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date: 23 July 2017

(p. 1391) Index

Note: Page numbers followed by “f” and “t” refer to figures and tables, respectively.

diversity and,1012–13
entity theory of,288
extroversion and,150
HPWS and,779
incremental theory of,288
malleability of,288
neuroticism and,150
PFC and,1185
stability over time of,147
testing of,8
ability, cognitive,270
aging and,1253–55
continuous learning and,1254
crystallized,1253, 1256
dynamic performance and,554–55
fluid,1253, 1256
gender and,1253
performance and,149
for selection,229–31
stability over time of,147
training and,340–41, 1254–55
ability, KSAOs,221–41
adverse impact and,1055, 1058
predictor composites with,229–33
ability, KSAs,60
brand equity and,214
developmental interaction and,333
JCM and,253
knowledge transfer of,332
PE and,386
recruitment and,213
self-regulation and,334–35
self-selection and,212–13
from training,331
as training objectives,346
work design and,270
ability, physical
adverse impact and,1060
aging and,1252–53, 1262
safety and,1231
in selection,233
ability-demand theory,377
fit and,379
aging and,1257
autonomous work groups and,251
diversity and,1016
JCM and,253
from physical demands,262
scientific management and,250
social support and,264
stress and,1235
in teams,919
work design and,257
absorptive capacity,946
OD and,969–71
research on,977t
Academy of Management (AOM),25t, 43, 411, 416, 428
Academy of Management Executive (AME),430
Academy of Management Journal (AMJ),410, 414, 1105
Academy of Management Learning and Education (AMLE),437
aging and,1256
psychological contracts and,1238
accident-prone individuals,1230–31
for disabilities,1040
in learning,1214
PE and,395–96
for religion,1041–42
in socialization,587–88
in work-family interface,1187
culture and,1121–22
GO and,289
individual empowerment and,774–75
nAch,206, 270
achievement-oriented leadership behavior,708
Achilles, Paul S.,41
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS),1083–84
acrobats, in work-family interface,1187
continuous learning and,1203
in interdisciplinary research,1308
actional-personal learning barrier,975
action phases, dynamic performance in,563
emergent states and,869
in team learning,865–69, 866f
active context,936–37
active learning
motivation and,477
work design and,269
active performance,183–84, 551t
activity theory,1311
ACT* model of learning,334
Adams, J. Stacey,52
(p. 1392) adaptation,17–18
aging and,1270
expertise as,1354
NDM and,1359
in organizational culture,656
with team learning,869
in virtual teams,812
adaptive capacity,310
adaptive learning,1214–15
adaptive performance,183–84, 185t, 287, 551t
multilevel models of,867f
research on,315
adaptive responding,268–69
adaptive structuration theory,827, 831, 835, 836, 841, 846, 849
adaptive transfer,337
additive models, construct validity and,99–100
additive tasks,865
adjustment learning,973
Administrative Science Quarterly,50
administrative skills,287
adult learning.See continuous learning
Advanced Institute of Management (AIM),411
adverse impact (AI),1054–55
ACs and,1059
biodata and,1059
criteria for,1061–63
diversity climate and,1062
gender and,1060
interviews and,1057
KSAOs and,1055, 1058
measures of,1055–61
meta-analysis for,1055, 1057
performance and,1061–63
physical abilities and,1060
reduction strategies for,1063
SIT and,1062
SJTs and,1058–61
subgroup differences and,1058–59
work samples and,1057–58
Advertising, Its Principles, Practice, and Technique (Starch),34
advertising, recruitment and,210
advocacy seeking,1065–66
affect,14–15. See also emotions; mood
behaviors and,519n1
culture and,1132
direct fit and,383
dynamic performance and,562
measurement of,517–19
motivation and,59–60
in negotiation,1132
organizational justice and,536–39, 542, 543
positive spillover and,1183
satisfaction and,496–520
social networks and,683
team effectiveness and,913, 918
in work-family interface,1183
affective events theory (AET),13, 512f, 513, 562
attitudes and,511–12
affective well-being,538
affirmative action (AA),1021, 1024
conservatism and,1049
African Americans.See also race
recruitment of,207
absenteeism and,1257
accidents and,1256
adaptation and,1270
agreeableness and,1260
ASA and,1259
assertiveness and,1259
attitudes and,1256–58
benefits packages and,1266
Big Five personality model and,1259–60
bridge jobs and,1263–64
cardiovascular disease and,1254
career and,1249, 1269–70
citizenship skills and,1256, 1260
cognitive ability and,1253–55
commitment and,1256, 1259
competence and,1256
complexity and,1256
conscientiousness and,1260
context and,1249
culture audit and,1269
CWB and,1256
demographic changes and,1245–76
dependability and,1259
disability and,1041
dominance and,1258
downsizing and,1270
EEO and,1261
emotional conflict and,1018
experience and,1265
future directions with,1275–76
FWA and,1262–64
health and,1254
health insurance and,1266
hearing and,1253
HRM and,1245
HRM audit and,1269
independence and,1258
individualism and,1258
information-processing and,1265
injuries and,1253, 1256
job design and,1234–35, 1266–67
job sharing and,1263
job transfers and,1263
knowledge and,1265
knowledge audit and,1269
knowledge retention and,1267
meta-analysis for,1265
motivation and,480–81, 484
needs analysis and,1270
norms for,1248–49
openness and,1260
organizational strategies for,1260–74
part-time work and,1263
pay and,1266
perceptions on,1249
performance and,1255–56
performance appraisal discrimination by,1073–74
personality and,1258–60
physical abilities and,1252–53, 1262
physical redesign and,1266
psychological contracts and,1269–70
recruitment and,1261–62
responsibility and,1258
satisfaction and,1257
selection and,1262
self-confidence and,1259
self-control and,1258
self-efficacy and,480–81, 1264, 1273
self-management and,1270
sensory redesign and,1266–67
stereotypes with,1248, 1264–65
strategic human resource management and,1268
strategic planning for,1267–69
stress and,1267
training and,1264–66
turnover and,1257
visual acuity and,1253
work and,19
work flow and pace redesign and,1267
workforce planning and,1268
work schedules and,1263
age audit,1268–69
age bias.See age discrimination
age discrimination,1040–41, 1247–52
in interviews,1249
legal perspective on,1250–51
meta-analysis for,1249
recommended practices with,1249–50
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA),50, 1250–51
CWB and,309
job design and,1266
agency theory,812
in organizational justice,531–34, 531f, 534f, 541–42
team effectiveness and,923–24
aggressive/defensive organizational culture,659
aging and,1260
recruitment and,1114
SDO and,1048
teams with,145–46
Air Force Personnel and Training Research Center (AFPTRC),44
Akaike information criterion (AIC),134, 135
Akio Morita,993
Albermarle v. Moody,53
alcohol, stress and,1235
Allen, David,428
Alliance of Organizational Psychology,28t
allied couples, in work-family interface,1187
Allport, G.,39
alpha leaders,702
amae-on-giri (exchange between supervisors and subordinates),1108
ambient noise level,94
American Association of Applied Psychology (AAAP),25t, 49
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP),1261
American Behavioral Scientist,1164
American Community Survey,1040
American Institutes of Research (AIR),25t, 46
American Psychological Association (APA),13, 23t, 30, 39–40, 45
American Society for Training and Development (ASTD),46, 330–31
American Society of Training Directors,46
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA),56, 58, 1040
CWB and,309
obesity and,1043
analysis of covariance (ANCOVA),12
analysis of variance (ANOVA),12
HF and,1291
for personality,1258
anchoring bias,1131
androgyny,1215, 1216
stress and,1235
Annual Review of Psychology,957, 1287
anonymous CMC brainstorming,796
anticipatory socialization,586–87
conservatism and,1049
leadership and,708
psychological contracts and,1238
retirement planning and,1271
stress and,1235
Applebaum, H.,5
Applied Psychology Panel,25t
Applied Psychology Unit (APU),49
appreciative inquiry (AI),416
discrimination in,1036
NDM and,1371–72
approach motivation,468
appropriability, in social networks,676–77
aptitude testing,24t
aptitude-treatment interactions (ATIs),154
work design and,255
Archives of the History of American Psychology (AHAP),51
Argyris, Chris,47, 53
Army Alpha,24t
Army Beta,24t
Army General Classification Test,25t
Army Research Institute (ARI),55
TheArt of War (Sun Tzu),1103
Asians.See race
assessment centers (ACs),235–36, 1059, 1115
Assessment of Men,45
by individuals,399
in learning,1214
outcomes and,399
PE and,395–96
Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (ACM SIGCHI),1326
Association of Consulting Psychologists (ACP),25t, 40
Association of Life Agency Offices,50
attention phase, of information-processing,873
attitudes,14–15. See also satisfaction
aging and,1256–58
autonomous work groups and,251
brand equity and,212–13
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
culture and,1112, 1126–27
engagement and,520n3
fairness and,533
feedback and,291
integrative model of,509, 509f
measurement of,516–19
mentoring and,622t, 624
OD and,960
organizational climate and,649
PE and,374
procedural justice and,528
of protégé,623
retirement and,1272
roles and,511–14
social attitudes and,498–99
social networks and,681–82
stress and,1236
team effectiveness and,913, 918
theoretical models of,502–10
training and,341
transformational leadership and,1138
work design and,258, 270
AT&T Management Progress Study,26t
attraction-selection-attrition (ASA),375, 587, 996–97
aging and,1259
dynamic mediation and,126
homosocial reproduction and,679
in-group/out-group and,1052
interindividual variability and,144–45
intraindividual variability and,153
PE and,386
SDO and,1048
traits and,150
of leadership,713–14
social networks and,674–75
of team members,777
attributional ambiguity paradigm,1079
attribution errors,1131
attribution theory,813, 819
augmentation effect,710
augmented cognition,1316–17
augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF),134
R code for,142
automaticity, NDM and,1366
autonomous, first order, K-dimensional difference equation,121
autonomous work groups,251
culture and,1107
in decision making,260
in individualistic cultures,500
JCM and,253
(p. 1394) meta-analysis for,260
PE and,374
team empowerment and,769
work design and,260
with work schedules,260
aversive racism,1050
Aviation Cadet Qualifying Examination,45
Aviation Psychology Unit of the Army Air Forces,25t, 45
avoidance motivation,468
avoid performance,266
awareness.See also situation awareness
CSCW and,1328
product,203–4, 209
training for,1250
Ayres, I.,437
baby boom,1246–47
Bacon, Francis,29
balanced scorecards,289
Balmer, Thomas L.,34
Bandura, Albert,51, 52
Bannon, Liam,1340
Bartlett, C.J.,47
Bartlett, Frederick,1310
Bayesian approach,95
Bayesian information criterion (BIC),135
behaviors.See also specific behaviors or behavior types
affect and,519n1
age discrimination and,1250
in Kirkpatrick's typology,353–54
in leadership,704–6, 708
motivation and,457
organizational culture and,657
organizational learning and,935
performance and,549, 913
of protégé,625
in safety climate,1233
satisfaction and,499–500
self-esteem and,149
SH and,1064
team effectiveness and,913
in team empowerment,772
team learning and,869
behavioral activation system (BAS),468
behavioral engagement,772
Behavioral Expectation Scales (BES),27t, 54
behavioral inhibition system (BIS),468
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS),27t, 54
behavioral management programs,306
