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date: 22 September 2017

(p. 747) Index

(p. 747) Index

Note: Page numbers end in “f” indicate figures; those ending in “t” indicate tables.

ABC Island,448
Abramovic, Marina,451
Seven Easy Pieces,451
absence,73, 210–11
absorption,228–31
abstraction,470, 475, 477
Acconci, Vito, Seedbed,451
ACM Virtual Reality Software and Technology (VRST),274
acoustic ecology (AE),9, 372–74
acoustic virtuality,8–9. See also sonic virtuality
acting,517–18
Acting Emotions (Konijn),166
action, presence and,211–15
Active Worlds,20–23, 87, 105
actor-network theory (ANT),8, 323–36
An Actor Prepares (Stanislavski),518
actors
digital,11, 511–25
players and,522
in video games,511–25
the actual,9
definitions of,687–88
actuality, virtuality and,1, 10
actus,411
Adams, Paul C.,7, 239–53
addiction,6
psychology of,187–204
to social networking systems (SNSs),192–98
substance-related,6
virtual,6, 187–204
virtual environments and,187–92
ADDIE,638
adultery, virtual,13, 690–92
affect,164
agency, artificial,9, 417
agents,5, 168–69
affective,5
embodied conversational agents,513
virtual,5
AI “directors,”518–19
aircraft, virtual simulators of,668–69, 668f
“Air Defense Simulation,”668
Albright, Julie M.,7, 284–302
Alice in Wonderland (Carroll),412–13
altered states of emotions,162–72
alterity in everyday life,96–97
alternative realities, on stage,95
Amazon,77
amygdala,151–52
anatomy,651
ancient civilizations,271
Ancient Rome 3D,271
ancient world,11, 92–95
alterity in everyday life,95
construction of otherness in,95
mythic spaces in,94
myths and virtual worlds in,92–95
nether world in,93–95
paradisiacal lands in,93–95
Anders, Peter, Envisioning Cyberspace,446
Anderson, Benedict,244
Anderson, M. T., Feed,267
androids,173
Angkor,559–61, 560f
animals, as virtual interactive characters,520
animation techniques,5, 514, 515–16, 519, 520–21
The Animator’s Survival Kit (Williams),515–16
anonymity, social life and,707
antidualism,686–87
(p. 748) Antin, David,446
Video: The Distinctive Features of the Medium,447
Antoine, Yannick,458, 459f, 460f
applications,12–13, 130–40. See alsospecific applications and kinds of applications
augmented reality (AR),12
of computational models of emotion,168–69
handheld augmented reality interfaces,615–35
learning applications,13
physiotherapeutic applications,596
Aquinas, Thomas,411–12
Arab Spring,81
Arcadia (Sannazaro),102
Archälogie & Computer,274
ARCHEOGUIDE,270
Ariosto, Ludovico, Orlando Furioso,101
Aristophanes,96
Aristotle,175, 689
Metaphysics,410–11
AR Lego,622–24, 623f, 624f
Army Operations Research Office,668
AR-PAD,617, 620
AR-PDA project,617
AR-Phone project,617
art,9–10, 463–77
digital technologies and,9–10
new media,408–10, 444
painting,9, 10, 407, 416, 463–77
performance art,10
six dimensions of virtual,416–18
technology and,9–10, 408–9
translation in virtual worlds,444–62
virtual,416–18, 448
virtuality and,9–10, 410–14, 463–77
virtually mediated,9–10
virtual reality (VR) and,257–62
in virtual worlds,10, 407–19
worldhood and,414–16
artifacts
material,47
virtual,7, 44
artificial agency,9, 417
artificial intelligence,11–12, 549–68
artificial life,553–55, 556f
artificial reality,118–19
artists,9
ARToolkit,438, 438f, 622
arts,254–68. See alsospecific art forms
Assange, Julian,78
asynchronicity,450
Athenian drama,108
Atlantis,93
attachment theory,179–82
attendance,449–50
audience,10, 448, 460. See also viewers
audio,8–9, 351–63, 364–77, 378–91, 392–404. See also music
audio functionality,374
fourth wall and,359–60
in games,8–9
in virtual ecologies,559
virtuality of,367–69
virtual worlds and,364–77
augmented reality (AR),12, 25, 271–72, 430–31, 430f, 438, 438f, 441, 615–35
devices,617
toolkits,438–39
augmented virtuality (AV),430f, 431f, 432, 432f
Augustine, St.,685
Australopithecus,71
authority,7
AutoDesk Maya,555
Avant-Garde and Kitsch (Greenberg),450
Avatar (Cameron),25, 34–35, 482
avatars,10, 18, 20, 49, 105, 107, 192, 415, 452, 636, 706–7, 735
arrival of,119–20
avatar cyberspace,17–41
avatar environments,20
avatar psychology,5, 129–44
child,447, 448
directions for future research,140
fantasy sex and,308
identification with,199–200
individual effects of,133–36
meaning of having,131–33
medical,650
psychology and,129–44
