Abstract and Keywords
Solving a problem results in obtaining a desired goal through the use of higher mental functions, including reasoning and planning. Problems—such as those requiring arrangement, transformation, and inducing structure—can be classified based on the cognitive skills that are required to solve them. Although general heuristics are sufficient for solving knowledge-lean problems, organized knowledge structures (schemas) are needed to solve knowledge-rich problems. Using analogous solutions is often helpful for both types of problems. Mappings across concepts, problem states, and operations relate the structure of analogous problems and of different solutions to the same problem. EUREKA, CLARION, and ACT are examples of cognitive architectures that apply to problem solving. Underinvestigated topics include problems with insufficient information, estimated answers, complex problem solving, and collaborative problem solving.
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