Behavioral Observation Scales (BOS),27t, 54
behavioral observation training,188
behavioral performance unit,563
behavioral team processes,1129
ABehavioral Theory of the Firm (Cyert and March),939
Behavior Description Questionnaire,170
behaviorism,39, 40, 44–45
behavior modification,27t
Bell System, Management Progress Study by,46
fairness and,534
mentoring and,631–32
PE and,398
socialization and,584
in team spatial interdependence,758
work design and,270
benefits packages,8–9
aging and,1266
discrimination in,1036
recruitment and,199
Bennis, Warren G.,1349
best practices, for virtual teams,835
“Best Practices Project,”1114
best sellers,427
BIAS map,1044
bidirectional causal models,83
Big Five personality model,703–4
aging and,1259–60
discrimination and,1048
Bills, Marion A.,37, 37f
Binet-Simon intelligence test,33
Bingham, Walter,36, 151
biodata,234, 1059
biological clock,561
biological work design,254, 254t
bivariate dynamic models,119, 119f
Blink: The Power of Thinking Without Thinking (Gladwell),419
block modeling,671
blood pressure,1182
“Blue Books,”25t, 45
bobo doll,124
body mass index (BMI),1043
Bohr, Niels,9, 1385
bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ),1250
leadership and,708
scientific management and,250
stress and,1235
bottom-up influence, culture and,1141–42
Bovet, Pierre,40
Boy Scout organizational personality,206
brain-computer interface,1316–17
brainstorming,796, 814
brand equity
attitudes and,212–13
expectations and,214
factors in,203–4
familiarity and,209
fit and,212–13
individuals and,212–14
KSAs and,214
OCB and,214
organizational culture and,214
outcomes and,210
performance and,213–14
presocialization and,214
product awareness and,203–4
recruitment and,197–216
reputation and,201–5
theory of,202–3
turnover and,213
Bregman, Elsie Oschrin,24t, 38
bridge jobs, aging and,1263–64
bridges, in social networks,680–81, 681f
bridging leadership theories,710–11
broaden and build theory, of positive emotions,567
brokerage-performance relationship,676
Brown, C.W.,50
Brown, Ken,436
Brown v. Board of Education,44
bubble hypothesis,111
Building an Interdisciplinary Science of Organizations (Roberts, Hulin, and Rousseau),11
Bureau of Retail Training,36
burnout,19, 1239
insomnia and,1236
situational accountability and,264
Burns, J.M.,169
Burt, R.S.,685
Burtt, Harold,40
business psychology,22
business trips,594
in Coca-Cola,34
stress and,1235
California Psychological Inventory (CPI),1258
“Cambridge Cockpit,”1310
Campbell Causal Model (CCM),79–80, 89–101, 111
RCM and,103
Campbell et al. model, for performance,163–65
Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science,1236
Canadian Pacific (CP),994
for leadership,310, 718–19
for management,310
capacity, absorptive,946
OD and,969–71
research on,977t
capitalism, Puritanism and,6
cardiovascular disease
aging and,1254
stress and,1235
age/aging and,1249, 1269–70
continuous learning for,1202–3, 1207–8
diversity and,1022
growth curve,1213
recent views of,6–7
social networks and,685–86
stress and,1236
Carnegie Institute of Technology (CIT),22, 24t, 35, 36, 37
Carr, Nicolas,1288
Carter, Jimmy,51
cash flow,289
catecholamines,1182, 1185
categorical approach, to diversity,1012
Cattell, James McKeen,30, 31, 31f, 40–41, 64n15
causal chain models,82–83
causation,81–108. See also specific causation models
CAS and,109
definition of,84–85
DV and,80, 87, 88–89
forms of,81–84
in organizational climate,652
relationships with,87–89
cell phones,1300
Center for Creative Leadership,55
Central Intelligence Agency,45
causal chain models,82–83
knowledge transfer in,935
unidirectional influence,126
value chain,1002–3
Challenger disaster,934
change.See also age/aging; dynamic performance
conservatism and,1049
continuous learning and,1204
dynamic performance and,550
feasibility of,967
first order,973
motivation and,457–58, 469t, 470f, 477–82
performance and,183, 559
second order,973
in socialization,597
teleological theories of,963
in traits,147
in work-family interface,1187–89
change, demographic,7
aging and,1245–76
discrimination and,1046
fertility and,1246
foundations of,1246
immigration and,1246
life expectancy,1246
morality and,1246
work and,249, 1246–47
change, organizational,960–72, 978–86
action research and,982–83
CAS and,980–81
CSCW and,1327–28
development and,357–58
learning and,357–58
multilevel models and,983–84
sustainability and,984–86
system dynamics and,979–80
training and,357–58
change, readiness for,964–70
antecedents to,968
future directions in,968–70
research on,977t
changing-subject model, of dynamic performance,556
changing-task model, of dynamic performance,556
chaos theory,963
Chapanis, Alphonse,1310
in collectivistic cultures,1134
culture and,1138
in individualistic cultures,1134
in leadership,699, 710–11, 1134, 1138
organizational justice and,540–41
chaturanga (game),1354
socialization of,580–81, 581t
work-family interface and,1174–75
choice measures,457
Choleski decomposition,138
circadian rhythm,568
citizenship skills,287. See also organizational citizenship behavior
aging and,1256, 1260
Civic Virtue,166, 167
Civil Rights Act (CRA),50, 56, 1021
adverse impact and,1054
civil rights movement,44, 50–51, 1021
Civil Service Examinations,23t, 32
Civil Service Selection Board,49
Claperáde, Edward,40
clarity, situational strength and,475
classical decision making (CDM),1351
of fit,389t
climate for creativity,648
Clinton, Bill,56
clusters, in social networks,680–81, 681f
executive,298–99, 356
research on,313–14
Coca-Cola, caffeine in,34
Coch, L.,50
Coe, George A.,34
cognition.See also macrocognition
age discrimination and,1250
continuous learning and,1209–12
discrimination and,1043–47
in organizational justice,527, 534–39
organizational learning and,935
PFC and,1185
processes of,28t
SA and,1298
social networks and,675
team performance and,889
virtual teams and,791, 802
cognitive ability,270
aging and,1253–55
continuous learning and,1254
crystallized,1253, 1256
dynamic performance and,554–55
fluid,1253, 1256
gender and,1253
performance and,149
for selection,229–31
stability over time of,147
training and,340–41, 1254–55
cognitive ability tests (CATs),1055–56, 1115
cognitive-behavioral interventions,1240
cognitive engineering,1293, 1306–19
efficiency and,1310
epistemological approaches to,1307–9
future directions for,1314–17
HAI and,1313–14
history of,1309–14
individuals and,1310
interdisciplinary approach to,1307–8
systems and,1311–14
tasks and,1311–14
use-inspired science and,1307
cognitive evaluation theory (CET),306–7, 466
performance and,304
cognitive inference, in virtual teams,814
cognitive neuroscience,9
cognitive performance
job complexity and,262
work design and,258–59
cognitive psychology,54, 60
Cognitive Psychology,51
cognitive resource theory (CRT),707
cognitive style theory,820
cognitive systems engineering (CSE),1314
cognitive task analysis (CTA),339
NDM and,1361–64, 1361t1362t
task analysis and,1312–13
for training,348
cognitive team process,1128
cognitive tradition,1130
diversity and,1017
team learning and,883–85, 900t
team performance and,913
in virtual teams,800
Colbert, Amy,436
collaboration.See also teams
with continuous learning,1201
diversity and,1029
in information-processing,874
Collaborative for Evidence-Based Management (CEBMA),430
collective burnout,19, 1239
collective efficacy
SMM and,883
in team learning,882–83, 900t
team performance and,923
in virtual teams,800–801
collective knowledge,901t
macrocognition and,894–96
team learning and,886–88
collective versus individual socialization,590
collectivistic cultures,311–12
charisma in,1134
decision making in,1136
empowerment and,776
equity theory and,1122
feedback in,1125
fit in,1114
in-group/out-group in,1117, 1128
interdependence in,1119
loyalty in,1120
motivation in,1119
outcomes in,1122
performance appraisals in,1117
promotion in,1118
recruitment in,1114
self-actualization in,1120
self-efficacy in,1125
virtual teams and,797
collegiality, continuous learning and,1203
Columbia disaster,934
commensurate dimension, of PE,377–78
aging and,1256, 1259
culture and,1126–27
team effectiveness and,913, 919
Committee on Aviation Psychology,43
Committee on Classification of Personnel,38
Committee on Selection and Training of Aircraft Pilots,45
commonality, in information-processing,874
Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ),27t, 58
communication.See also computer-mediated communication
culture and,1132
diversity and,1017
in individual performance,180
research on,315
in spatial interdependence,754–57
in virtual teams,796–97, 802, 812, 827
Communications of the ACM,1328
Community Readiness for Change,967
comparative fit,396–97
comparison level model (CL),503–4, 504t
compensation.See pay
aging and,1256
continuous learning as,1204–5
JCS and,1314
team empowerment and,769
training and,346–48
Competing Values model,659
competition, from forced distributions,303
competitive advantage
from recruitment,211–12
sustainability of,240
compilation models,895
interrindividual variability and,145
for PE,379–80
for team learning,863, 870f
complaint resolution time,289
complementary fit,378–79
misfits and,393
complex adaptive systems (CAS),109, 175, 980–81
aging and,1256
continuous learning and,1204
goals and,288
goal setting and,463
in HR,998–99
individual empowerment and,775
organizational climate and,644, 651
performance and,559
self-efficacy and,567
shared perceptions and,651
of tasks,82f, 557
TMS and,893
with virtual teams,794
work design and,261–62
compliance,166, 167
discrimination as,1054
component complexity,288
compositional approach, to diversity,1013
composition models
construct validity and,99–100
for PE,379–80
computer-mediated communication (CMC),791, 794
anonymous brainstorming,796
CSCW and,1326
FTF and,796–97
TMS and,892
computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW),19, 1323–45
awareness and,1328
CMC and,1326
consequences of,1331
developers’ taxonomy for,1335–36
GDSS and,1323
hardware platforms for,1327f
history of,1326–31
Internet and,1329
media richness theory and,1342
models of,1331–32, 1332f
organizational change and,1327–28
social research on,1325
taxonomies and typologies in,1333–40
technology overview of,1324–25
theoretical impact of,1328–30
theory in,1340–45
Internet and,1288
stress and,1235
Concept of Work (Applebaum),5
conceptual domain approach, to readiness for change,966
Conditional Reasoning Theory (CRT),459
confirmatory factor analyses (CFA),27t, 57
for interactional justice,528
for team learning,869
conflict.See also work-family conflict
as criteria,803
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
culture and,1130–34
distraction-conflict theory,834
with emotions,1018
(p. 1397) group effects and,1017–18
with roles,207, 266, 1165, 1236
social networks and,688
team learning and,883–85, 900t
in virtual teams,802–3, 813, 833, 836, 840
congruence, PE and,396
conscientiousness,166, 704
adverse impact and,1056
aging and,1260
dynamic performance and,554–55
GO and,289
readiness to learn and,1215
RWA and,1048
teams with,145–46
work design and,270
conscientiousness initiative,307
direct consensus models,99–100
referent-shift consensus,99, 769
situational strength and,475
conservation model,1271–72
discrimination and,1049
consideration,705, 709
of use,9
in organizational culture,656
situational strength and,475
of task,557
constraints, situational strength and,475
JCS and,1314
in team horizontal interdependence,737
validity,90, 97–100, 98t, 222
construct-irrelevant variance,97
constructive organizational culture,659
consultative leadership,1136
