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date: 22 April 2019

(p. 911) Index of subject matter, corpora and databases

(p. 911) Index of subject matter, corpora and databases

Abbreviations, scribal, 30, 54, 57, 61, 336, 533
Absolute clause, 520
Accent
phonological, 552, 566–567, 806, 856
regional/social, 66, 69–70, 272–273, 333, 341–350, 358, 373, 460, 524, 585, 702, 780
Acoustic phonetics see Phonetics
Acquisition, 267–287, 551–552, 607, 706, 750
adult, 489, 757
child, 595, 710, 715, 750, 759
Acrolect, 582, 588, 670, 899, 903
A-curve distribution, 116, 119, 120
Address terms, 2, 30, 300–308, 357, 371, 357, 371, 415, 424–429, 436, 512
see also Politeness
Address to the reader, 306–308
Adjective, 162, 222–228, 241, 308, 322–323, 325, 443, 564, 662–664, 741, 742
comparative, 448, 450, 656
Adverb, 30–31, 645, 701, 710, 711, 742, 744, 795, 816, 818, 823–831, 892
modal, 828–832
Adverbial, 214, 408, 651, 819, 859–871, 887, 889, 895
Affix, 644–648, 656, 706, 712, 723
Affricates, 775, 780, 782, 791
Alphabet, 38–40, 65, 67–68, 286, 451, 569
Ambiguity, 84, 86, 203, 310, 623–631, 714, 623–631, 808, 836, 851
Americanization, 380–381
Analogy, 164, 196, 213–214, 588, 599, 697, 738, 740–742
exemplar based, 712
UG based, 712
Analyticity, 7, 11, 493, 508, 606, 610, 614, 616, 643–644, 650–651, 796
index of, 614, 651, 654–664
Anaphora, 634–640, 804, 816–819, 825, 853, 895
Anchoring
global, 860
local, 859–871
Anglicization, 443, 473–476, 573
Angloversals, 492, 583, 589, 613, 667–668, 672, 674
Annotation see Methodology; Tagging
Apparent time, 194, 502, 759, 899
Approximants, 702, 774–777
ARCHER (A Representative Corpus of Historical English Registers), 27, 128–129, 141, 142, 161, 164, 172, 178, 181, 214, 215, 219, 248, 394, 450, 906
Ars dictaminis, 265
Article, 586, 631, 671–674, 708, 710, 794, 857
Articulatory phonetics see Phonetics
Assimilation
phonetic, 51, 782, 982
socio-cultural, 373, 377, 380–381, 538, 541, 543–545
Atlases, 12, 23, 33, 42, 58, 111–120, 462, 613, 615, 667–668
Attitudes, to language, 4, 6, 10, 26, 98–102, 343, 350, 368–369, 375, 376, 384, 394, 402–410, 446–453, 457–468, 473, 518–525, 585
Attraction, postcolonial, 354, 574, 575, 579
Audio recordings, 10, 87, 88, 94, 262, 269, 272, 275
Authenticity of data, 125–128, 251, 275–277, 280, 345
Authorship, establishment of, 43–44
Automated Similarity Judgment Program (ASJP), 677–678, 682
Basic vocabulary, 508–509, 512
Basilect, 578, 582, 588, 595, 670, 673, 899, 903
BE06 (British English 2006 corpus), 177, 183–185, 906
Bilingualism, 12, 477, 488–489, 504, 520, 525, 529, 541, 543, 555–557, 575, 578, 579, 573, 583, 585, 587, 588, 797, 841, 852
BLOB (Lancaster-1901, 1931 corpora), 177, 179, 180, 183–185, 906
BNC (British National Corpus), 162, 163, 169, 185, 192, 197, 229, 638, 640, 710, 887, 906
(p. 912) BoE (Bank of English Corpus (COBUILD)), 169, 170, 906
Borrowing, 6, 23, 25, 278, 280, 333, 435, 476, 486, 489, 497, 514, 520, 521, 529, 530, 535, 554, 566, 574–579, 587, 651, 739, 779
cultural, 488, 508, 511–514
vs. superstratal influence, 511–514
Boxplot, 660–662, 764, 765, 899
Brown Corpora, 5, 161, 163–167, 172, 176–183, 185, 187, 204, 248, 249, 395, 396, 638, 906
B-Brown, 177, 180, 182, 906
Cartographic approach, 806–809, 820
Cartulary, 41–43, 899
Case, inflectional, 625, 630, 634, 635
Categorical phenomenon, 499, 692–693, 695–696, 702, 705, 762, 770, 801, 823, 830, 832, 838
Causal clause, 184–186
Causative, 231, 281, 441, 502–503, 649–651, 709, 715, 736, 741
CED (Corpus of English Dialogues 1560–1760), 130, 146, 150, 151, 386, 906
CEEC (Corpus of Early English Correspondence), 67, 27, 126, 129, 386, 413, 532, 636, 638, 906
CEECS (Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler), 907
CEEM (Corpus of Early English Medical Writing), 129, 907
Celtic Hypothesis, 497–506
Centers and margins, 451–452
CHF (Corpus of Historical Fiction), 320–325, 907
Chain shift, 367, 692, 748–759, 899, 902, 903
pull chain, 755, 904
push chain, 755, 904
Chancery English, 265–266, 375, 899
Charm, 263, 286, 290–291
Charter, 41–45, 51, 263, 342, 372, 560, 575, 899