representations of,27
Second Life,390
self-presence and,135–36
social effects,136–38
social influence model and,137–38
social presence,136–38
spatial presence and,133–35
transformed social interaction (TSI),138
as virtual bodies,481
voice chat and,339–40
“Avatars98: Inside Cyberspace,”23, 23f
Avatars! Exploring and Building Virtual Worlds on the Internet (Damer),22
Avida (Ofria, Bryson, and Wilke),528, 534, 536
Avond, Red Tree (Mondrian),470
awareness, altered states of,162–72
Azuma, R.,615
Babeli, Gazir, Gaz of the Desert,456–57, 457f
Bacon, Francis,470, 476
New Atlantis,102
Badiou, Alain,4, 71, 78, 79–80
Ethics,80
Bai, Huidong,12, 615–35
Bailenson, Jeremy N.,5, 129–44
Bakunin, Mikhail,719
Barlow, John Perry, “Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace,”685
Barricelli, N. A.,544
BatPortal,617
Baudrillard, Jean,493, 502
Simulacra and Simulation,454–55
Bebo,192
Beck,78
Beebe, Barton,491–92
Beethoven, Ludwig von, Pastoral Symphony,260
Bejeweled,229
Bellmer, Hans, La Poupee,447
Benjamin, Walter, “The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility,”409
Beowulf,97
Bergson, Henri,14, 55–56, 67n1, 68n3, 470–71, 472, 713–15, 716, 719, 724
Matter and Memory,412, 467
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion,717–18
Bernard, Yves,458, 459f, 460f
Bettelheim, Bruno,265
Beuys, Joseph,452–53
“Big Rock Candy Mountain,”102
Billinghurst, Mark,12, 615–35
binarisms,739–46
biology,566. See also environmental science
Biota project,24
Bitcoin,506
Bittarello, Maria Beatrice,4, 86–111
Black & White,520
Blake, William,267
Blaxxun,22
Blizzard,484–86, 488, 489, 493
Blizzard v. MDY,484–86, 488, 489
“Blue Box” (Link),668–69, 668f
Blue-C system,440–41, 440f
Bluetooth,617
Blumberg, Bruce,520
the blurred,476
Boal, A., Games for Actors and Non-actors,518
bodies,12. See also embodiment
avatars as,481
cybersex and,7–8
fantasy,308
Boellstorff, Tom,739–44
Coming of Age in “Second Life,”383
Bonaventure, Saint,98
Borges, Jorge Luis, “Library of Babel,”104
Bosch, Hieronymus
The Garden of Earthly Delights,730
Last Judgment,730
bots,27
Bragg, Marc,489–90, 491
Bragg v. Linden Research,489–90, 491
brains
brain-computer interaction,597–98
computational modeling of brain function,11, 12, 569–86
response to virtual environments,12
Brecht, Bertolt,262
Breeze, Mez,456
Breitmore, Roberta,454–55. See also Ware, Roberta
Bremmer, Jan,88
Brey, Philip,4, 42–53
Bryson, D., Avida,528, 534, 536
(p. 750) Building Virtual Rome,271
Burden, Chris451–52
Burke, Edmund,728, 729, 731
Burning Man festival,26, 703
Burns, Noah,490, 491
Butler, Judith,721
CAD software,19
Caesar,95
Calderón de la Barca, Pedro, Life is a Dream,104
Calleja, Gordon,6, 105, 222–36
Calo, Ryan,493
Calvino, Italo,104
Il Milione,104
Invisible Cities,104
Cameron, James, Avatar,25, 34–35
Campanella, Tommaso, City of the Sun,102
Candide (Voltaire),102
Capital (Marx),408–9
Card, Orson Scott, Ender’s Game,670, 676
Carlisle, Phil,11, 511–25
Carmonette,668
Carnegie Mellon,512
Caroll, Lewis, Alice in Wonderland,412–13
Carr, Nicholas,78
The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains,76
Carroll, Lewis,414
Alice in Wonderland,412–13
Carter, Elizabeth J.,5, 145–61
Castronova, Edward,339–40
Caterwaul (Proske),458
Cave Automatic Virtual Environments (CAVE),271, 684
cellular automata (CA),554, 555
Celluloid Noir (Harris),463, 465f, 472–73
Celluloid Suicide (Harris),463, 465f, 472–73
Celtic tales of fairylands,97
Centre for New Media and History, George Mason University,270
CGI filmmaking,19
Chalmers, Alan,12, 602–14
Chameleon interface,616
Champion, Erik,7, 269–83
Chandler, Tom,11, 549–68
characters
animals as,520
character design,5
computer game,11
detachment from,6
humanization of,177–79
in interactive games,11
interactive virtual,511–25
virtual interactive characters,511–25
Charlemagne,101
Charlton, John P.,6, 187–204
cheating,284–302
Cheng, William,8, 337–38
child pornography,13, 692–94
China,499, 502, 504
cinema.Seefilm
Cinema 2 (Deleuze),467
cities, virtual worlds and,705
City of the Sun (Campanella),102
CityViewAR,622, 629–33, 629f, 630f, 631f, 633f
clickwrap agreements,492
Clinton, Hilary,81
Club of Rome, Limits to Growth,550–51
CNET,25
code artists,456
cognition,177–79
distributed cognition,592–94
embodied,8–9, 369–72