motivation and,469–73, 469t, 470f, 1119–22
in NDM,1369–70
psychological contracts and,1238
readiness for change and,966
in socialization,580–81, 600–604, 601t602t
in training,346–48
content innovation roles,590
context.See also situations
in activity theory,1311
age and,1249
collective burnout and,1239
culture and,1141
diversity and,1020, 1026
in knowledge creation,939–40
in knowledge retention,943
in knowledge transfer,945–46
mentoring and,629–30
motivation and,457, 469t, 470f, 473–77
organizational climate and,651
organizational learning and,937–38
performance and,550
performance appraisals and,300–301
SA and,1299
safety and,1234
team mental models and,890
of work design,256, 264–65
contextual performance,166–67
adverse impact and,1056
performance management and,307–8
task performance and,286–87
contingency theories,52
of leadership,27t, 706–10, 1137
contingent reward (CR),82f, 710, 711
continuity theory,111
continuous change,962
continuous learning,18–19, 333–34, 1199–1224
for career,1202–3, 1207–8
change and,1204
cognition and,1209–12
cognitive ability and,1254
collaboration with,1201
as competence,1204–5
complexity and,1204
contract employees and,1203–4
definitions of,1200–1202
development with,1201, 1209–13, 1210t1211t
driving trends for,1203–6
empowerment and,1218
expansiveness in,1207
expectancy-value cognitions and,1209
feedback and,1208, 1220
formal methods for,1220–22
future agenda for,1222–24
individual differences in,1207–9
informal methods for,1220–22
knowledge through,1200–1201
for leadership,1206, 1222
life cycle theory and,1213
models of,1206–7
motivation for,1207–8
orders of mind and,1212–13
organizational culture and,1216–18
outcomes with,1206, 1222
participation in,1206
skills through,1200–1201
societal goals and,1205–6
support for,1216–22
theoretical foundation for,1206–16
training and,348
contract employees, continuous learning and,1203–4
control and agency theory,821
control theory,840
convergent-divergent theory,848, 1214
convergent validity,222
in leadership,717
work design and,269
coordinative complexity,288
Coping with Harassment Questionnaire (CHQ),1066
core processes,14–15
core self-evaluations (CSEs),507–8
Core Self-Evaluations Job Affect Multilevel Model (CSEJAM),514–15, 514f
core values
culture as,658
organizational culture and,658–59
Cornell Couples and Careers Study,1188
Cornell model of attitudes,502–3, 503f
corporate social responsibility,208, 1222
corrected correlation,226
correlation coefficient,64n5
counterproductive work behavior (CWB),180–81, 501
aging and,1256
fairness and,533
performance and,287
performance management and,308–9
Cowdery, Karl,37
adaptive performance and,287
social networks and,689
work design and,257
for adverse impact,1061–63
conflict as,803
for leadership,700–701
motivation and,482
for performance,161, 1116–19
for performance appraisals,302
for selection,1114
for team effectiveness,910–27, 914t, 920t
values as,658
criterion deficiency,46
criterion-related validity,40, 222, 228
cross correlations,118f
cross-cultural psychology,18, 1103–44
achievement and,1121–22
affect and,1132
attitudes and,1112, 1126–27
(p. 1398) autonomy and,1107
behavioral team processes and,1129
bottom-up influence and,1141–42
charisma and,1138
communication and,1132
conflict and,1130–34
context and,1141
contingency leadership and,1137
continuous learning and,1222
cross-level direct effect models of,1111–12
cross-level moderator effect models of,1112–13
definitions of,1109–10
descriptive norms in,1110–11
dispersion models and,1111
empowerment and,1106
equity theory and,1122
expectancy theory and,1123
extrinsic motivation and,1121
fairness and,1106
feedback and,1118, 1124–25
future research in,1139–40, 1145t
globalization and,1109
goals and,1124
goal setting theory and,1123–24
hierarchy of needs theory and,1119–11120
history of,1104–5
implicit measures of,1110
improving intercultural interactions,1108–9
indigenous perspectives and,1144
individuals and,1119–27
in-group/out-group and,1127
interfaces for,1143–44
intrinsic motivation and,1120–21
leadership and,1112, 1134–38
levels of analysis for,1109–10, 1112f, 1142
LMX and,1137
meta-analysis for,1105
models of,1111–13
motivation and,1112, 1119–25, 1128, 1131–32
motivation-hygiene theory and,1120
negotiation and,1107
OB and,1105–6
OCB and,1106
paternalism and,1138
performance and,1106
performance appraisals and,1116–19
promotions and,1118
recruitment and,1113–16
research in,1105–13
satisfaction and,1106
selection and,1113–16
self-efficacy and,1112
single level models of,1111
social influence and,1129–30
summary findings on,1139t1140t
teams and,1127–30
top-down influence and,1141–42
traits and,1134
transformational leadership and,1138
trust and,1107, 1129
values in,1110
withdrawal behaviors and,1126
work schedules and,1116–17
cross-disciplinary research,1307
cross-functional teams,741–42
cross-level direct effect models, of culture,1111–12
cross-level moderator effect models, of culture,1112–13
crud levels,94
crystallized cognitive ability,1253, 1256
CSCW (journal),1340
cues-filtered-out theory,822
cultural frog ponds,1110
cultural intelligence (CQ),1134
culturally endorsed implicit leadership theories (CLT),714–15, 1134
culture.See also cross-cultural psychology; organizational culture
achievement and,1121–22
adaptive performance and,287
affect and,1132
attitudes and,1112, 1126–27
autonomy and,1107
behavioral team processes and,1129
bottom-up influence and,1141–42
charisma and,1138
commitment and,1126–27
communication and,1132
conflict and,1130–34
context and,1141
contextual performance and,307
contingency leadership and,1137
as core values,658
cross-level direct effect models of,1111–12
cross-level moderator effect models of,1112–13
definitions of,1109–10
descriptive norms in,1110–11
differences in,1142–43
dispersion models and,1111
diversity and,1024, 1027–28
empowerment and,776, 1106
equity theory and,1122
expectancy theory and,1123
extrinsic motivation and,1121
fairness and,1106
feedback and,1118, 1124–25
future orientation,312
globalization and,1109, 1111
goals and,1124
goal setting theory and,1123–24
hierarchy of needs theory and,1119–1120
humane orientation,312
improving intercultural interactions,1108–9
individuals and,1119–27
in-group/out-group and,1127
intrinsic motivation and,1120–21
leadership and,1107, 1112, 1134–38
levels of analysis for,1142
LMX and,1137
models of,1111–13
motivation and,1112, 1119–25, 1128, 1131–32
motivation-hygiene theory and,1120
negotiation and,1107
optimal distinctiveness theory and,399–400
paternalism and,1138
performance and,1106
performance appraisals and,1116–19
performance management across,311–12
performance orientation,312
personality and,378
promotions and,1118
recruitment and,1113–16
satisfaction and,1106
selection and,1113–16
self-efficacy and,1112
single level models of,1111
social influence and,1129–30
social networks and,680
teams and,1127–30
top-down influence and,1141–42
traits and,1134
transformational leadership and,1138
trust and,1107, 1129
uncertainty avoidance,312, 1116, 1117–18
values of,270, 1110
virtual teams and,797, 826
withdrawal behaviors and,1126
work and,7
work schedules and,1116–17
culture, collectivistic,311–12
charisma in,1134
decision making in,1136
empowerment and,776
equity theory and,1122
feedback in,1125
in-group/out-group in,1117, 1128
interdependence in,1119
loyalty in,1120
motivation in,1119
outcomes in,1122
performance appraisals in,1117
promotion in,1118
recruitment in,1114
self-actualization in,1120
self-efficacy in,1125
virtual teams and,797
culture, individualistic,311
autonomy in,500
charisma in,1134
equity theory and,1122
fairness in,1132
motivation in,1119
performance appraisals in,1117
recruitment in,1114
satisfaction in,1126
self-actualization in,1119
self-determination in,1119, 1120
virtual teams and,797
culture, power distance,312
equity theory and,1122
job definitions in,1116
leadership in,1135
SMWT and,1128–29
teams and,1128
culture blind,1104
culture bound,1104
Current Population Survey,1040
curvilinear changes, in performance,567–68
custodial roles,590
customer service,7, 795, 922
cycle time,289
Cyert, R.M.,939
Darwin, Charles,30, 421–22, 678
data aggregation,11
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc.,410
Dawkins, Richard,422
Day, David,428
Dearborn Conference Group,49
debate and dissent processes,1129–30
NDM and,1367–68
in training,350
knowledge creation and,939
OD and,934
in virtual teams,849
decision bias,1131
decision making.See also naturalistic decision making
absorptive capacity and,971
autonomy in,260
in collectivistic cultures,1136
continuous learning and,1222
diversity and,1016
information-processing in,872
macrocognition and,875
by TMTs,1019
in virtual teams,825, 830, 843, 846
in work-family interface,1187
Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education (DSJIE),437
decline in homeostasis,1252
deep-level diversity,1013
Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC),1067
deliberate and guided practice,357
demands-control model, employee-employer relationships and,1238
aging and,1246
economic security and,1246–47
in-group/out-group and,1051
interindividual variability and,153–54
IPO and,1028
mentoring and,622t
performance and,1018–19
in recruitment,198
of retirement,1246–47
of TMTs,1019
demographic changes,7
aging and,1245–76
discrimination and,1046
fertility and,1246
foundations of,1246
immigration and,1246
life expectancy,1246
morality and,1246
work and,249, 1246–47
demonstrating effort,165
demonstration research,80
deontic model,534–35
Department of Homeland Security,56
dependability, aging and,1259
dependent care,1176–77
dependent variable (DV),160–61
causation and,80, 87, 88–89
depreciation model,1271–72
depression,117, 259, 738
psychological contracts and,1238
retirement planning and,1271
stress and,1235
DeSanctis, G.,1337, 1337f
descriptive norms, in culture,1110–11
SMWT and,1128–29
development,17–18. See also organizational development
with continuous learning,1201, 1209–13, 1210t1211t
definition of,331–33
of expertise,1372–73, 1372t1373t
future research on,364t
mentoring and,617–18, 636n1
motivation and,475–77, 485
organizational change and,357–58
in performance management,295–99
with team learning,862–63
of virtual teams,801, 806–8, 823, 832
zone of proximal development,1212
developmental approach, to readiness for change,965–66
developmental interaction, KSAs and,333
developmental models, of team effectiveness,912, 924–25
developmental psychology,9, 14
Development Dimensions International (DDI),55
deviation amplification,559–60
dialectic tensions,7–8, 8f
dialectic theory,963
dialogue theory,845
Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT),39, 58, 180
differential psychology,8
of individuals,399
of informational justice,529
of interpersonal justice,529
in organizational justice,527–34
digital technology,248
dilution effect,824
direct consensus models,99–100
direct fit,233, 381–83
directive leadership behavior,708
direct-tie networks,676
aging and,1041
performance appraisal discrimination by,1072–73
disability discrimination,1040
disability leave, discrimination in,1036
PE and,375–77
readiness for change and,967
discrepancy-effort cycle,128
discretionary tasks,865
discriminant validity,222
discrimination,18, 1034–89
causes of,1086–87
cognition and,1043–47
as compliance,1054
conservatism and,1049
(p. 1400) controlled experiments on,1036
definition of,1035–36
demographic changes and,1046
by disability,1040
field experiments on,1036
forms of,1087–88