Christianity, 263, 291, 296–297, 301, 425–426, 436, 549–550
Chronicle, 309–311, 510, 518
CIE (Corpus of Irish English), 130, 907
Cinema see Film
Circles of English, 10, 578
expanding, 355, 356, 568, 584
inner, 355, 557, 560, 569, 790–792, 902
outer, 355, 356, 378, 562, 583, 904
Class see Social class
Cleft construction, 860, 874, 884–897, 899
IT-cleft, 887, 888, 894, 895, 897
see also Pseudocleft
CLMETEV (Corpus of Late Modern English Texts (Extended Version)), 130, 907
CMSW (Corpus of Modern Scottish Writing), 88–89, 907
COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English), 5, 10, 11, 162, 163, 169–171, 175–176, 178, 180, 214, 215, 217, 218, 227–231, 247, 248, 250, 251, 907
Code-switching, 40, 253, 417–418, 486, 489, 522, 523, 528–535, 554, 557, 567, 588, 900
Codex (pl. codices), 264, 288, 298, 302, 523, 529, 531, 900
Codification, 272, 375, 452, 900
COERP (Corpus of English Religious Prose), 129, 300, 907
Cognitive capacities, 214, 599, 612, 692, 694, 713, 885
Cognitive linguistics, 106, 131, 214, 735
COHA (Corpus of Historical American English), 5, 10, 11, 130, 161–168, 170, 172, 175, 178, 180, 214, 215, 219, 220, 233–243, 907
Coin inscriptions, 55, 11, 38–39, 41, 50–52
Colonial settings, 193, 472, 493, 561, 566, 572–573, 576, 578, 902
Colonialization, 273, 376–378
Colony, 342, 350, 377, 472
exploitation, 560, 573–574
plantation, 574, 592
Colloquialism, 98
Colloquialization, 185, 186, 304, 314, 345, 379, 393–396, 900
Collostruction, 141, 193, 281
Collostructional analysis, 233–243, 900
Commodification, 275, 352–360
Common ground, 286, 309, 399, 519, 810, 848, 850, 853, 900
Community of language users, 2, 7, 29, 116, 129, 191, 263, 277, 375, 428, 474, 487–490, 531, 539, 542–544, 551, 562, 567, 583–587, 749–751, 754, 755, 759, 797, 833
(p. 913) Communicative space, 289
Communication, 5, 130, 329, 353, 372, 386, 478, 503, 530, 554, 555, 573, 592, 595, 670, 875
in the religious domain, 295–302, 443
technology mediated, 261–281, 329–338, 353–360, 377, 386, 565
Comparison
cross-linguistic, 1, 2, 6, 509, 607–608, 613, 615, 622, 626, 663, 677, 802, 816, 846–857, 871
cross-variety, 203, 214, 380, 460, 588
Competence-performance distinction, 836, 843
Competition, 182, 224, 635, 637–638, 647, 662, 722, 724, 726, 789, 878
grammatical, 809, 839, 841, 843
Complementation, 5, 160, 162, 163–164, 192, 193, 195, 197, 213, 215, 218, 219, 222, 323, 671, 714, 728, 729, 796
Great Complement Shift, 166, 167, 222–231
Complementizer, 213–215, 625, 627, 631, 656, 807, 808, 852
Completive aspect, 598
Complexity, structural, 7, 208, 305, 385, 470, 534, 593, 614, 648, 708, 737, 739, 740, 790, 792, 835–844, 855, 856, 900
Computer-mediated communication (CMC), 334
CONCE (Corpus of Nineteenth Century Texts), 161, 164, 172, 395, 907
Confidence interval, 204, 769, 900
Configurational word order see Word order, configurational
Conflational patterns, lexical, 643, 644, 649–651
Conjunction, 30, 163, 176, 180, 184–186, 280, 656, 651
Construction, 900
caused motion, 737
ditransitive, 192, 193, 195–196, 736, 737
raising, 624–631, 828
resultative, 476, 708–709, 736, 737, 741–744
schematic, 709, 736, 738, 741
way-, 740–741
Construction Grammar, 708, 735–745
Contextualization, 3, 4, 6, 10, 11, 46, 127, 240, 365, 398, 413, 415, 417, 452, 561
linguistic (textual), 20, 82, 163, 180, 201, 218, 223, 286, 408, 437, 529, 588, 626, 635, 666, 698, 706, 712, 726, 740, 775, 804, 823, 835, 847, 886
socio-cultural, 26, 37, 145, 190, 263, 297, 305, 344, 350, 359, 369, 412, 424, 447, 475, 488, 521, 543, 551, 560, 573, 583, 593, 659, 789
see also Co-text
Contraction, 319–320, 335–336, 395, 448, 701
Convergence, 194, 380, 487, 588
Conversation, 113, 212, 268, 286, 314, 317, 318, 322, 326, 335, 345, 379, 384, 416, 428, 430, 529, 544, 565, 586, 810
structure, 130, 386
Conversion (word formation), 712, 795, 900
COOEE (Corpus of Oz Early English), 386, 907
Copula, 542, 564, 564, 598, 713, 853, 893
reduplicative, 211–221
CoRD (Corpus Resource Database), 10, 907
Corpus (pl. corpora), 1, 123–131, 906–910