embodied cognition (EC),8–9, 369–72
metacognition,213
virtual characters and,177–79
cognitive neuroscience,5, 177–79
Cohen, Julie,493
collaboration, networked,9, 417
collective illusion, critique of,121–23
collective intentional acts,47
Collins, Karen,8, 351–63
Comic Chat,22
Coming of Age in “Second Life" (Boellstorff),383
communication,7, 115–18
computer-mediated communication (CMC),683–84, 686, 687–88
in virtual worlds,239–53
written,6, 7, 243–46, 250
Communications of the ACM,271
(p. 751) competition,11
complexity,11, 66
computational evolutionary systems,527–28
computational modeling,5, 12, 569–86
3D modeling,11, 269–70, 420–43, 427f, 549–68, 562f
computer games.Seegames
computer-mediated communication (CMC),683–84, 686, 687–88
conceptualism, embodied,10
consciousness,14
presence and,74
self and,206–8, 210
as simulated world in the brain,206
virtuality and,717
constitutive uncertainty,50
consumption,502
CONTACT Conference,20
Contact Consortium,19–21, 23, 35
content
automatic creation of,518–19
content production,428–30, 436, 436f
sonic,351–63
user-generated,351–63
context,10
control systems,428–30, 436, 436f, 439f
copyright,484–86, 488, 489, 492, 493
core presence,207t, 210
core self,207–8
Count Zero (Gibson),731–32
Cremorne Gardens, No. 2 (Whistler),475
Critique of Pure Reason (Kant),414, 728
crystal image,10, 476–77
Cu-Chulainn (Irish),97
culture
cultural heritage,7
cultural knowledge,7
digital,381–82 (See also culture)
mass culture,14
music and,9
simulated,454–55
technologies and,6–8
virtual heritage and,269–83
The Curious Pigmentation of the Pearl (Harris),463, 464f, 468
Curlet, François,455
currencies
real,502–5
virtual,481, 491, 502–5
cyber conferences,23, 112–13
cybergnosticism,685
Cyberpunk,700
cyberpunk,701–2
cybersecurity,677–78
cybersex,7–8, 303–22
beginnings of,304–5
chat-based,7
critique and ethical issues,317–18
cyberchat sex,306–8
cybersex machines,7, 313–14
cybersexual immersion,315–16
cybersexual projects,314
cybersexual technologies,314
dressing up and,311
future of,319
in literature,305–6
in the movies,305–6
teledildonics and,311
today,306–7
in virtual reality,309
cyberSM teletactile communication experiment,313f
cyberspace,17–41
adultery in,690–92
ethics in,683–97
first conference on,113–15
as metaphor,731–32
cybridity,446, 455, 457–58, 460
cybrid art,444
cybrid environments,446
Damasio, A.,208, 210
Damer, Bruce,4, 17–41
Dante Alighieri,97
Divine Comedy,258
Dante Hotel (Hershman-Leeson),454
data
capture of,273
display of,273
research,274
dating,7, 284–302
Davies, Char,445
Dean, Jodi,77
(p. 752) Debord, Guy, Society of the Spectacle,407
“Declaration of Independence of Cyberspace” (Barlow),685
déjà vu,476
Deleuze, Gilles,4, 10, 55–56, 67n1, 68n4, 68n7, 75, 87, 414, 463, 467–68, 471–72, 474–77
Cinema 2,467
Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation,469
Logic of Sense,412–13
A Thousand Plateaus,471
democracy,719
deontology,684, 689, 694
depth perception,63–64
Derrida, Jacques,82
designers,273
desktop VR,22
Desmond, W.,80
detachment,6
Deuxième Monde,705
de Vries, D., Life After People,557
Dewey, John,638
DHCommons,274
Dibbell, Julian, “Rape in Cyberspace,”686
digital virtuality, human consciousness and,725
digital actors,511–25
players and,522
in video games,511–25
digital culture, ethnomusicology and,381–82
digital games.Seegames
digital goods,498–502
Digital Humanities,274
Digital Interactive Media Entertainment and Arts Conference (DIME),274
digital media.See also new media, religion and, 323–36
Digital Millenium Copyright Act,484–86, 488, 489
digital objects,44
digital pilgrimage,330–32
DigitalSpace,24
“digital sublime,”729
digital technologies
art and,9–10
ethics of,13
self and,12–13
sex and,7–8
digital virtual worlds
ontological analysis of,4
structural elements of,4
disciplinarity,2–3, 467
discourse,716
Discover Babylon,270, 271
discrimination, online,345
Disney,514, 515
Tron,19–20, 454
distance
distanciation,7, 239, 245, 251
physical,9
virtual,9
distributed cognition,592–94
distributed embodiment,589–601
Divine Comedy (Dante),258, 411
dogs, virtual,490, 491, 492, 493, 520
DOOM,20, 670–71, 671f
double virtuality,9
Douglas, Jane,226–27
Dovey, Jon,230
drama, myths and virtual worlds in,95
dream-image,473–74
Dreyfus, Hubert,79, 81, 688–89
DSM-IV,189