by gender,1037, 1038–39, 1081
groups and,1035–36
in harassment,1063–68
for housing,1036
by immigration status,1041
implicit social cognition and,1046–47
individual differences and,1047–50
by in-group/out-group,1050–52
internal validity with,1037
interpersonal,1078, 1079
measurement of,1036
by national origin,1041
natural experiments on,1037
numerical distinctiveness and,1053
by obesity,1042–43
with pay,1075–78
perceived,1080–84, 1088
in performance appraisals,1067–75, 1069t1070t
research on,1085t1086t
RWA and,1048
SDO and,1048–49
self-reports on,1037
by sexual orientation,1042
SIT and,1050–51
stereotypes and,1044–46
studies audit on,1036–37
System Justification Theory and,1052–53
targets of,1038–43, 1084–86
theories of,1043–54
tokenism and,1053
by weight,1042–43
discrimination, age,1040–41, 1247–48, 1249–52
behaviors and,1250
cognition and,1250
exceptions to,1250
in interviews,1249
legal perspective on,1250–51
meta-analysis for,1249
recommended practices with,1249–50
discrimination, racial,1039–40, 1049–50
definition of,1035
implicit social cognition and,1046–47
discrimination-and-fairness paradigm,1021–22
dispersion models
construct validity and,99
culture and,1111
dispositional affect,270
dissatisfaction.See satisfaction
dissimilarity,635. See also individual differences
in-group/out-group and,1051–52
with mentoring,631
of misfits,392
dissonance theory,394–95, 397
distinctiveness, PE and,398–400
distraction, multitasking, and interruption (DMI),1290, 1292, 1300–1301
distraction-conflict theory,834
distributed cognition,1356–57
distribution of differences, diversity and,1013
distributive justice,312–13, 526, 528, 530, 535, 538
diversity,18. See also age/aging; demographics; gender; personality; subgroup differences
ability and,1012–13
career and,1022
categorical approach to,1012
cohesion and,1017
collaboration and,1029
communication and,1017
compositional approach to,1013
conceptualization of,1012–14
context and,1020, 1026
culture and,1024, 1027–28
distribution of differences and,1013
effectiveness with,1022
effects of,1016
factor approach to,1012
fairness and,1021–22
fragmented theory development for,1024–25
future directions for,1027–29
globalization and,1023–24
group effects and,1016–19
group identification and,1014–15
group performance and,1018–19
HRM for,1022
human capital and,1021
IPO and,1028
knowledge and,1012–13
levels of analysis for,1016, 1020t
limited focus on process for,1025–26
limited view of,1023–24
management evolution of,1021–23
management of,1011–30
mentoring and,1022
meta-analysis for,1017, 1018–19
multilevel models of,1029
organization effects of,1019–21
outcomes and,1015, 1016
perceptions with,1023, 1029
performance and,1028–29
proportional approach to,1013
recruitment and,207, 1022
relationships and,1017–18
research-driven measurement on,1024
research-practice gap for,1026–27
similarity and,1015, 1016
skills and,1012–13
social identity and,1014, 1016
state of the field with,1023–27
strategic human resource management and,1016
tasks and,1017–18
in teams,1028
theoretical perspectives on,1014–16
in TMTs,1017
training and,1022
values and,1027–28
in virtual teams,791, 838, 839, 844
in work groups,1012–13
diversity climate,1023
adverse impact and,1062
diversity in underlying attributes,1012
Division of Applied Psychology (DAP).See Carnegie Institute of Technology
division of labor,250
domains of values,1120
aging and,1258
in virtual teams,839
Dominance organizational personality,206
double loop learning,961, 973
downsizing,6–7, 57
aging and,1270
drug abuse,1235
dual captivity theory,846
Dual Career Families,1164
dual-career families,1172–73, 1187
Dunnette, Marvin,52, 57
Durkheim, Emile,32
dyadic relationships,668–69
dynamic complexity,288
dynamic mediation,126–27
dynamic performance,16, 548–70
in action phases,563
affect and,562
change and,550
definitions of,550
future research on,568–70
individual differences and,560–62
long-term,552–54, 565–67
OCB and,560–61
predictors for,554–55
relevance of,550–51
research on,564–65, 564t
taxonomy of,565–68, 566t
theoretical models for,556–58
(p. 1401) dynamic process, of team learning,862–63
dynamic systems.See system dynamics
dynamic team leadership,718–19
early adopters,426
early adulthood,1213
early adult transition,1213
earnings per share,289, 304–5
ecological decision making,1356
ecological interface design (EID),1313
ecological momentary assessments (EMA),513
economic psychology,22
Economic Psychology Association,36
economic return,229
Edgeworth, F.Y.,30
Edison, Thomas,9
EEOC v. Dial Corporation,1037
effectiveness.See also team effectiveness
with diversity,1022
individual,250–56, 256f, 257
leadership and,700–701
learning-and-effectiveness paradigm,1021–22
of organizational culture,656
performance and,162, 168, 186–87
power and,1137
of training,352–53
of virtual teams,800
efficacy, role breadth,266
efficacy, collective
SMM and,883
in team learning,882–83, 900t
team performance and,923
in virtual teams,800–801
efficacy, self,183
adaptive performance and,315
aging and,480–81, 1264, 1273
causal chain models,82f
in collectivistic cultures,1125
complexity and,567
CSEs and,507
culture and,1112
feedback and,1125
fit index for,135t
goals and,288
goal striving and,464–65
GO and,289
impulse response analysis for,138f
individual empowerment and,774–75
mentoring and,356
motivation and,485–86
motivation to learn and,357
performance and,133–39, 133f, 142, 559–60, 567
psychological contracts and,1238
readiness to learn and,1215–16
retirement planning and,1271
training and,341–42, 1264
training transfer and,352
virtual teams and,791
work design and,266
cognitive engineering and,1310
in team effectiveness,915–16
effort-performance expectancy,708
Einstein, Albert,9
elaboration likelihood model,841
electronic brainstorming,814
electronic performance monitoring (EPM),311, 812
NDM and,1359–60
emergencies, adaptive performance and,287
emergency medical technicians (EMTs),475
emergent behaviors,109
emergent states
action-regulation and,869
of teams,877–85
team effectiveness and,917–18
team learning and,863, 869, 900–901, 900t
virtual teams and,790, 794, 799–801
emic (culture-specific perspective),1104, 1106, 1107–8
hierarchy of needs theory and,1120
emotions.See also specific emotions
collective burnout and,1239
conflict with,1018
dissonance with,266–67
organizational learning and,940–41
positive,536, 567
socio-emotional behaviors,1128
stability of,774–75
emotional intelligence (EI),419–20, 427, 1134
Employee Centered,169
employee-employer relationships, stress from,1238
employment discrimination.See discrimination
Employment Equality (Age) Regulations,1251
Employment Promotion Law,1251
employment psychology,22
empowered self-development,1218–20
collectivistic cultures and,776
continuous learning and,1203, 1218
culture and,776, 1106
individual,769, 774–76
knowledge and,776
LMX and,776–77
psychological,266, 768, 775
skills and,776
in teams,767–85, 919
in virtual teams,800–801, 833
organizational climate and,646–47
organizational culture and,653
encoding process, of information-processing,873
in organizational justice,540–41, 542, 543
team effectiveness and,923
engagement,14, 266, 772
in action phases,563
attitudes and,520n3
satisfaction and,510–11
in team participation/empowerment,771
engineering approach, to safety,1232
engineering psychology,1310
engineering technology,1287
enhancement hypothesis,1166
entity theory
of ability,288
intraindividual stability and,148
episodic performance,562, 912, 924
equal employment opportunity (EEO),1021, 1024
aging and,1261
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC),51, 1036
on religious discrimination,1042
sex discrimination and,1039
equalization effect, in virtual teams,818, 827
Equal Pay Act (EPA),50
equity theory,52
culture and,1122
social networks and,688
ergonomic design,1266
error consequences,262
error encouragement framing,296
error management training (EMT),296, 476–77
organizational climate and,646–47
organizational culture and,653
Ethical Principles of Psychologists,45
Ethnic Harassment Experiences (EHE),1067
ethnicity.See race
etic (universal perspective),1104, 1106–7
European Academy of Occupational Health Psychology,1230
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,1229
European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP),28t, 62
European Framework Directive,1230
Event Management Project,1136–37
event signal methods (ESM),513, 517–18
everyday discrimination,1078
evidence-based management (EBM),424–25
evidence-based practice,1388
evidence-based teaching (EBT),429
of leadership,701–2
theory of,30, 421–22
of work,5–6
evolutionary theory, of change,963–64
exchange theory, employee-employer relationships and,1238
executive coaching,298–99, 356
exogeneity, in organizational justice,527, 539–41
expansiveness, in continuous learning,1207
expectancy theory,27t, 52
culture and,1123
motivation and,1123
expectancy-value cognitions,1209
expectancy value formulations,461–62
brand equity and,214
effort-performance expectancy,708
life expectancy,1246
met expectations theory,587
performance-reward expectancies,708
with virtual teams,791
aging and,1265
in knowledge creation,939
knowledge retention and,943
knowledge transfer and,945
learning and,334
mentoring and,622t
organizational learning and,936–37
of protégé,620
selection and,1114
training and,343
experienced meaningfulness of the work,265
experienced responsibility for work outcomes,265–66
experience sampling methodology (ESM),107–8, 538–39
as adaptation,1354
definition of,1352–53
development of,1372–73, 1372t1373t
feedback and,1353
performance and,1354
practice for,1354
with tasks,1354–55
explanatory study,80
exploratory learning,296, 605
Extended Lens Model (ELM),1299, 1299f
external fit,994–95
external interference,1166
externalized knowledge,876, 894
external locus of control,207
External Representation,181–82
external validity,90, 100–101
threats to,101t
extrinsic motivation,466
culture and,1121
ability and,150
adverse impact and,1056
CQ and,1134
GO and,289
readiness to learn and,1215
face-to-face (FTF)
CMC and,796–97
technology and,1336
TMS and,892
facilitation,168, 652, 1169
factor analyses,46
factor approach, to diversity,1012
Fair Labor Standards Act,309
belonging and,534
culture and,1106
diversity and,1021–22
employee-employer relationships and,1238
in individualistic cultures,1132
measures of,533, 534t
mood and,536
organizational justice and,532–33
in performance appraisals,313
in performance management,312–13
in recruitment,527
SET and,535
well-being and,535
fairness heuristic theory,531–32, 535
false alarms, HAI and,1296
fame-of-reference (FOR),149
brand equity and,209
organizational image and,208–10
organizational reputation and,208–10
product awareness and,209
recruitment and,202
virtual teams and,791
family.See also work-family interface
stress and,1235
family interference with work (FIW),1166, 1188
gender and,1174
segmentation and,1186
Family Leave and Medical Act (FLMA),1176
family-supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP),1178
fatalistic cultures, performance appraisals in,1117
fatigue,30, 31
catecholamines and,1185
scientific management and,250
stress and,1235
fault lines,840, 1014
feasibility of change,967
Fechner, Gustav,31
Federal Aviation Association (FAA),920
attitudes and,291
in collectivistic cultures,1125
contextual performance and,307
in continuous learning,1208, 1220
culture and,1118, 1124–25
delivery of,291–92
expertise and,1353
fit and,390
goals and,288
individual performance and,183