architecture, 160, 162, 171, 245
balanced, 103, 113, 124, 130, 160, 168, 176, 243
list of, 906–910
monitor, 90, 158, 168,-171, 180, 197
reference, 150, 175–187
stratified, 124
structured, 130, 159–164, 450
Correctness, 6, 272, 336, 370, 375–376, 383, 462, 579, 638
Co-text, 382–383
Courtroom data, 4, 145–152, 369, 385–386
Creolization, 252, 596–597
CSC (Corpus of Scottish Correspondence), 130, 386, 907
Curial style, 265, 900
Culture see Assimilation, socio-cultural; Borrowing, cultural; Context, socio-cultural
chirographic, 438–439
spiritual, 435
youth, 334, 336, 343, 467, 555
see also Print, culture
Danelaw, 509–515
Data mining, 33, 149–151
Dating, 39–40, 42, 74, 104, 128, 353
ante-, 74, 104
post-, 749
pre-, 44–45
DCPSE (Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English), 161, 164, 172, 185, 201–208, 907
DECTE (Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English), 90–92, 907
Dedication, 39, 306–308
Defocusing, 846–857
Degrammaticalization, 711–712, 795, 900
Democratization, 6, 379–380, 392–399, 900
Dendrogram, 135, 138, 139, 141, 143
Densification, 315
Deontic (obligation) modality, 248, 251, 393, 430, 707
Derivation, morphological, 83, 214, 614, 643–649
De-standardization, 273, 330–338, 344, 349, 357
Determiner, 24, 236, 499, 500, 661, 663, 710, 794, 812–813, 856, 819
Dialectology, 22–23, 32, 114, 131, 369, 382, 550, 552–553, 606–607, 612–620, 677
historical, 55, 58, 114, 117, 131, 606
perceptual, 369, 457–468
social, 382
Dialectic relations, 6, 271, 357, 372, 386
Diary, as source, 114, 132, 394, 550
Diaspora, 10, 274, 275, 280, 560, 680
Dictionaries, 11, 23, 24, 31, 43, 44, 46, 56, 67, 69, 91, 98–107, 118, 152, 249, 251, 331, 332, 336, 377, 415, 440, 448, 565, 735, 740
Diffusion, 71, 72, 280, 357, 358, 375, 414, 490, 569, 570, 574, 575, 583, 640, 749–759
Digital resources, 1, 8, 10–12, 57, 81, 127, 131, 149, 556, 557
revolution, 269, 273
Diglossia, 521, 525, 583
Diphthongs, 91, 346–349, 544, 552, 587, 749, 757, 758, 783, 790
Diphthongization, 749, 783, 902
Diploma, 42, 263, 901
Discourse
configurationality, 847, 848, 855
definitions of, 382–386, 396, 398–399
marker see Discourse, particle
particle, 299, 301, 533, 564–565, 570
tradition, 265, 286, 292
type, 4, 27, 148, 295, 296, 301, 302, 307, 315, 316, 334, 358, 360, 379, 417, 429, 430, 439, 708
Discursive practices, 268, 383, 529
Disfluency, 215, 216
Dislocation, contrastive, 886–896
Dissociation, 492, 648
Ditransitivity, 192–196, 233, 736–737
Divergence, 180, 183, 191, 194–197, 375, 584, 588, 795, 813–814
Diversity index, 682–683
DOEC (Dictionary of Old English Corpus), 44, 907
Do-support see Periphrastic do
Double Base Hypothesis, 809, 812, 847, 851, 901
Double copula see Copula, reduplicative
Doublet, 82, 288
Drama see Plays
Draw-a-map task, 459, 460, 465
Drift, 614, 616, 622–631, 633–641, 654, 658, 663
to colloquialization, 314, 318–322, 394
Dualism, 402, 404, 408
Dynamic model of the evolution of Postcolonial Englishes, 578, 582
ECCO (Eighteenth-Century Collections Online), 11, 28, 67, 75, 130, 131, 907
Ecology, 493
Economy, linguistic, 314–327, 438, 634
Editing, 33, 53–61, 127, 337, 530
Edition
best-text, 54–56
diplomatic, 53–54, 57, 58, 60
eclectic, 55–56, 58, 127
EEBO (Early English Books Online), 11, 28, 124, 130–131, 307, 309, 908
EMC (electronically mediated communication), 334–336
EMC (Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds), 50, 908
EMEMT (Early Modern English Medical Texts Corpus), 129, 908
Emic approach, 384
Emotion, 166, 168, 240–242, 429, 435, 439, 443
Encoding, linguistic, 644, 650, 651, 815
Endonormativity, 7, 193–194, 562, 578, 582–583, 901
Entrenchment, 6, 70, 227, 272, 273, 360, 435, 501, 576
Epistemic modality, 248, 418, 715
Ethnicity, 102, 272–274, 276, 28, 368, 538–546, 562, 565, 585, 592
Ethnography, 417
Ethnolect, 538–546
Etic approach, 384
Etymology, 37, 45, 55, 61, 73, 101, 103, 118, 276, 396, 397, 647, 648, 701
Euphemism, 403, 406, 408
eWAVE (Electronic World Atlas of Varieties of English), 12, 908
Exegesis, 299, 301, 521, 901
Exonormativity, 193–194, 578, 582, 584, 901
