslim Americans
Palestinian
feelings of, 281
in post 9/11 era, 281