of information-processing,873
JCM and,253
knowledge creation and,940
MBO and,289
motivation and,127–28, 1124–25
outcomes of,293
PE and,374
on performance appraisals,291
in performance management,290–95
personality and,291
on PO,204–5
reactions to,290–91
readiness to learn and,1215
regulatory focus to,291
research on,314–15
seeking of,292–93
self-efficacy and,1125
self-regulation and,871
stages of,290–91
system dynamics and,980
team effectiveness and,921
with team learning,862
for team members,293
in training,333, 339
with training design,349–50
in virtual teams,828
work design and,260–61, 263
feedback intervention theory (FIT),350
fertility, demographic changes and,1246
Fiedler, Fred,52, 707
field theory,375
TheFifth Discipline (Senge),973
first advocate effect,847
first order change,973
Fisher, Ronald,91
fit,14, 200, 204–5. See also specific types of fit
“at” levels,384–86, 385t
brand equity and,212–13
classification of,389t
in collectivistic cultures,1114
definition of,374
dissonance theory and,394–95, 397
feedback and,390
of individuals,384
individual differences and,391–92
interdependence and,391, 759
mentoring and,390–91
misfits and,393–94
outcomes and,392–97
perceptual accuracy for,388–90
perspectives on,378–80
recruitment and,216
satisfaction and,213
self-selection and,214
sensitivity to,396
situational strength and,391
socialization and,390
stereotypes and,1045–46
subtypes and modes of,384–87, 385t
“to” levels,384–86
training and,390
turnover and,213
fit-flexibility trade off,996–97
fit index,135
for self-efficacy,135t
Fitts, Paul,1287, 1310
Five Factor Model (FFM),232–33, 470, 471
fixed versus variable socialization,590
Flanagan, John C.,45
Fleishman Job Analysis Survey (F-JAS),27t, 58
flexible role orientation,266
flexible work arrangements (FWA),1175–76
aging and,1262–64
fluid cognitive ability,1253, 1256
focus groups,841
focus matching correlations,529
Follett, Mary Parker,25t
forced distributions, in performance appraisals,302–3
Ford, Henry,579–80
formal-empiricist decision making,1351
formal justice,529
formal leader support, readiness for change and,967
formal orientation programs,593
formal training,295–96
formal versus informal socialization,590
Forrester, Jay,979
foundational organizational climates,652
four-fifths rule,1054–55
Four-Square Map of Groupware Options,1334, 1335f
four worlds of organizational science,11
attitudes and,502–3
Framework Directive for Equal Treatment in Employment and Occupation,1251
franchises, knowledge transfer in,935
Frank v. United Airlines, Inc.,1043
Freelancers Union,1204
free riding,304
French, J.R.P., Jr.,50
Freud, Sigmund,33, 1106
frugality, NDM and,1360
Fryer, Douglas,36, 40, 42, 50
FTF.See face-to-face
PE and,375–77
psychological contracts and,1238
full mediation,126
functionality, in leadership,176
functional job analysis,27t, 53
functional loss,1252
fundamental attribution error,1131
fundamental understanding,9
future orientation cultures,312
Galbraith v. R.J. Reynolds Tobacco,420–21, 422
Gale, Harlow,31
Gallupe, R.B.,1337, 1337f
Galton, Francis,30
game theory,822
gaming, for learning,355–56
gastrointestinal disorders,1235
gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender (GLBT),1042
adverse impact and,1060
cognitive ability and,1253
discrimination with,1037, 1038–39, 1081
dual-career families and,1173
emotional conflict and,1018
FIW and,1174
group effects and,1017
mentoring and,619, 623–24
obesity and,1043
pay discrimination and,1077–78
performance and,1019–20
performance appraisal discrimination by,1071–72
personality and,1258
retirement planning and,1271
stereotypes of,1045–46
in virtual teams,797, 834, 837
wage gap by,1038
WIF and,1174
general ability,340–41
General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB),25t, 39, 46, 557
general intelligence,413
Generalized Work Inventory,27t
general mental ability (GMA),413, 419–20
utility analysis and,421
General Social Survey (GSS),1042, 1053
general stage model, for skills,1354
generative learning,1214–15
geographic dispersion, of virtual teams,798
Gestalt psychology,37
Ghiselli, E.E.,50
Gilbreth, Frank,250
Gilbreth, Lillian Moller,33–34, 33f, 57
Gladwell, M.,419
culture and,1109, 1111
diversity and,1023–24
HR and,1001–2
job design and,1234
work and,248–49
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE),28t, 60, 311, 714–15, 1109, 1134–35
(p. 1404) global level, of PE,387
complexity and,288
culture and,1124
difficulty of,82, 82f
emphasis of,168
feedback and,288
generation of,269
hierarchies of,461
MBO and,289
meta-analysis for,288
motivation and,460–68
of organizations,289–90
participation and,413
in performance appraisals,300
in performance management,287–90
self-transcendence and,1124
socialization and,600
stress from,288
team performance and,288–89
training and,334
traits and,467–68
goal choice,461–62
goal striving and,465–66
in self-regulation,867
goal orientation (GO),266–67, 289, 483
meta-analysis for,878
motivation and,466–67
motivation to learn and,357
situations and,878
team learning and,878–80, 900t
training and,342–43
goal setting theory,27t, 52, 59, 462–63
culture and,1123–24
meta-analysis for,864–65
motivation and,1123–24
team learning and,864–65
virtual teams and,813
goal striving
goal choice and,465–66
in self-regulation,463–65, 867
work design and,269
Goddard, Henry Herbert,33
Goleman, D.,419
Google,9, 1288
Government Accountability Office (GAO),1261
Gowing, Marilyn,61
GPS, DMI and,1300
Granger causality,137, 142
graphical user interface (GUI),1328
graphic rating scale,24t
intraindividual variability and,153
self-selection and,146
Great Depression,24t, 39–44
great man theory,23t
greedy matching,103
Greif, Irene,1326
Griggs v. Duke Power Co.,51, 53
gripe index,506, 507
gross national growth (GNG),1106
grounded theory,1341
groups.See also in-group/out-group; teams; work groups
definitions of,960
discrimination and,1035–36
inclusion in,399
information-processing by,872–74
interdependence in,960
organizational reference,758
PG,384, 394
realistic group conflict theory,1053
safety in,1232
socialization and,602–3
stress and,1237–38
t-group,48, 53
group decision support system (GDSS),797, 799, 1323
Group Dynamics in Industry (Marrow),50
group effects
conflict and,1017–18
diversity and,1016–19
gender and,1017
race and,1017
time and,1017
group fault line theory,1014
group identification
diversity and,1014–15
in virtual teams,816, 823
group performance
diversity and,1018–19
in-group/out-group and,1051
group polarization theory,827
group potency
definition of,882
team learning and,869
in virtual teams,800
Group Support System (GSS),827t
groupthink,27t, 53
group threat,1053–54
taxonomy of,1334–35, 1335f
growth mind-set,288
growth mixture modeling (GMM),106, 111
growth need strength (GNS),269–70, 506
in work-family interface,1183
Guion, Robert,224
Guttman, Louis,49
habit regression,567–68
Hall, G. Stanley,30, 38
Halpern, Diane,1164–65
Hamerschlag, Arthur A.,36
Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology,10, 26t, 52, 57, 1104
Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behavior (Locke, E.),439
Hannan-Quinn (HQ),135
harassment.See also sexual harassment
discrimination in,1036, 1063–68
psychological contracts and,1238
Harvard Business Review (HBR),414
Harwood Pajama Factory,25t
Hawthorne Studies,8, 10, 11, 22, 24t, 41, 64n16, 667, 767
OHP and,1229
Hayes, Mary H.S.,38
aging and,1254
interventions for,1236–40
OHP and,1235–39
organizational climate and,1239
retirement and,1272
retirement planning and,1271
SH and,1238–39
stress and,1235–38
well-being and,1228–29
WFC and,1168
work design and,259
health insurance,1266
hearing, aging and,1253
helping behavior,167
Hemphill, John,47
Heneman, Rob,428
Hepner, Harry,42
Herzberg, Frederick,47
hidden-profile paradigm,824
hierarchical linear modeling (HLM),11, 27t, 57, 106, 118
for personality,1258
for recruitment,215
hierarchical teams, SMWT and,743–44
hierarchy of needs theory,47, 304, 584
culture and,1119–11120
OD and,960
high involvement,995
high-performance cycle (HPC),28t, 59, 558
high performance work practices (HPWPs),315–16
high performance work systems (HPWS),779, 995–96
hiring.See selection
Hispanics.See race
(p. 1405) history,22–64, 23t28t
of cognitive engineering,1309–14
of cross-cultural psychology,1104–5
of CSCW,1326–31
of OD,957
of organizational learning,972–74
of strategic human resource management,993–97
of work design,250–56
of work-family interface,1164–65
holistic systems,11
Hollingworth, Harry Levi,34
social networks and,678–79
homosocial reproduction,679
horizontal autonomy,747–48
horizontal interdependence,736–42
Hough, Laetta,57
housing discrimination,1036
Hulin, C.L.,11, 53
human-agent teams,1315–16
human-automation interaction (HAI),1290, 1292, 1294–97
cognitive engineering and,1313–14
training and,1296
trust and,1296
human capital,211
diversity and,1021
RBV and,214
selection and,221–41
social networks and,679–80
sustainability through,221–41
human-computer interface (HCI),1289
humane orientation cultures,312
human factors (HF),19, 45, 1287–1302
ANOVA and,1291
cognitive engineering and,1310–11
contemporary methodology in,1290–92
individual differences and,1291
research in,1292–1301
Thamus and,1288–90
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),1083–84
Human Relations,26t, 48, 1164
human relations movement,48
human resources (HR)
complexity in,998–99
globalization and,1001–2
knowledge management in,999
organizational image and,207
social capital and,999–1000
human resource management (HRM),8. See also strategic human resource management
aging and,1245
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
for diversity,1022
HPWS and,779
science-practice model and,10
SMWT and,747
work design and,255
Human Resources Research Office (HumRRO),55
TheHuman Side of Enterprise (McGregor),26t, 52
human skills,287
human-systems integration (HSI),19
hybrid mode virtual teams,826
identity,485–86. See also social identity
self-identity,500, 794
task,253, 261
work and,18
familiarity and,208–10
human resource policies and,207
interactionalist perspective on,206–7
meta-analysis for,209–10
recruitment and,202, 205–7
self-selection and,206
immediacy gap,824
demographic changes and,1246
discrimination by,1041
impact.See also adverse impact
team empowerment and,769
impact on others, work design and,263
impact transfer, training and,336
Implicit Association Test (IAT),1029, 1047, 1078–79, 1110
implicit culture,1110
implicit leadership theories (ILT),53, 700
implicit motives,459
implicit social cognition,1046–47
impulse response analysis,137–38, 138f, 142
inadequate explication of construct,97
inclusion, in groups,399
Increasing Human Efficiency in Business (Scott),23t, 34
incremental change,961–63
incremental theory of ability,288
incremental theory of traits,1207
independence, aging and,1258
independent organizational climates,651
independent variable (IV),160
Index of Forecasting Efficiency,40
Index of Organizational Reactions (IOR),516–17
indigenous perspectives, cross-cultural psychology and,1144
indirect ties,669
assimilation by,399
brand equity and,212–14
cognitive engineering and,1310
culture and,1119–27
differentiation of,399
as early adopters,426
fit of,384
interdependence of,759
knowledge of,895
leadership from,700
merit pay for,304
NDM and,1364–66
outcomes for,781–82, 918–19
pay-for-performance for,304
readiness for change and,966
socialization of,594–99
social networks and,672t
in teams,734, 918–19
team effectiveness and,918–19
training design and,348–49