Exordium, 306, 901
Expanding Circle Englishes see Circles of English, expanding
Expository registers, 394–396
External factors, 487, 488, 582–584, 589, 607, 629, 651, 795, 797
Extraposition, 811, 850
Factor analysis, 135, 194
Face, 393, 422–430
see also Politeness
Fiction, 130, 170, 179, 184, 276, 315–327, 394–395
see also Novel
Film, 268, 273, 329, 332
First language (L1), 191, 551, 552, 583, 585, 587, 595, 788, 790–794
interference, 196, 584
First-position elements, 884–897
Flapping, 69, 358, 696, 776–781
FLOB/F-LOB (Freiburg-LOB Corpus of British English), 161, 167, 175–185, 908
Focus (pl. foci), 805–812, 825, 827, 839, 841, 844, 847–857, 860, 863, 873–882, 884–897, 901
elements, 213–214, 218, 577, 713–714, 795
position, 840
Foot, metrical, 776, 777, 779–780, 785
Foreigner talk, 252, 594
Formality, 270, 309, 331, 333
Formant, 96, 346, 348, 764
Formulaicity, 901
Fossilized forms, 584, 645, 646
Frame, 178, 181, 383, 649, 708, 736, 745
setters, 864, 889, 901
subcategorization, 624, 626–631
Fricatives, 20, 24–26, 66, 88, 91, 504–505, 544, 576, 678, 774–783, 793
Frown (Freiburg-Brown Corpus), 161, 166, 167, 175, 176, 180, 183, 185, 249, 908
Futhark, 39, 901
Gaelicization, 471–473
Garden path, 626–628, 631
Geminate, 50, 51, 696, 778, 785
Gender, grammatical, 606, 615, 633–640, 854
social, 92, 95, 130, 150, 368, 373, 385, 403, 410, 414, 416
Generalization, linguistic, 213, 216, 699, 705, 713, 714, 803, 816, 856–857, 882
Genetic relationship, 514, 540, 577, 588, 592–599, 678, 681, 683
Geography, 114, 117, 118, 465, 503
word, 46, 56
Gerund, 222–231, 502
Givenness, 713, 794, 804–805, 810, 812–813, 817, 822–833, 838, 843, 860, 869
given/new distinction, 5, 836–843, 848–856, 860, 863, 884–888, 901
Globalization, 6, 273, 280, 353–355, 377–378, 554–558, 568, 572, 584, 902
Google Books see Internet as data source
Gradience, 1, 692, 705, 706, 715, 762, 768–770
Gradualness, 1, 610, 691–715, 762
Grammar, architecture of, 1, 2, 613, 694, 698–699, 705, 712, 715, 749, 804–809, 819, 841, 847, 874
Grammatical weight see Weight, grammatical
(p. 916) Granularity, 172, 193, 862
Graph see Orthography
Great Vowel Shift (GVS), 73, 119, 367, 588, 691, 749–750, 755, 757–759, 902
Northern, 91
Southern, 91
Great Complement Shift see Complementation, Great Complement Shift
Grimm's Law, 748
Habitual aspect, 490
HC (Helsinki Corpus of English Texts), 3, 84, 128–129, 386, 449, 450, 725, 908
annotated, 888, 891, 896
HCOS (Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots Corpus), 87, 908
Heavy NP shift, 850
Historical dialectology see Dialectology, historical
Historical pragmatics see Pragmatics, historical
Historical sociolinguistics see Sociolinguistics, historical
Homily, 262, 288–289, 299, 331, 902
Homonymy, 44, 75
Homophony, 66, 75, 105, 576, 598
Hybrid language, 10, 126, 476, 511, 577, 680, 755
Hypercorrection, 20, 587–589, 701, 758
Hyphenation, 336
ICAME (International Computer Archive of Modern and Medieval English), 10, 908
ICE (The International Corpus of English), 161, 189–198, 201, 203, 206, 207, 565, 908
Ideas, history of, 434–443
Identity, 92, 90, 341, 350, 354, 368, 374, 377, 380, 413–414, 416, 473–474, 524, 530, 542, 546, 557, 578, 582
Idiomatization, 708–709
Illocutionary force see Speech act, theory
Imperfective aspect, 597
Impersonal, 426
Implicature, 586, 796
Indigenization, 583–587, 902
Industrialization, 378–379
Inflection, 24, 83, 142, 151, 201–203, 249, 503–504, 506, 520, 533, 577, 610, 614, 616, 625, 643, 648, 651, 654, 656, 657, 708, 712, 715, 807
Infinitive, 192, 197, 202–209, 215–217, 222–230, 248, 426, 502, 656, 661–662, 714, 739, 714, 809
bare, 318–319, 322, 714
split, 447
Informality, 6, 251, 270, 330, 333–334, 337–338, 357, 359, 393–394, 396
Informalization, 314, 343, 344, 393–396
Information
structure, 2, 7, 213, 713–714, 803–898, 902
Inland North (US), 750–759, 902
Inner Circle Englishes see Circles of English, inner
Innovation, 24, 25, 70–71, 195, 196, 253, 262, 264, 268, 315, 360, 373, 414, 576, 616, 674, 694, 704–705, 712, 751, 774, 784, 785
Inscriptions, 37–41, 50