dualism,685–87
Dudley Castle,269–70
Dungeons and Dragons,734
Durlach, Nathaniel,223
Dutch Delta works,47
Dutch Supreme Court,491
Dynamic Theory of Intentions (Pacherie),209
dynamis,410–11
dystopia,728, 729
in art and literature,729
the sublime and,728
virtual,13–14, 727–37
Earth Theatre, Carnegie Mellon Museum of Natural History,271
Ebert, Roger,361
Echo (Holland),528, 532, 533
ecologies
models of,11
virtual,11, 549–68, 556f, 557f, 558f, 560f (See also virtual environments (VE))
ecology, acoustic,9
(p. 753) economies
real,10–11
eco-simulation,561–62, 562f
ecosystems,549–68. See also environmental science
Edison, Thomas,26
education,12, 13
learning design,636–48
medical,651–53
effort of access,217
effort of action,217
EHarmony.com,288
Eldorado, myth of,102
e-learning,636–48
electronic trespass laws,484
Elemental Psychopath Assessment (EPA),176–77
Eliss,229
embodied cognition (EC),8–9, 369–72
embodied conversational agents,513
embodiment,11, 12, 543–44, 689
distributed,12, 589–601
ethics and,13
identity and,695–96
presence and,12, 589–601
of self,6
simulated,569–86
technology and,11
virtual,589–601
emic (insider),742
emotions,5, 162–72
acting of,166
computational modeling of,5, 168–69
emotional reactivity,177–79
emotion skills,165
games and,11
in human-computer interfaces,162–72
models of,521
multimodal expressions of,167–68
person perception and,147–48
players and,11
psychological theories of,163–65
real vs. virtual,5
theater studies and,166
virtual characters and,147–48, 177–79, 520
virtual reality (VR) and,162–72
empathy,6, 174–79
lack of,175–77
virtual characters and,179–82
Empire (Hardt and Negri),723
empiricism,468
Empyrean world of Ideas,87
emulation, degree of,13
Ender’s Game (Card),670, 676
endoscopy, virtual,652–53
Engaging the Avatar (Hinrichs and Wankel),33
Enten-Eller (Kierkegaard),392
entertainment,511–25. See also games
Entropia Universe,49
“Entwurf,” 75–76,78, 80, 82
environmental fluidity,9, 416, 417
environmental science,11
3D modeling and,549–68
artificial life and,553–55, 554f, 556f
geography and,552–53
multiagent simulations and,553
simulations and,549–68
virtual experiments and,551–52, 552f
virtual reality (VR) and,549–68
Envisioning Cyberspace (Anders),446
Ephemere,445
Epic of Gilgamesh,4, 88, 94
epic win,31
epistemes,716
epistemic uncertainty,52
Ernst & Young Inventory Observation,33f
Ess, Charles M.,13, 683–97
essence, the virtual and,75–76
ethics,78, 683–97
case studies,690–94
of digital technologies,13
ethical subjectivity,79–80
freedom and,80
future directions,694–95
information and communication technologies (ICT) and,77–78
of networked digital technologies,13
the virtual and,4, 683–94
virtual and real in,690–95
in virtual environments,688
virtuality,77–78
Ethics (Badiou),80
(p. 754) ethnomusicology,9, 378–91
etic (outsider),742
European Commission, Information and Communication Technologies program,660–61
Eve Online,447
evergence,445–46, 453–54, 460
EverQuest,24, 105, 444, 447
EverQuest II,490, 492
evolution,11, 522, 526–48
eXistenZ,104
experience, axiological dimension of,67
experiential technologies,690–91
extended (reflective) presence,207t, 210–11
extended self,207–8
extravirtual effects,49
extropians,707, 708
Facebook,34f, 106, 192, 723–24, 744
Credits,502
facial cues,6
fact, possiblity of,470–71, 475, 476, 477
Fairfield, Joshua,491
Fairies,97–98
fairy tales,265, 266
Fairy Tales (Grimm),265
fantasy, mythologies of virtuality in,98–104
fantasy bodies,308
fantasy novels,7, 262–66
fantasy sex,308
Farmville,499
Federation of American Scientists,270
Feed (Anderson),267
feedback,6, 216
Fei, Cao,450, 457
iMirror,455–56, 456f
A Second Life Machinima,456f
feudalism,718
the Fianna (Irish),97
fiat money,504
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb,73
fiction,7–8. See also literature
cyberpunk,701–2
science fiction,102–4, 700–703
fictional objects,45
the figural,468–69, 476
the figurative,469, 470
film,11, 13, 14, 410, 416, 463–77. See alsospecific films
Finland,499
First Conference on Cyberspace,113–15
first-person presence,594–95
fitness,531–32
Fitzmaurice, G.,616
Flichy, Patrice,14, 92, 698–711
Flickr,106
flirting,284–302
the floating world,472–75
flow,6, 190–92
fluidity, environmental,9, 416, 417
Forbidden City: Beyond Space & Time,271