virtual teams and,791
individual differences,143–55. See also diversity; personality
challenging assumptions about,151t
in continuous learning,1207–9
discrimination and,1047–50
dynamic performance and,560–62
environmental factors in,152
fit and,391–92
HF and,1291
interindividual variability and,144–47
intraindividual variability and,147–51
in leadership,151
outcomes and,152–53
(p. 1406) performance and,149–50, 552–55
readiness to learn and,1215–16
research on,153–54
in safety,1230–31
satisfaction and,506–9
stress and,1236
taxonomies for,151–52
in training,340–43
virtual teams and,791, 798
in work-family interface,1185–87
individual effectiveness,250–56, 256f, 257
individual empowerment,769, 774–76
individual initiative,167, 174, 180
individualism, aging and,1258
individualistic cultures,311
autonomy in,500
charisma in,1134
equity theory and,1122
fairness in,1132
motivation in,1119
performance appraisals in,1117
recruitment in,1114
satisfaction in,1126
self-actualization in,1119
self-determination in,1119, 1120
virtual teams and,797
individualized consideration (IC),710
individually negotiated employment (i-deals),249
individual performance,161
basic factors of,179–82
contextual performance and,308
feedback and,183
interventions for,183
leadership and,181
management performance and,181–82
social networks and,686–87
in teams,563
time and,183
Industrial and Organizational Psychology,1046
Industrial Fatigue Research Board,24t, 38
Industrial Health Research Board,24t, 38
industrial psychology,22, 1310
Industrial Psychology (Myers, C.),24t, 42
Industrial Psychology (Viteles),43
industrial relations (IR),409
Industrial Revolution,19, 30, 36, 250
industry specific reputation,203
inferential statistics,1291
Influencing Men in Business (Scott),23t
informal feedback,292
informal justice,529
informal leader support,967
informal learning,16–17
informational diversity,1013
informational justice,527, 529, 530, 535
information economy,223
information manipulation theory,820
aging and,1265, 1267
in decision making,872
by groups,872–74
job design and,1267
in organizational learning,872
for team learning,872–75, 873f
in virtual teams,814
work design and,262
information richness theory,819, 820, 846
information sharing, in information-processing,874
ASA and,1052
in collectivistic cultures,1117, 1128
culture and,1127
demographics and,1051
discrimination by,1050–52
dissimilarity and,1051–52
group performance and,1051
recruitment and,1114
self-esteem and,1051
stereotypes and,1051
initiating structure,168, 705, 709
individual,167, 174, 180
personal initiative cycle,558–59
injuries,19, 1234, 1235, 1253, 1256
absorptive capacity and,971–72
continuous learning and,1222
diffusion of,426–27
early adopters of,426
factors influencing,424–27
knowledge creation and,940
knowledge management and,934
social networks and,689
stress and,1235
in virtual teams,803, 828
work design and,257
innovativeness organizational personality,206
input, process, output model (IPO),27t, 53, 751, 1028
team effectiveness and,911–12, 918
for virtual teams,790, 850
input-emergent state-process-output (IEPO),790–91
input-mediator-output-input model (IMOI),912
input-mediator-output model (IMO),790
organizational culture and,658
socialization and,595–96
inspirational motivation (IM),710
instant messaging (IM),1329
Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences (INFORMS),430
instructional systems design (ISD),27t, 54, 335–36, 335t, 347
integrity tests,1056–57
intellectual capital,59
intellectual stimulation (IS),710
CQ and,1134
GO and,289
leadership and,701
success and,421–22
intelligent agents,1315–16
intensity measures,457
intention measures,457
interactionalist perspective, on organizational image,206–7
interactional justice,527, 528, 529, 530
interaction facilitation,168
interactive organizational climates,651–52
interactivity principle,823
intercultural negotiation,1133
interdepartmental cooperation,652
collective efficacy and,882
in collectivistic cultures,1119
fit and,391, 759
in groups,960
of individuals,759
meta-analysis for,263
NDM and,1360
in organizations,960
outcomes and,748–53
research on,759–60
with tasks,751
in teams,734–63, 774
in virtual teams,800, 802
work design and,262–63
interdisciplinary approach,1387
to cognitive engineering,1307–8
to work design,254–55, 254t
interdisciplinary research
action in,1308
integration with,1308
use-inspired science and,1308–9
personality and,150
stability over time for,148
intergroup relations,1014–15
interindividual variability
demographics and,153–54
individual differences and,144–47
intraindividual variability and,150
meta-analysis for,145
in performance,552–55
internal consistency,647–48
(p. 1407) internal fit,995
internal interference,1166
internalized knowledge,876, 894
internal locus of control,207, 270, 1215
internal validity,90, 95–97, 96t, 1037
International Association of Applied Psychology (IAAP),24t, 28t, 40
International Association of Psychotechnics,24t, 40
International Journal of Cross-Cultural Management,1105
International Journal of Selection and Assessment,59
Internet,1288, 1329
interpersonal deception theory,820, 848
interpersonal discrimination,1078, 1079
interpersonal interaction
in virtual teams,840
work design and,263
interpersonal justice,527, 529, 530, 535, 540
interpersonal processes,771
in virtual teams,794, 802
interpersonal relationships.See relationships
interpersonal support, contextual performance and,307
interpersonal trust, work design and,266
for health,1236–40
for individual performance,183
for safety,1231
interviews,54, 234–35, 1057, 1249
intraindividual variability
ASA and,153
assumptions about,150–51
gravitation and,153
individual differences and,147–51
interindividual variability and,150
situations and,149–50
stability over time,147–49
intrapersonal dimension, in cross-functional teams,741–42
intrinsic motivation,466, 1120–21
investiture versus divestiture socialization,590
investment theory,631
job complexity and,262
in organizational culture,656
I/O Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice (SIOP),430
“Is Google Making Us Stupid?” (Carr),1288
isolation criterion,87, 89
item response theory,27t
Jackson Evaluation System,1060
James, William,30, 33, 35, 37
Jarque-Bera statistic,136
job analysis,23t, 27t, 53
by Münsterberg,35
for training,339–40
job attitudes.See attitudes
Job Characteristics Model (JCM),505–6
of motivation,252f, 253–54
job characteristics theory,1124
job complexity.See complexity
Job Description Index (JDI),27t, 53, 502, 516–17
job design
ADEA and,1266
aging and,1234–35, 1266–67
globalization and,1234
information-processing and,1267
injuries and,1234
roles and,249
safety and,1234–35
social networks and,687
stress and,1267
Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS),253, 516–17
job engagement,266
job enrichment theory,27t
job information, in recruitment,204–5
job involvement, job complexity and,262
job knowledge tests (JKTs),1059–60
job performance.See performance
job satisfaction.See satisfaction
job sharing, aging and,1263
job simplification,250–51
job specialization,250–51
job specification,225
job transfers, aging and,1263
job withdrawal.See withdrawal behaviors
Johansen, Robert,1334
joint cognitive systems (JCS),1313–14
joint optimization,251
joint ventures,1105
Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP),24t, 38, 224, 237, 413, 415, 1388
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
work-family interface and,1164
Journal of Consulting Psychology,40
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied,1291
Journal of Managerial Psychology,1164
Journal of Marketing,410
Journal of Marketing Research,410
Journal of Occupational and Organizational Behavior,1164
Journal of Occupational Behavior,28t, 443n2
Journal of Occupational Health Psychology,1229
Journal of Occupational Psychology,55
Journal of Organizational Behavior (JOB),28t, 415
Journal of Personnel Research,25t, 40
judgment.See also decision making
SA and,1298–99
judgment and decision making (JDM),1351
jury decision making,420–21
as antecedent,16
distributive,312–13, 526, 528, 530, 535, 538
employee-employer relationships and,1238
informational,527, 529, 530, 535
interactional,527, 528, 529, 530
interpersonal,527, 529, 530, 535, 540
procedural,312, 527, 528, 530, 535
justice, organizational,526–43
affect and,536–39, 542, 543
aggregation in,531–34, 531f, 534f, 541–42
charisma and,540–41
cognition in,527, 534–39
differentiation in,527–34
endogeneity in,540–41, 542, 543
exogeneity in,527, 539–41
fairness and,532–33
future directions in,541–43
motivation and,472–73
multiple trends in,542–43
parsimony in,530–31
SET and,529
social networks and,688
justification, informational justice and,529
Karolinska Institute,1229
Katz, Daniel,48
K-dimensional difference equation,121
Kenagy, H.G.,42
Kendall, L.M.,53
(p. 1408) Kennedy, John F.,50
Kenney, Robert,50
King, Martin Luther, Jr.,50
Kirkpatrick's typology,353
Klein, K.J.,11
Kling, Rob,1331
absorptive capacity and,970–71
aging and,1265
collective,886–88, 894–96, 901t
through continuous learning,1200–1201
creation of,939–43
diversity and,1012–13
empowerment and,776
externalized,876, 894
of individuals,895
internalized,876, 894
readiness for change and,968
of results,265
retention of,934, 943–45, 1267
in selection,231–32
sharing,816, 821, 826
team learning and,862–63, 862f
TMS and,893
in virtual teams,829
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs),221–41
adverse impact and,1055, 1058
predictor composites with,229–33
knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs),60
brand equity and,214
developmental interaction and,333
JCM and,253
knowledge transfer of,332
PE and,386
recruitment and,213
self-regulation and,334–35
self-selection and,212–13
from training,331
as training objectives,346
work design and,270
knowledge management,59, 933–49
absorptive capacity and,971
in HR,999
innovation and,934
strategic human resource management and,1002–3
theoretical framework for,960–63
in virtual teams,799, 842
knowledge transfer,934–35, 945–47
absorptive capacity and,970
of KSAs,332
with team learning,897
in virtual teams,801, 814
Kozlowski, Steve W.J.,11
Kraepelin, Emil,31–32
Kraut, Robert,1324
kye (helping others),1108
labor and industrial relations (LIR),1387
labor economic studies,1037
lag length evaluation,134–35, 142
Lahy, Jean Marie,35, 38, 39, 44
laissez-faire leadership (LF),710
late adulthood,1213
late adult transition,1213
latent class growth analysis (LCGA),106, 110–11
latent context,936–37
latent curve analysis,1258–59
latent growth modeling (LGM),106
latent Markov modeling (LMM),106–7
latent transition analysis (LTA),106–7
Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ),47, 168, 705, 706, 1135
leader-member exchange (LMX),126, 169, 175, 683, 698, 712–13
culture and,1137
empowerment and,776–77
reciprocal influence in,715
leadership,16, 32, 47–48, 52–53, 60, 696–723
achievement-oriented leadership behavior,708
attributes of,713–14
behaviors in,704–6, 708
bridging leadership theories,710–11
capacity for,310, 718–19
categorization theory,713–14
charisma in,699, 710–11, 1134, 1138
cognitive processes in,28t
contextual performance and,307
contingency,27t, 706–10, 1137
continuous learning for,1206, 1222
criteria for,700–701
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
culture and,1107, 1112, 1134–38
directive behavior,708
domains of,697–98
dynamic team,718–19
effectiveness and,700–701
evolution of,701–2
functionality in,176
future directions for,720–22