Instant messaging (IM), 335, 557
Institutionalized second language variety, 189–190
Interaction, speaker, 2, 6, 88, 112, 131, 150, 217, 219, 253, 262, 272, 277, 280, 291, 357–358, 370–371, 378, 385, 393, 416–417, 428, 488, 519, 573, 579, 606, 608, 629, 714, 879
Interfaces, 4, 7, 276, 386, 498
lexis-grammar, 190–195
web-based, 150, 159–162
with information structure, 1, 4, 7, 803–899
Interlanguage, 523, 575, 584, 593, 599
Internal factors, 487–488, 506, 582–584, 589, 629, 651, 667, 705, 787, 794–795, 797, 873, 882
Internet as data source, 10, 11, 32, 58, 73, 104, 158–160, 171–172, 192, 197, 249, 252, 540
see also n-grams
Intonation, 212, 345, 383, 442, 530, 569, 570, 807, 808, 850, 856
high rising terminal, 345
Intonational language, 805, 806, 808
Intransitivity, 193, 448, 624, 627, 628, 825
Intrusive r see Rhoticity
Inversion, 279, 766, 813, 815, 823–833, 860, 866, 874, 886, 889, 892, 894–895, 897
Isogloss, 42, 47, 462, 678
Jespersen's Cycle, 711, 721–733
Keywords, 67, 127, 150, 416
Koinéization, 274, 574, 588, 902
LAEME (Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English), 12, 115, 117, 118, 908
LAMSAS (Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States), 12, 111, 113, 115, 117, 119, 909
Language transfer, 487–491, 497–505, 551, 562, 565, 575–576, 579, 585–588, 599, 737, 788, 790, 792, 795, 902
LAOS (Linguistic Atlas of Older Scots), 42, 115, 117, 909
(p. 917) Layering, 251, 652, 693, 705, 712, 714, 715
Legal texts, 43, 44, 289–291, 372, 521
Lemma, 103, 118, 135, 158, 159, 162
Lengthening, of vowels, 32, 66, 83–84
Lenition, 692, 699, 703, 773–785
Letters, as data source, 27, 29, 30, 73, 88, 114, 128, 129, 262, 265–267, 277, 306–309, 315, 331, 371, 373, 380, 384–385, 394–395, 412–418, 449, 452, 529, 532, 534, 550, 655
Levenshtein distance, 676–678, 902
Leveling, 376, 449, 583, 587–588, 625, 626, 634, 635, 738
Lexicalization, 650–700, 739, 767, 812, 866, 902
Lexicology, 24, 56, 81, 131
Lexicography, 98–103, 131, 277, 332, 449, 902
Lexicon, as module, 12, 24, 37, 67, 107, 693, 708–709, 735–745
Lexicogrammatical continuum, 191–194, 460, 670, 735–745
Lexifier language, 280, 513, 563, 577, 592–599
Light verb see Verb
Lingua franca, 12, 272, 378, 539, 554, 562, 565, 583, 593, 595, 902
Link see Discourse, linking
Linking r see Rhoticity
Lion (Literature Online), 124, 130, 909
Liquids, 69, 697, 703, 793
LOB (Lancaster-Oslo/Bergen Corpus), 161, 167, 176, 178, 179, 180, 182, 183, 185, 909
Localization, of texts, 115–119, 557–558
London Lives Corpus, 11, 29, 30, 147, 909
Loss, 88, 129, 185, 205, 436, 510, 583, 584, 594, 623, 644, 648, 692, 701, 708, 724, 728, 774, 783–784, 841
of derivational morphology, 646, 650
of heritage languages, 377, 538
of inflectional morphology, 24, 366, 610, 624–625, 629, 633–636, 639, 654
of rhoticity, 69, 761–765; see also Lenition; Rhoticity
LSWE (Longman Spoken and Written English Corpus), 909
Macaronic text, 278, 288, 521–522, 531, 533, 903
Macro level studies, 2, 6, 179, 184, 366, 372, 382–383, 414, 449–450, 523, 530, 706, 707, 861, 867, 869, 903
Maintenance, of language, 490–491
Manuscript, as witness, 37, 41–45, 126–128, 146–149, 264–269, 296, 304–308, 365, 529
Maps, geographical, 8, 12, 42, 88, 115–118, 457–466, 682–684
Markedness, 7, 583, 692, 789–794, 797, 903
Market, linguistic, 352, 352–354, 360
Mass media see Media
Maxim, 289, 290
see also Proverb
MEG-C (Middle English Grammar Corpus), 119, 909
MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts), 129, 909
Merger, 32, 66, 74, 139, 140, 749, 750, 752, 757–759, 791
Mesolect, 588, 903
Metadata, 88, 117, 118, 125, 180, 903
Metadiscourse, 26, 305, 458
Meter, 56, 700, 701–702, 811, 877
Micro level studies, 1, 2, 166, 367, 370, 372, 382–384, 414, 449, 452, 530, 706, 707, 903
Minimalism, 723, 806–809
Mischsprache, 521, 903
Modal adverb see Adverb, modal
Modal auxiliary, 162, 176, 205–209, 248, 383, 393, 707–708, 715, 823, 833
premodal, 707, 708
semimodal, 176, 202, 205, 270, 319–322, 381
Models of grammar see Grammar, architecture of
Modernity, 268–269, 439, 554
Modules, linguistic, 1–3, 7, 693, 694, 705, 735, 805–807