the formal, operating through,468–72
the formal frame,472–75
formalism,10, 446, 467
formative field factors,62
Foucault, Michel,14, 716, 719
Foundation of the Hellenic World,271
4 Jetpacks 4 (Bryn, Korhonen, and Graves),415
the fourth wall,8, 351–63
artistic practice and,351
breaking,359
sound and,359–60
frames,472–75, 476
Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation (Deleuze),469
freedom,4
virtuality and,71, 73
Freeman, John Craig,458
Freeman, Russell432, 432f
Freud, Sigmund,74, 76, 173
Frindster.com,288
Fuller, Lon,487
Funaro, Jim,20
fusiform face area (FFA),151
Gadamer, Hans,416
Galloway, Kit,458
Hole in Space,457, 458
games,11, 13, 14, 35, 106, 229, 498, 670–71, 690. See also computer games; massively multiplayer online games (MMOs); massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs); video games; specific games
audio in,8–9
(p. 755) characters in,11
cybersexual,314–15
digital actors in,511–25
emotions and,11
fantasy role-playing,106
game studies,227–28
“game worlds,”105
immersion in,6
incorporation and,233–34
industry,19
law and,481–95
military simulations and,671f, 672t
online,344
players of,11, 522
serious,29
sexual harassment and,344
sexual politics and,8
single-player,20
sonic content and,8
sound in,8–9
as subjective perception of reality,8–9
violence in,735
virtual heritage and,276
voice functions and,8, 337–38
Games for Actors and Non-actors (Boal),518
Games Learning Society,274
gamification literature,29
Gamor, Keysha I.,13, 636–48
Garden of Earthly Delights (Bosch),730
Garden of Eden,93
Gargantua and Pantagruel (Rabelais),102
Garner, Tom A.,8–9, 351–63, 364–77
Gartner research firm,637
The Gate (Second Front),458, 459f, 460f
Gaz of the Desert (Babeli),457f
Gehlen, Arnold,74
gender,147
genetic manipulation,11
GeoBoids,622, 625–28, 625f, 626f, 627f, 628t, 633
geographic information system (GIS) data,558–59
Geraci, Robert M.,8, 107, 323–36
ghosts,97–98
ghost stories,102–4
Gibson, William,35, 455, 700, 728
Count Zero,731–32
cyberspace trilogy of,736
Mona Lisa Overdrive,727, 731–32, 734
Neuromancer,685, 701, 731–32
Giddens, Anthony,239
Gillies,98
Girl with a Pearl Earring (Vermeer),468, 469f, 475
Gissing, George,261
global positioning system (GPS),617
Glorious Revolution of 1688,719
gods,95
Golden Age,93
golgi tendon organ,574–76, 575–76f
goods
digital,498–502
material,10–11
virtual,498–502
Goody, Jack,239
Google,25
Google Earth,271
Gorfinkel, Elena,228, 229, 230
Gramsci, Antonio, Prison Notebooks,722
Grand Theft Auto,686
graphics pipeline,425–26, 426f, 430
graphics processing units (GPUs),425, 426, 427f, 428, 432, 441
Graves, Glyph, 4 Jetpacks 4,415
Green, David G.,11, 549–68
Greenberg, Clement,446, 454, 463
Avant-Garde and Kitsch,450
Grey Tree (Mondrian),470
Grimm, Jacob and Wilhelm, Fairy Tales,265
Grimshaw, Mark,8–9, 351–63, 364–77
Guattari, Félix,67, 67n1, 467
Guattari, Félix, A Thousand Plateaus,471
Gulliver’s Travels (Swift),102
Habbo Hotel,491, 504
Habermas, Jürgen,248–49
Habitat,20, 22, 105, 106, 498, 700, 704
Halasian Maulers,490, 491, 492, 493
Hall, Edward,29
Halo 2,690
handheld augmented reality (HHAR) devices,12, 615–35, 616f, 622t
handheld interfaces,615–35
handheld manipulation metaphor,619–20, 620f
(p. 756) handheld viewing metaphor,619–20, 619f
Hansen, Bibbe,449
Hansen, Channing,449
haptic devices,50
haptic system,12, 569–86. See also touch
Haque, Usman et al.,458
hardware,9
Hargadon, Andrew,226–27
Harris, Simon J.,9, 10, 463–77
Celluloid Noir,463, 465f, 472–73
Celluloid Suicide,463, 465f, 472–73
The Curious Pigmentation of the Pearl,463, 464f, 468
Is It a Was,463, 464f, 468, 475
Multiple Drawings,469f
Hart, H. L. A.,487
Hartnell, Zoe,447–48
Harvey, Trevor S.,378–91
Hayls, Katherine,685
Haythornthwaite, The Internet in Everyday Life,686
head-mounted displays (HMDs),271, 421, 430, 615
healthcare,12–13, 649–65. See also medicine
assessment,653–56
rehabilitation,650–51, 653–56
virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE),655f
virtual worlds in,650–51
hearing,12. See also audio
Heeks, Richard,491
Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich,73
Heidegger, Martin,75, 82
Heilig, Morton,19
Heim, Michael R.,5, 17, 111–25
Held, Richard,223
Helsingin Sanomat,499
hemispatial neglect,216
heritable variation,11