ILT,53, 700
from individuals,700
individual differences in,151
individual performance and,181
intelligence and,701
management performance and,700
meta-analysis for,703–4
Michigan State Leadership Studies,705
motivation and,485
in multicultural organizations,1138–39
multilevel focus for,698–99
multivariate statistical analysis of,125–26
NDM and,1357–59, 1368
normative model of decision making for,707–8
OC and,1136
Ohio State Leadership Studies,26t, 705
organizational climate and,650
origins of,699–700
participative,708, 1136
perceptions of,27t, 698, 713
performance and,168–77, 173t, 182, 1136
personality and,699, 701
physical characteristics in,701–2
as political process,176–77
power and,1137
in power distance cultures,1135
reach of,699
from relationships,700
safety and,1233–34
satisfaction and,1136
skills in,177
for SMWT,744–45, 824
social influence and,699, 1137
social networks and,687
styles of,177
of teams,176, 715–19
team functional,716
traits in,702–4, 1134
transactional,169, 808
in virtual teams,798–99, 808–9, 824, 829, 839
leadership, transformational,169, 175, 710–11
culture and,1138
organizational climate and,650
(p. 1409) safety and,1233
in virtual teams,808
Leadership Effectiveness Adaptability Description (LEAD),709
leader-team perceptual distance,716
lean manufacturing,651
learning,14, 17–18
accommodation in,1214
action-regulation and,865–68
active,269, 477
ACT* model of,334
adaptive performance and,287
by adults,333–34, 348
assimilation in,1214
convergent-divergent theory and,1214
definition of,331–33
double loop,961, 973
experience and,334
exploratory,296, 605
future research on,364t
goals for,288
GO and,289
in Kirkpatrick's typology,353
mastery,1208–9, 1215
mentoring for,356
motivation for,334, 345–46, 357
by organizations,975
in organizations,975
organizational change and,357–58
outcomes of,332–33
phase learning-based theory,334
process of,332–33
science of,333–35
self-regulation and,334–35, 871
single loop,973
social learning theory,27t, 52, 1220
societal-environmental learning barrier,975
structural-organizational learning barrier,975
tactics for,1214
theories on,1213–16
three-phase model of learning,333
transformative,334, 334t, 1214–15
in virtual teams,816, 844
work design and,266
learning, continuous,18–19, 333–34, 1199–1224
for career,1202–3, 1207–8
change and,1204
cognition and,1209–12
cognitive ability and,1254
collaboration with,1201
as competence,1204–5
complexity and,1204
contract employees and,1203–4
definitions of,1200–1202
development with,1201, 1209–13, 1210t1211t
driving trends for,1203–6
empowerment and,1218
expansiveness in,1207
expectancy-value cognitions and,1209
feedback and,1208, 1220
formal methods for,1220–22
future agenda for,1222–24
individual differences in,1207–9
informal methods for,1220–22
knowledge through,1200–1201
for leadership,1206
life cycle theory and,1213
models of,1206–7
motivation for,1207–8
orders of mind and,1212–13
organizational culture and,1216–18
outcomes with,1206, 1222
participation in,1206
skills through,1200–1201
societal goals and,1205–6
support for,1216–22
theoretical foundation for,1206–16
training and,348
learning, organizational,59
barriers to,975
conceptual advances in,974–75
context and,937–38
empirical studies on,975–76
experience and,936–37
future directions in,947–49
history of,972–74
information-processing in,872
levels of analysis for,935–36
management of,933–49
measurement of,935
OD and,959, 972–78
performance and,934
processes of,938
research on,948t, 976–77, 978f
socialization and,605–7
team members and,940–41
theoretical framework for,960–63
TMS and,942–43
learning, team,859–903
action-regulation in,865–69, 866f
adaptation with,869
behaviors and,869
CFA for,869
cohesion and,883–85, 900t
collective efficacy in,882–83, 900t
collective knowledge and,886–88
compilation models for,863, 870f
conflict and,883–85, 900t
development with,862–63
dynamic process of,862–63
emergent states and,863, 869, 900–901, 900t
feedback with,862
goal setting theory and,864–65
GO and,878–80, 900t
group potency and,869
information-processing models for,872–75, 873f
knowledge and,862–63, 862f
knowledge transfer with,897
macrocognition and,875–77, 894–96
MLT for,861–62
motivation and,862
outcomes of,886–902
performance and,862, 879
process models for,863–72, 898–900, 899t
psychological safety and,880–81, 900t
regulation models of,864–72
team performance and,896–98
theoretical foci of,861
theoretical integration of,861f
TMS and,891–94
learning and development orientation,1207
learning-and-effectiveness paradigm,1021–22
least preferred coworker (LPC),168–69, 707
Ledbetter Fair Pay Act,56
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.,56
Lepak-Snell framework,999
level effects,176
Lewin, Kurt,48, 48f, 767
life cycle theory,963, 1213
life expectancy,1246
Life Insurance Agency Management Association (LIAMA),50
Life Insurance Sales Research Bureau (LISRB),24t, 38, 50
lifelong learning.See continuous learning
Likelihood to Sexually Harass (LSH),1065
Likert, Rensis,39, 48
linear dynamic systems,120–25, 128–32, 129f, 130f, 131f
Link, Henry,24t, 38
l'Institue d'Orientation Professionnelle,39
Lipmann, Otto,35, 41
local area network (LAN),56
Locke, Edwin,52, 439
Locke, John,29
locus of control,207, 270, 507, 1215
longitudinal studies,105–8
long-term dynamic performance,552–54, 565–67
(p. 1410) loosely coupled systems,127, 734
loosely coupled teams,735, 760–61
loyalty,167, 1114, 1120
Luther, Martin,5–6
Maastricht Aging Study,1254
MacArthur Foundation National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS),1043, 1170
collective knowledge and,894–96
meta-model of,875–76, 876f
NDM and,1374
team knowledge typology and,894–96
team learning and,875–77, 894–96
maintenance stages,557
majority influence,818, 1013
Malcolm X,50
Management and Organizational Review,1105
management-by-exception (MBE),710
management by objectives (MBO),51, 289
management capacity,310
management information systems (MIS),1330–31
management performance
dimensions of,171t
factors in,173t
individual performance and,181–82
leadership and,700
Management Progress Study,46
Managerial Grid,169
Managerial Practice Survey,170
manifest approach, to readiness for change,965
manifest measures, construct validity and,98–99
March, J.G.,939
Marey, E.J.,31
Marrow, A.,50
Maslow, Abraham,47, 304, 584, 960, 1119–20, 1229
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),48, 1205–6
mastery learning,1208–9, 1215
matrix approach, to SEM,121
maximum likelihood estimator (MLE),135
Mayflower Group,55
Mayo, Elton,64n16
McClelland's typology of needs,1121
McGrath, J.E.,1337–39, 1338f
McGregor, Douglas,26t, 47, 49, 52
McHenry, Jeff,438
creation of,16–17
experienced meaningfulness of the work,265
team empowerment and,769
measurement error,226–27
TheMeasurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement (Smith, Kendall, and Hulin),53
mechanistic work design,254, 254t
median naturalness theory,843
media richness theory,204
CSCW and,1342
virtual teams and,813, 822, 832, 841, 847
media spaces,1325
media synchronicity theory,822, 837
mediated relationships,126–27
by artifacts,1311
Medical Research Council (MRC),49
member-member social network
knowledge creation and,941
knowledge retention and,943–44
knowledge transfer and,946
member-task network
knowledge creation and,942–43
knowledge retention and,944
knowledge transfer and,947
memory.See also transactive memory systems
NDM and,1365–66
mental stimulation, in RPD,1355–56
mental test,31
mentoring,16–17, 615–36
attitudes and,624
belonging and,631–32
context and,629–30
contextual performance and,307
decline in,628–29
development and,617–18, 636n1
dissimilarity with,631
diversity and,1022
fit and,390–91
future research on,633–36
gender and,619, 623–24
initiation of,618–21, 622t
for learning,356
maturation in,621–25, 627t
methodological issues with,632–33
NDM and,1371–72
organizational culture and,659
outcomes with,356, 620, 622t, 625
perceptions with,629
phases of,616–17
problems in,625–26
promotions and,624–25
race and,619, 624
recruitment and,629
redefinition phase in,628–29
SET and,631
similarity and,623–24, 630–31
socialization and,629
willingness to provide,620–21
merit pay,304, 314
for accident-prone individuals,1231
for adverse impact,1055, 1057
for age discrimination,1249
for aging,1265
for agreeableness/conscientiousness,145–46
for autonomy,260
for behavioral management programs,306
for conservatism,1049
for contextual performance,307–8
for cross-cultural psychology,1105
for diversity,1017, 1018–19
for dynamic performance,552
for EMT,477
for forced distributions,303
for GO,878
for goals,288
for goal setting,864–65
for interdependence,263
for interindividual variability,145
for JCM,253–54
for leadership,703–4
for MBO,289
for mentoring,356, 625
for organizational climate,645
for organizational image,209–10
for outcomes,501t
for path-goal theory,708
for PE,387
for performance,161, 188, 501t
for recruitment,199
for safety,1234
for safety climate,1233
for safety training,1231
for SDO,1048
for socialization,593
for stress,1236, 1240
for training,296, 332, 1265
for training/motivation,345–46
for transformational leadership,650
for unit-level satisfaction,516
for wellness programs,1237
meta-model, of macrocognition,875–76, 876f
met expectations theory,587
metrix distance matching,103
Meyer, Herb,54
Michigan State Leadership Studies,705
middle adulthood,1213
Middle Ages,5
Mill, John Stuart,87–88
(p. 1411) Miller, George,1310–11
mind-set theory,465–66
Minnesota Employment Stabilization Research Institute,25t, 42–43
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI),45
Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MNSQ),27t, 53, 516–17
minorities,7, 56. See also specific minorities
diversity and,1013
homophily and,679
marginalization of,1015
retirement planning and,1271
Mintzberg, H.,1339, 1339f
fit and,393–94
outcomes and,392–97
mission, in organizational culture,656
mixed motive,1337
Mixed Standard Scales,27t, 54
Model II theory,961
Model I theory,961
modern racism,1049–50
modus tollens,93
Moede, Walter,38
EPM,311, 812
JCS and,1314
self-monitoring,464, 1215–16
socialization and,595
monolithic organizations,1021
monotony,47, 506, 644
circumplex for,518, 518f
measurement of,517–19
organizational learning and,940–41
Moore, Bruce V.,24t, 49, 50f, 64n12
autonomous work groups and,251
morality, demographic changes and,1246
moral virtue model,534–35
Mosso, Angelo,30, 31
motivating potential score (MPS),506
motivation,14–15, 25t, 45, 52, 455–88, 458f
active learning and,477
affect and,59–60
aging and,480–81, 484
behaviors and,457
change in,457–58, 469t, 470f, 477–82
in collectivistic cultures,1119
content and,469–73, 470f, 1119–22
context and,457, 469t, 470f, 473–77
for continuous learning,1207–8
criteria and,482
culture and,1112, 1119–25, 1128, 1131–32
development and,475–77, 485
expectancy theory and,1123
feedback and,127–28, 1124–25
goals and,460–68
goal setting theory and,1123–24
GO and,466–67
HPWS and,779
in individualistic cultures,1119
inference of,456–57
JCM of,252f, 253–54
knowledge gaps about,487t
leadership and,485
for learning,334, 345–46, 357
in negotiation,1131–32
organizational justice and,472–73
outcomes of,457
over time,477–82, 485
PE and,481–82
perceptions of,1121
performance and,303–4, 457
personality and,471–72
process and,1122–26
of protégé,623
purposive approaches to,465–66
relationships and,484–85
research directions for,484–88
for safety,1234
self-concept and,485–86
self-efficacy and,485–86