Monolingual varieties, 277, 529, 588, 788
Monophthongs, 346, 348, 552, 749, 756
Multifunctionality, 884–897
Multivariate analysis, 731, 732
Names see Onomastics
Nationalism, linguistic, 375–376, 404, 446, 471, 477, 524
Nativization, 190, 192–197, 269, 562, 578, 579, 582, 587, 903
NECTE (Newcastle Electronic Corpus of English), 90, 91, 909
NECTE2 (Newcastle Electronic Corpus of English), 90, 909
NEET (Network of Eighteenth-century English Texts), 909
Negation, 27, 30–31, 162–163, 395, 588, 613, 860, 886, 897
multiple, 26–29, 31, 447–449, 452, 453, 727, 729
NeighborNet, 678–683, 903
Neologism, 105, 245, 280, 403
Network, 267–268, 277, 334, 373, 377, 412–419, 448, 544, 556, 635, 678–680, 682, 803
of constructions, 780
News archive, 158–159, 171
BNC, 192, 197
broadcast, 332, 333, 341–350
writing, 308–311, 315
New Testament see Bible
n-grams, 190, 194
Nominalization, 322, 323, 614, 645–647
Normalization, 11, 103, 127, 348
Normative tradition, 27, 28, 71, 243, 357, 417, 447, 452, 564, 640
Northern Cities Shift (NCS), 750–759, 903
Northern Subject Rule, 504–506
Northumberland burr, 91, 903
NSM (Natural Semantic Metalanguage), 435, 441–442
OBC (Old Bailey Corpus), 130, 151, 909
Obsolescence, 105, 440, 637, 741
OED (Oxford English Dictionary), 11, 24, 43, 56, 91, 118, 152, 252, 332, 336, 337, 565, 740
Old Bailey Online, 11, 28, 147, 149, 909
Onomasticon, 47, 903
Onomastics, 37, 45–47, 904
ONZE (Origins of New Zealand English Corpus), 94–96, 909
Orthography, 39, 40, 45, 50, 41, 44, 51, 88, 114–116, 246, 253, 273, 280, 336, 337, 520, 557, 558, 743, 778
see also Spelling
Outer Circle Englishes see Circles of English, outer
Paleography, 40, 43, 57, 904
Pamphlet, 267, 295–296, 302, 305, 309
Parameter, 113, 117, 118, 125–128, 270, 316, 332, 346, 379, 418, 622, 644, 694
Paratext, 306–308
Participle, 83–85, 135, 141, 201, 203–204, 231, 248, 443, 449, 613, 656, 854, 886
Particle, 206, 613, 644, 650, 651
discourse see Discourse, particle
focus, 884, 890
verb, 196–197, 811
PASE (Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England), 909
Passive, 135, 136–142, 171, 176, 230, 319, 321, 322, 395, 396, 577, 627, 890
PCEEC (Parsed Corpus of Early English Correspondence), 142, 909
Perception see Processing, perception
Performance constraints, 836, 838, 841–843
Performance-Grammar Correspondence Hypothesis, 611, 623, 628
Performative see Speech act, theory
Periodization, 3, 11, 39–40, 128, 134–144
Periphery of clause, 804, 809–819, 846–857, 873–882
Periphrasis, 448, 450, 646, 796, 833, 854
periphrastic do, 245–253, 504, 588, 833, 823, 830, 739
Phoneme, 67, 69, 94, 384, 505, 588, 749, 759
Phonemicization, 24–26
Phonologization, 692–700, 713, 714, 775
Phraseology, 292, 435
Phylogeny, 677–678, 681, 683
Pidginization, 573, 594, 681
Pitch, 345, 460, 544, 564, 882
Pitch language, 564, 882
Plays, 27, 89, 130, 150, 265, 288, 291, 312, 333, 371, 386, 395, 417, 428–429, 447, 462, 464, 465, 518, 532
Plosives see Stops
Plurilingualism see Bilingualism; Multilingualism
Podcast, 333
Poetry, 88, 263, 264, 286–288, 336, 427, 466, 534
see also Verse
Politeness, 6, 130, 269, 357–358, 268–371, 384, 386, 393, 422–431, 452, 588
negative, 368, 371, 424, 428, 430
positive, 424, 428–429
Politic behavior, 427, 424, 428
Political correctness, 6, 99, 370, 402–410
Polyglossia, 470–471
Polysemy, 105, 152, 623, 634, 706, 736
Possessive, 248–253, 337, 499–500, 634, 656, 662, 664, 673, 860, 865, 870
Postcolonial attraction, 354, 574, 575, 579
Postcolonial setting, 191, 193, 789
Power, 365–387, 393, 404, 415, 429, 451, 471, 524, 534, 545, 560, 574
PPCEME (Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Early Modern English), 655, 660, 828, 909
PPCMBE (Penn Parsed Corpus of Modern British English), 655, 660, 910
Pragmatics, 5, 9, 128–129, 149, 264, 270, 286, 291, 306, 308, 310, 382, 383, 385, 386, 392–393, 416, 428, 441, 489, 522, 525, 530, 534, 564, 565, 586, 608, 616, 631, 711, 715, 721, 804–809, 813, 820, 825, 863, 886
historical, 131, 412, 804
Prefix, 645, 650–651, 701