heritage, cultural,7, 269–83
Herodotus,95
Hershman-Leeson, Lynn,457
Dante Hotel,454
Life to the Second Power,454–55, 455f
Hesiod,93
Hess, Rudolf,265
Hinrichs, Randy,4, 35
Hiro marker,438, 438f
Hirschy, Norm,1
history,269–83
Hoberman, Perry, Systems Maintenance,446
Hole in Space (Galloway),457, 458
Holland, J., Echo,528, 532, 533
Homer
Iliad,95
The Odyssey,88, 89–91, 93
Homo sapiens,72
Homo sapiens neanderthalensis,72
HUMAINE database,167
human computer interaction (HCI) guidelines,620–22, 622t
human-computer interfaces,5, 162–72
human condition, virtuality and,82
humanity,717–20
Christianity and,717–18
as international,719
liberty, equality, fraternity,718–20
as transnational,719, 724
virtuality and,14, 712–26
humanization
of virtual characters,177–79
as virtualization,73–74
human origins, emergence of virtual world and,71–73
human spirit, virtuality and,71–85
Hunter, Andrea,14, 727–37
Husserl, Edmund,413, 414–15, 688
Huyghe, Pierre,455
hyperconnectivity,198
The Icicle Thief, (Nichetti)104
iCinema,271
ideas,4
identity
ambiguity of,9, 416, 417
cultural,455–56
embodiment and,695–96
mediated,454
otherness and,706–7
person perception and,148
postmodern,686, 688, 689
social networking systems (SNSs) and,194–99
virtual characters and,148
(p. 757) ideology,14
mask ideology,700
mobilization ideology,700
If on a Winter’s Night a Traveler (Calvino),104
Iliad (Homer),95
Il Milione (Calvino),104
image
crystal image,10, 476–77
dream-image,473–74
image generation,423–26
movement-image,471–72
perception-image,471–72, 474
“recollection image,”467, 473, 474–75
virtuality and,9–10
image generation,423–26
the imaginary,210
the Imaginary (Lacanian),255–57
imaginary worlds, in Greek and Roman texts,95
imagination,7, 14
meditative,97–98
IMAL New Media Center,458
iMirror (Fei),455–56, 456f
immediacy of representation,434–35
immersion,6, 9, 32, 115–18, 189–92, 205, 232, 415–17, 636
as absorption,228–31
cybersexual,315–16
definition of,223–24
in digital games,6
literature and,226–27
media specificity and,226–27
metaphors and,227
monolithic perspectives on,231
in non-ergodic media,231
presence and,223–24, 226–27
self and,266
shared experience and,21
as transportation,230–31
in virtual worlds,222–36
Inaugural Dissertation (Kant),414
Inception (Nolan),473–74, 728, 730, 732–34, 736
incorporation,6, 231–34. See also embodiment
indexicality,688, 689
information and communication technologies (ICT),76, 77–78
information and computer ethics (ICE),683–97
“information overload,”76
information privacy laws,484
infraceptive,61
instable self, unease of virtual experience and,76–77
instant sex,316–17
institutional reality,47
integration,11
intellectual property laws,484
intellectual rights,10, 484
intentions,209f, 210–11
interaction,9, 415, 416, 417
interaction metaphors,12
person perception and,148–49
restricted ecological,532–33
social,9, 390
virtual characters and,148–49
interactive “fitting rooms,”596
“interactive story worlds,”512
interactive “workbenches,”596
“inter-esse,”82
interfaces,615–35
Chameleon,616
HHAR user,615–35
human-computer,5
methods,618–20
interfunctions,27
internal model computation,573–74
internal model learning,571–76, 575–76f
International Cultural Heritage Informatics Meetings (iCHIM),274
International Symposium of Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage (VAST),274
Internet,75, 77, 81, 92, 323–36, 723
Internet Gaming Entertainment (IGE),491
The Internet in Everyday Life (Haythornthwaite and Wellman),686
Internet revolution,4
intravirtual effects,49
intuition,6, 211–15, 216
reasoning v.,212t
as simulation,213–15
invention, virtuality and,80–82
Invisible Cities (Calvino),104
(p. 758) Invisible Train,618, 619
Is it a Was (Harris),463, 464f, 468, 475
Islands of the Blessed,97
James, Henry,261
“The Others,”102
Japan,499
Jauss, Hans Robert,416
Jefferson, Thomas,719
Jentsch, E., “On the Psychology of the Uncanny,”173
Jobs, Steve,723–24
Johnson, M.,231–32
Johnston, O., The Illusion of Life,515–16
Jones, S. B.,649, 650
Joseph, Pierre,455
Journal of the Seducer (Kierkegaard),79
Journey to the West (Chinese literature),101
Joyce, James, Ulysses,261
Judd, Donald446
Junaio,617
Kacem, Mehdi Belhaj,455
Kaehler, Ted,22, 22f
Kanizsa triangle,57–59, 61–62
Kant, Immanuel,73, 80, 689–90, 695, 731