strategies and practices for,482–84
in teams,477, 484, 868, 868f
team effectiveness and,918
team empowerment and,773
team learning and,862
theory and research for,456–60
training and,46, 345–46, 475–77, 485
training transfer and,346
traits and,470–72, 471f
in virtual teams,828
well-being and,486
work design and,251–55
motivational agendas,1183
motivational work design,254, 254t, 256
Motivation and Morale (Viteles),47
motivation-hygiene theory,26t, 47, 252, 304, 1120
multicultural organizations,1021
leadership in,1138–39
work-family interface in,1178–79
multicultural teams,1130
multidisciplinary research,1308, 1387
Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ),169, 170, 710–11
multilevel models,1387–88
of adaptive performance,867f
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
of diversity,1029
organizational change and,983–84
team action-regulation and,866f
of team motivation and performance,868f
for work-family interface,1180–81
multilevel random coefficient modeling,12, 215
multilevel theory (MLT),10–12, 57
participation and,17
for team learning,861–62
virtual teams and,829
Multilevel Theory, Research, and Methods in Organizations: Foundations, Extensions, and New Directions (Klein and Kozlowski),11
multinational corporations (MNCs),1118
multiple fits,397–400
multiplier effect,919
multisource feedback,294–95
multivariate statistical analysis,117–40, 118f
of dynamic mediation,126–27
impulse response analysis,137–38
lag length evaluation and,134–35
of leadership,125–26
linear dynamic systems,120–25
of loosely coupled systems,127
model fit evaluation,136
model interpretation,136–37
of motivational feedback,127–28
of self-efficacy/performance,133
Münsterberg, Hugo,23t, 30, 31–32, 34, 35, 35f, 64n7, 151
cognitive engineering and,1309
Murphy, Kevin,1164
Murray, Henry,45
Muscio, Bernard,38
mutuality, psychological contracts and,1238
Myers, Charles S.,24t, 38, 41–42, 41f
Myers, Samuel,1310
Myers Shellow, Sadie,42
National Council on Aging,1261
National Institute for Industrial Psychology (NIIP),24t, 42
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health,1229
National Institutes of Health (NIH),1043
(p. 1412) National Labor Relations Act,39, 309
National Labor Standards Act,39
national origin, discrimination by,1041
National Research Council (NRC),44, 45, 1036
National Training Laboratory for Group Development (NTL),26t, 48
National Transportation Safety Bureau (NTSB),920
natural experiments, on discrimination,1037
naturalistic decision making (NDM),19–20, 1349–75
adaptation and,1359
apprenticeship and,1371–72
automaticity and,1366
content in,1369–70
CTA and,1361–64, 1361t1362t
debriefings and,1367–68
embeddedness and,1359–60
expertise and,1352–55, 1353f, 1364–66, 1365t
frugality and,1360
future directions for,1373–75, 1374t
individuals and,1364–66
interdependence and,1360
leadership and,1357–59, 1368
macrocognition and,1374
memory and,1365–66
mentoring and,1371–72
metacognition and,1366
methodological approaches to,1361–64
performance with,1368–69
research in,1351–52
roles and,1367
roots of,1350–51
SBT for,1371
self-regulation and,1366
specialization and,1359
STS and,1368
teams and,1366–68, 1366f
training and,1369–71
Naval Personnel Research, Studies, and Technology (NPRST),55
Navy Personnel Research and Development Center (NPRDC),55
need for achievement (nAch),206, 270
need for affiliation,270
need-press model,374, 375
needs analysis
aging and,1270
for training,338–40
needs-supply theory,375, 376–77, 379
negative affect (NA),518–19, 1168
negative coaching,297–98
negative emotions,536
affect in,1132
cross-cultural psychology and,1105
culture and,1107, 1130–34
motivation in,1131–32
situations and,1132–33
socialization and,597
social networks and,688
in virtual teams,802
networks,598. See also social networks
breadth of,757–59
centrality of,757
in spatial interdependence,757–59
neuroticism,150, 507, 540, 704
Newcomer Socialization Questionnaire (NSQ),603
New York State Association of Consulting Psychologists,25t, 40
Neyman, Jerzy,91
Nixon, Richard,51
nomological noise,99
non-commensurate dimension, of PE,377–78
non-conscious motivation,460
Non-directional Causal Models,83
Non-Linear Systems, Inc.,53
non-recursive causal models,83
Non-recursive Relationship,84, 84f
Norman, Donald,1293
normative decision theory,1137
notifications, for training,344–45
nuisance variable,88, 103
Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST),91–95
numerical distinctiveness, discrimination and,1053
Obama, Barack,56
discrimination by,1042–43
performance appraisal discrimination by,1074
objective culture,1111
objective fit,380–81
outcomes and,383–84, 383f
subjective fit and,388–92
Occupational Analysis Inventory,27t
occupational health psychology (OHP),1228–41
future directions for,1240–41
health and,1235–39
origins of,1229–30
safety and,1230–36
Occupational Information Network (O*Net),27t, 58, 180, 225
task statements by,339–40
WFC and,1182
Occupational Psychology,55
Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970,1230
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA),51
Occupational Work Inventory,58
Oedipal complex,1106
Offerman, Lynn,61
Office of Strategic Services (OSS),25t, 45
off-site training,594
Ohio State Leadership Studies,26t, 705
oikos (Greek aristocratic family),5
Olson, Gary,1324
Olson, Judy,1324
online recruitment,204–5
on-the-job coaching,296–98
on-the-job training (OJT),1371–72
On the Witness Stand (Münsterberg),1309
Open Courseware, at MIT,1205–6
openness,657, 704
adverse impact and,1056
aging and,1260
CQ and,1134
readiness to learn and,1215
SDO and,1048
Open University (OU),1205
operant conditioning,52
operating profit,289
optimal distinctiveness theory (ODT),398–400, 760
optimal matching,103
orders of mind, continuous learning and,1212–13
ordinary least squares (OLS),135, 139
organizations.See also specific organization topics
diversity and,1019–21
as early adopters,426
goals of,289–90
interdependence in,960
learning by,975
learning in,975
outcomes for,782
pay-for-performance for,304–5
recruitment and,201
stress and,1237–38
organizational analysis, for training,339
organizational assimilation.See assimilation
organizational behavior (OB),8, 409
cross-cultural psychology and,1105–6
science-practice model and,10
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes (OBHDP),415, 1105
organizational change,960–72, 978–86
action research and,982–83
CAS and,980–81
CSCW and,1327–28
development and,357–58
learning and,357–58
multilevel models and,983–84
sustainability and,984–86
system dynamics and,979–80
training and,357–58
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB),174, 551t
attitudes and,512–13
brand equity and,214
contextual performance and,307
cross-cultural psychology and,1106
dynamic performance and,560–61
performance and,165–68
social networks and,688–89
team member performance and,177
in team participation,770–71
organizational climate,643–53
attitudes and,649
causation in,652
complexity and,644, 651
context and,651
enactments and,646–47
espousals and,646–47
health and,1239
internal consistency in,647–48
leadership and,650
meta-analysis for,645
as multilevel perceptions,652–53
organizational culture with,655t, 660–62, 662f
PE and,644
perceptions and,644–48, 649
policies and procedures and,645
race and,1036
relationships and,645–46
relative priorities in,646
research on,654t
routinization and,644
safety and,645–46
scales of,648
sense making and,649–50
for SH,1238–39
shared perceptions and,645, 649–50
social verification in,650–51
structuralism and,649
support and,644
symbolic interactionism and,649
teams and,779–80
transformational leadership and,650
well-being and,1239
work facilitation and,652
Organizational Climate Measure (OCM),644, 648, 651
organizational commitment (OC),1127, 1136, 1238
organizational communities of practice (OCoPs),922
Organizational Courtesy,166
organizational culture,653–60
adaptability in,656
basic assumptions and,658–59
behaviors and,657
brand equity and,214
consistency in,656
continuous learning and,1216–18
core values and,658–59
definitions of,653
effectiveness of,656
enactments and,653
espousals and,653
inquiry and,658
involvement in,656
knowledge creation and,939–40
measurement of,659–60
mentoring and,659
mission in,656
with organizational climate,655t, 660–62, 662f
research on,654t655t
social-interaction in,656–57
syntax of,653–56
teams and,659
training and,343–44
typologies of,656–57
values and,656–59
Organizational Culture Inventory (OCI),657, 659
Organizational Culture Profile (OCP),215
organizational decision making (ODM),1351
organizational development (OD),26t, 51, 956–86
absorptive capacity and,969–71
change and,960–72, 978–86
history of,957
organizational learning and,972–78
readiness for change and,964–70
reviews of,957–59
organizational development and change (ODC),409
in journals,416
organizational image
familiarity and,208–10
human resource policies and,207
interactionalist perspective on,206–7
meta-analysis for,209–10
self-selection and,206
organizational justice,526–43
affect and,536–39, 542, 543
aggregation in,531–34, 531f, 534f, 541–42
charisma and,540–41
cognition in,527, 534–39
differentiation in,527–34
endogeneity in,540–41, 542, 543
exogeneity in,527, 539–41
fairness and,532–33
future directions in,541–43
motivation and,472–73
multiple trends in,542–43
parsimony in,530–31
SET and,529
social networks and,688
organizational knowledge,938–39
organizational learning,59
barriers to,975
conceptual advances in,974–75
context and,937–38
empirical studies on,975–76
experience and,936–37
future directions in,947–49
history of,972–74
information-processing in,872
levels of analysis for,935–36
measurement of,935
OD and,959, 972–78
performance and,934
processes of,938
research on,948t, 976–77, 978f
socialization and,605–7
team members and,940–41
theoretical framework for,960–63
TMS and,942–43
(p. 1414) organizational learning management,933–49
organizational reference groups,758
organizational reputation
familiarity and,208–10
self-concept and,207–8
trait inferences and,209
organizational socialization.See socialization
organizational support, contextual performance and,307
Organizational Tolerance for Sexual Harassment (OTSH),1064
organizational wellness programs.See wellness programs
organization change recipients belief scale,966
Organization Science,972
other orientation,270
assimilation and,399
brand equity and,210
in collectivistic cultures,1122
with continuous learning,1206, 1222
CQ and,1134
distributive justice and,528, 538
diversity and,1015, 1016
fairness and,533
of feedback,293
fit and,392–97
happiness and,538
for individuals,781–82, 918–19
individual differences and,152–53
interdependence and,748–53
JCM and,253
of learning,332–33
with mentoring,356, 620, 622t, 625
meta-analysis for,501t
misfits and,392–97
of motivation,457
motivation to learn and,357
objective fit and,383–84, 383f
OD and,959–60
for organizations,782
perceived discrimination and,1088
performance and,186–87, 286, 501t, 549, 913
with recruitment,205–12, 215
safety and,1234
satisfaction and,1126
of SH,1066
social networks and,681–85
for strategic human resource management,1000
subjective fit and,383–84, 383f
for teams,780–81
team effectiveness and,918
for team empowerment,780–82
team knowledge typology and,901–2, 901t
of team learning,886–902
for team participation,780–82
with WFE,1170–71
work design and,257–58
outcome evaluation and retrieval phase, of macrocognition,877
Overcoming Resistance to Change (Coch and French),50