Preposition, 182, 186, 192, 223, 224, 309, 317, 323, 324, 499, 502, 609, 610, 645, 650, 651, 656, 712, 795, 811, 825, 833, 862, 866, 868, 870
stranding, 395, 447, 448, 450, 452, 453, 631
Presupposition, 416, 852–853, 886, 888, 892
Principles and Parameters framework, 722, 733
Processing, 1, 586, 608, 612, 615, 622–632, 789, 790, 793, 794, 844
perception, 694, 789, 790
production, 530, 599, 608, 623, 628, 698, 764, 790, 792
Production see Processing, production
Productivity, 242, 587, 624–625, 646–648, 736, 740, 741, 745, 777, 825
Projection, 214, 217–219
functional, 723, 807–808
Prominence
cultural, 452, 465, 467, 541
prosodic, 564, 567, 805, 818, 833, 877, 889–892, 897
Pronoun
personal, 499, 639, 824, 825, 895
Pronunciation, 5, 20, 26, 33, 40–41, 51, 63–75, 88–89, 91–92, 148, 270, 275, 280, 333, 337, 343, 349–350, 357, 358, 451, 463, 544, 557, 576
spelling, 551–552
Proscription/proscriptivism, 89, 356, 447–450, 453, 470, 479
Proverb, 289, 290, 292
Proximity, 253, 461, 463, 465–467, 498, 544, 668
Pseudocleft, 213–218
ALL-cleft, 216, 709, 713–714
WH-cleft, 213–221, 862, 869, 887, 895, 896
Psycholinguistic research, 623, 860, 867, 869–871
Pull chain see Chain shift, pull chain
Puns, 66, 75, 275
Push chain see Chain shift, push chain
Qualitative analysis, 119, 179–182, 227, 240–243, 246, 281, 384, 385, 399, 416, 615, 866, 871
(p. 920) Quantitative analysis, 27, 58, 82, 89, 120, 150, 151, 190, 193, 194, 243, 246, 384, 385, 399, 532, 557, 614, 655, 721–733, 848, 851, 863, 868
Radio, 94, 268, 272–273, 285, 332–333, 338, 342–346, 380
see also Media
Received Pronunciation (RP), 91, 272, 330, 342
see also Pronunciation
Reflex development, 25, 46, 50, 66, 758, 879, 886, 889, 895, 897, 904
Reflexive, 273, 624, 634
Regression analysis, 768, 770, 842
Regularization, analogical, 738
Relative clause, 181–183, 325, 395, 613, 625, 636, 639
Relativizer, 163, 176, 180–183
Relexification, 514, 596, 904
Repertoire, 27, 285, 412, 424, 521–525, 584
Replication, grammatical, 576–577, 668
Representativeness, 23, 27, 37, 56, 101, 103, 112–113, 124–132, 146, 179–180, 187, 250, 263, 533
Residualism, 91, 904
Resolution strategy, 626, 882, 884–897
Restructuring, 7, 82, 489, 576, 578, 597, 599, 698, 707, 762
Rhetoric, 264, 289, 335, 369, 397, 399, 436–438, 452, 464, 522, 523, 525, 904
Rhoticity, 69, 96, 461, 680, 761–771, 726
Rhyme, 74, 75, 87, 275, 705
Rhythm, 83, 96, 877
Roles, theta, 223, 631
Routine, 190
processing, 630–631
Rule scattering, 693, 696, 705, 712, 714
Rural varieties, 88, 113, 274, 280, 379, 461–465, 468, 492, 554, 669, 756
Salience, 70, 170–171, 235, 292, 417, 437, 552, 566, 778, 789
social, 115, 476
SAVE (South Asian Varieties of English Corpus), 196, 197, 910
Schema, 235, 242, 368
constructional, 708–709, 736–745
S (Electronic Sawyer. An Online Catalogue of Anglo-Saxon Charters), 50, 910
SCOTS (Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech), 87–89, 91, 910
Scribal practice, 43, 54, 55, 57, 61, 82, 115, 118, 126, 130, 148, 267
S-curve, 119
Search techniques, 118, 123–124, 127, 149, 150, 247, 316, 458, 644
see also Data mining
Second language (L2), 196, 550, 582, 593, 566, 574, 575, 579
acquisition (SLA), 252, 489, 550–552, 573, 575–576, 583, 584–589, 564, 594, 595, 597
adult (ASL), 489, 582–583, 587
institutionalized, 189–190, 583
Self-reference, 417–418
Semantic
engineering, 402, 404
field, 24, 105, 407, 425, 428, 649
specialization, 201, 209, 738, 745
Settler, 376, 380, 473, 490, 498–501, 550, 551, 553, 680
variety, 6, 40, 380, 492–493, 498–499, 579, 583, 584, 669, 673
Shortening of vowels, 460
Simplification, 252, 576, 583, 594, 597, 614, 629, 670, 759, 792, 793, 879
Slang, 98–102, 280, 375, 408, 557
SMS (Short Message Service) see Text messaging
Social change, 315, 392, 398, 403, 470
Social status, 69, 130, 308, 371, 373, 376, 427, 429, 465, 491
see also Social class
Sociolect, 27, 525
Sociology, 19, 366, 372, 382, 383, 399, 413, 415
Solidarity, 373, 393
Specialization see Semantic, specialization
Specificity, 129, 298, 406, 640, 709, 737, 793
Speech act, 264, 290–292, 300, 301, 383, 385, 426, 429, 430, 439–442