Critique of Pure Reason,414, 728
Inaugural Dissertation,414
Kempe, Margery,98
Kennedy, Helen,230
Kerr, Ian,493
Kierkegaard, Søren,4, 71, 78, 81, 392
ethical subjectivity and,79–80
Journal of the Seducer,79–80
Kildall, Scott,451, 458
Paradise Ahead,451, 452f
KinectFusion system,441
Kinectimals,520, 522
kinetoscope,26
The King Has Fallen gallery,447–48
Kishino, F.,430–31, 430f, 433–34, 433f
kitsch,450, 454
Klastrup, L.,105
Klein, Yves451
Knakkergaard, Martin,9, 392–404
knowledge, extent of,433, 433f
knowledge compilation,212
Koenigspiel ("King’s Game") (Weikhmann),667
Kojève, Alexandre,74
Kolb, David,638
Konijn, Elly, Acting Emotions,166
Korea,499
Korhonen, Nonnatus, 4 Jetpacks 4,415
Kreps, David,14, 712–26
Lab, Linden,390
Lacan, Jacques,7, 74, 254–68, 266
virtual reality (VR) and,255–57
Lakoff, George,231–32
language
spoken,6, 7, 241–43, 249
virtuality and,7, 241–43, 716
written,6, 7, 243–46, 250
Lanier, Jaron,412, 555
laproscopy,652–53
Laramee, Francois,228
Last Judgment (Bosch),730
Lastowka, Greg,10, 50, 481–95
Lavalife.com,288
law,10–11
property,10
traditional,10
video games and,481–95
virtual,10, 481–95
Lawnmower Man,20
Layar,617, 619
LCD displays,616
learning.See also learning design
by doing,7
internal model learning,571–73
learning design,13, 636–48
front-end analysis,639–41
repurposing vs. re-engineering content,643–44
virtual learning environments (VLEs) and,641–43, 642t, 644–45
Learning Sites,270
Leavis, F. R.,262
Lee, Gun,12, 615–35
Lefebvre, H.,245, 248
legal institutions, virtual worlds and,10
Le Guin, Ursula,265
Lehdonvirta, Vili,10–11, 48, 496–507
(p. 759) letter-writing,7
level of realism (LoR),605–6
Lewis, C. S.,7, 264, 264–65, 328
liberalism,692–93
Library of Babel (Borges),104
Lichty, Patrick,10, 444–62
life, artificial,553–55, 556f
Life After People (de Vries),557
Life is a Dream (Calderón),104
Life to the Second Power (Hershmann-Leeson),454–55, 455f
Limits to Growth (Club of Rome),550–51
Lindeman, Robert,12, 615–35
Linden Lab,23, 446, 448, 489–90, 706
Link, Edwin, “Blue Box,” 668–69,668f
literary belief,263
literature,7, 13–14, 226–27, 254–68. See also fiction; specific authors and works
presence and,226–27
utopian,101–2, 108, 728
virtual reality (VR) and,257–62
Little, Gregory,449
location based dating,292–93
Logic of Sense (Deleuze),412–13
Lord of the Rings trilogy (Tolkien),262–64
Lowood, Henry,17, 21
L-system models,566
Lucasfilm,20
Lury, C.,502
Mabinogi (Welsh),97
Macbeth (Shakespeare),98
machines
evolution of,527–28
machine learning,584
machinima,444, 450, 456f
MagicBook system,435
Magritte, René, La trahison des images,258
Magruder et al.,458
Malpas, Jeff,87, 92, 97, 107
Mapping of 1995 Contact Consortium Virtual World Projections White Paper to Today’s Outcomes in 2012,36–37
Mapplethorpe, Robert,448
Marble Revolution,618
Marriott International,29
Martin, Jean-Claude,5, 162–72
Marx, Karl,417, 719
Capital,408–9
Marx, Leo,729
Massey, C.,529, 530f
massively multiplayer online games (MMOs),687, 700. See alsospecific games
massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs),49, 105, 188, 190–91, 199, 444, 448, 498, 676. See alsospecific games
Massumi, Brian,4, 55–70, 68n7, 467
matchmaking, online,7
Mateas, M.,514
mating,284–302
The Matrix, (Wachowski & Wachowski)702, 739
Matter and Memory (Bergson),412, 467
Mattes, Eva/Franco,451, 452–53
Thirteen Most Beautiful Avatars,452, 453f
Maze War,22, 22f
McCloud, Scott,675–76
McGonical, Jane,31
McLuhan, Marshall,416, 446
mean firing rates,579–80
meaning-making,9
The Meaning of Life (Monty Python),257
media
ergodic,226
media presence,6
media specificity,226–27
non-ergodic,231
presence and,226–27
media studies,227–28
mediated presence, designing and measuring,215–16
mediation,6, 7
medicine,13, 649–65. See also healthcare
applications of virtual reality in,651–52
medical education,651–53
surgical simulation and planning,652–53
virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE),655f
virtual endoscopy,652–53
Meridian 59,105
mentalizing network,152
Merleau-Ponty, Maurice,415
(p. 760) metacognition,213
Metaphysics (Aristotle),410–11
Metaphysics (Aristotle),410
metaverses,22, 25, 27
metaworlds,22
Micromegas (Voltaire),102
Microsoft Avatar Kinect,25
Microsoft Kinect,432, 441, 521, 522
Middle Ages,718