theory, 291, 298, 442, 886, 904
verb, 151, 439–442, 904
Speech community see Community of language users
Speech perception, 694
see also Perception, speech
Speech production, 543
Spirantization, 775, 778–779, 783, 785
Split, phonological, 32, 65, 69–71
Stabilization, 193, 562, 578, 692–697, 705, 714
Stance, speaker, 213, 416, 418
Statesman, The (India) as corpus, 195, 910
Statistical analysis, 2, 3, 11, 19, 33, 46, 124, 129, 141, 150, 166–167, 177, 180, 183, 185, 190, 204, 246, 247, 281, 316, 350, 428, 556, 640, 696, 731, 732, 770, 851
Stratification, 373–374, 379, 523, 530, 579, 904
Subcategorization, 179, 624–626, 628, 743–744
Subjectification, 291, 418
Subjunctive, 381, 450, 868
Suffix, 83, 142, 162, 170, 587, 645–647, 649, 674, 699, 704
Suppletion, 451
Supraregionalization, 2, 533, 579, 585
Suprasegmental, 566, 704
see also Prosody
Surveys, data, 45–46, 111–120, 201, 459, 463, 546, 585, 615
Symmetrization of vowel space, 756–759
Synchronic distance, 190–197
Syntacticization, 714, 812
Syntax-lexicon continuum, 708–709, 735–745
Syntheticity, 7, 11, 508, 586, 606, 610, 614, 616, 643–651, 654–664, 699, 796
Tag question, 216–217, 440
Talk-in-interaction see Interaction
Target language, 489, 490, 501, 550, 565, 585–588, 593–594, 790–792
Taxonomy, 104, 737, 740
TEAMS (Consortium for the Teaching of the Middle Ages), 299, 910
Telegraph, 268, 332
Telephone, 212, 268, 285, 332, 356–357, 555
Television, 5, 268, 273, 285, 332–333, 344, 345, 350, 409
see also Media
Tendency, 64, 66–67, 81, 99–100, 192, 194, 208, 209, 218, 229, 234, 272, 334, 353, 373, 379, 393, 394, 534, 552, 569, 577, 597, 606, 608, 623, 637, 640, 644, 663, 674, 792, 856, 862, 885
Tense
future, 150, 207, 243, 500, 674, 693, 708, 715, 739
past, 84, 85, 202, 204, 207–209, 449, 577, 613, 618, 707, 708, 796
present, 203–204, 476, 500, 501, 506, 656
Text encoding, 90, 644, 905
see also Methodology
Text messaging (SMS), 115, 334, 336, 556–558, 569
Theme-rheme structure, 875, 905
Thesaurus, 11, 24, 43, 198–107, 152, 158, 425
TIME Corpus, 135, 136, 139, 160, 176–178, 214, 220, 222–231, 910
Tone, 494, 564–567, 587
language, 566–567
Topic, 805–808, 815–819, 822, 848, 860, 884–886, 889, 892–894, 905
aboutness topic, 815–817, 860, 875
prominence, 564
shift, 299, 544
Topicalization, 818–819, 874–882, 886, 905
Toponymy, 45, 46, 576, 905
Traders, 476, 519, 570
Transfer, language, 487
Transitivity, 192, 624, 626, 628, 631, 674, 738, 741, 825–830
Transmission, 81, 83, 342, 418, 492, 562, 564, 574, 587, 593, 596, 749–753, 759
Trial proceedings, 28, 130, 145–152, 267, 275, 385, 417
Typology, 2, 6, 23, 115, 491, 502, 562, 564, 576, 605–686, 794
diachronic, 606–611, 613, 615–616, 667
lexical, 614, 643–651
morphological, 614, 616, 644, 650, 655, 664
Unidirectionality, 7, 176, 611, 691–715
Uniformitarian Hypothesis, 21, 32, 609
Universals, 2, 23, 27, 106–107, 431, 492, 530, 583, 588, 593, 598, 599, 608–610, 712, 789–793, 847, 885
implicational, 606, 608, 613
vernacular, 491–492, 613
Urbanization, 274, 378–379, 553, 554
Variability-based neighbor clustering, 134–144, 237, 905
Variation, 2, 6, 11 et passim
Variation(ist) analysis, 23, 131, 208, 242, 246, 382, 535, 612, 618, 640, 843
Varioversals, 583, 589, 613, 618, 667, 674
Verb
light, 192, 709
unaccusative, 823, 825–830
unergative, 823, 825–831
Vernacularization, 305, 357, 531, 583, 585
Verse, 39, 44, 89, 263–265, 333, 532, 533, 700–701
see also Poetry
WebCorp (Web as Corpus), 247, 250, 251, 910
Weight
grammatical, 835–844, 848, 855–856, 902
phonological, 88, 211, 811, 833
WH-cleft see Pseudocleft, WH-cleft
(p. 923) Word formation, 6, 402, 410, 509, 577, 644–649, 712
see also Conversion
Word order, 6, 7, 116, 514, 606, 609–611, 615–616, 622–632, 654, 656, 803–897
configurational, 847, 848, 855
non-canonical, 564, 874
see also Verb second
X-SAMPA (Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet), 678, 905
YCOE (York-Toronto-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Old English Prose), 11, 836, 910
Youth culture see Culture, youth
ZEN (Zurich English Newspaper Corpus), 129, 309, 910 (p. 924)