fairies and ghosts in,97–98
imaginary worlds in,101
meditative imagination in,97–98
myths and virtual worlds in,97–98
myths in,97–98
virtual worlds in,97–98
A Midsummer Night’s Dream (Shakespeare),98
Milgram, P.,430–31, 430f, 433–34, 433f
military simulations,12, 13, 424, 666–79
brief history of,667–69
cybersecurity and,677–78
game technology and,670–71, 672t
roots in entertainment,670–71, 671f, 672t
training and,673–74
virtual-world education theater,675–76
virtual worlds and,669–70
visual integration space,676–77
Mill, John Stuart,692, 728
Milton, John, Paradise Lost,258
mimesis,482
mimicry,6, 177–79, 260, 262
Minsky, Marvin,223, 708
“Telepresence,”223
MIRA Lab,270
mirror neurons,178–79
mirror neuron system,153, 715
Mixed Realities (Turbulence.org),458
mixed reality systems,9–10, 420–43, 430f, 437f
configuration for,436–39
content production,436, 436f
control systems,439f
control systems for,428–30, 436, 436f
interaction between offline and online phases,439, 439f
real environments and,437–38, 438f
taxonomy of,433–35, 433f
tracking for,436–39
modeling,12, 446
computational,569–86
computational modeling,5, 11, 12, 269–70, 420–43, 427f, 549–68, 562f
modeling paradigms,565–66, 565t
statistical modeling,668
virtual model paradigm,565–66, 565t
modernity,98–104
Mona Lisa Overdrive (Gibson),727, 730, 731–32, 734
Mondrian, Piet
Avond, Red Tree,470
Grey Tree,470
money
real,502–5
virtual,10–11, 502–5
“Monte Carlo Method,”668
Monty Python, The Meaning of Life,257
moods, negative,6
Moor, James,686
morality,717–18
Moravec, Hans,708
More, Thomas,4
Utopia,102, 104
Mori, Mariko,455
Pop Idol,454
Mori, Masahiro,6, 154–55, 155f, 173–74
Mosco, Vincent,14, 727–37
motor intentions,209
movement-image,471–72
moving stimuli, neural processing and,153–54
Multiple Drawings (Harris),469f
multisensoriality,210
Multi User Domains (MUDs),637, 687, 739
Multi User Dungeons (MUDs),19, 22, 105. See also Multi User Domains (MUDs)
multiuser virtual environment,22
multi user virtual environments (MUVE),444, 450
Murray River floodplain,562, 562f
muscle, simulated,574–76, 575–76f
music,8–9, 393–94
culture and,9
making,394–97
mirages,397–401
(p. 761) music-making,9
music streaming,9
recorded,9
social interaction and,9
technological construction in recording studio,401
transitory nature of,9, 392–404
virtuality of,392–404
Myskja, Bjorn,689–90
MySpace,106, 192
mysticism,717–18
mythic spaces,88, 92
in the Gilgamesh Cycle,89–91t
in the Greek and Roman world,94
in the Odyssey,89–91t
in Shakespeare,99–101t
virtual worlds and,92
mythologies
alternate realities on stage,95
defining,88
in digital virtual worlds,105–8
functions of,88
Middle Ages,97–98
in the modern age,98–104
of virtuality,105–8
virtual worlds and,88–92
Nabi, Deborah Abdel,6, 187–204
narcissism,6, 199
narrative forms,11
National Advisory Mental Health Council,659–60
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA),24, 312
National Training Center,667
natural computation,554
Naturalism,261
Nelson, Ted,312
neo-Darwinist principles,11
Netflix,77
nether world,93–95
networked collaboration,9, 417
networked digital technologies, ethics of,13
neural processing, moving stimuli and,153–54
neural spiking,12, 569–86
neuroimaging studies
amygdala,151–52
fusiform face area (FFA),151
of person perception,149–54
pSTS (posterior superior temporal sulcus),150
virtual characters and,149–54
Neuromancer (Gibson),20, 685
Neuromancer (Gibson),731–32
neuropscyhological assessment and rehabilitation, virtual reality (VR) in,653–56
NeuroVR2, 657f
Never ending Story, (Ende)104
New Atlantis (Bacon),102
New Jerusalem,93
new media,7, 9, 408–10, 420–43, 444–62
New Testament,98
Nibelungenlied,97
Nietzche, Friedrich,68n8, 78, 82
nihilism,4
Nintendo,25
Niven, Larry,20
nodes,192
Noë, Alva,68n7
Nolan, Christopher, Inception,473–74, 728, 730, 732–34, 736
non-ergodic media, immersion in,231
nonself,12
the nonsensuous,58, 61, 68n4
nonsensuous rendering,65
nonverbal cues,11, 517
Norman, D.,620–21
Northern Arizona University (NAU),19
Novak, Marcos,445–46
novels,7, 8, 261. See also fiction; specific novels
fantasy,262–66
Nusselder, André,4, 71–85
obesity, VR-based treatment for,655–56, 655f
Odyssey (Homer),88, 89–91, 93
Office of the Future System,440, 440f
Ofria, C., Avida,528, 534, 536
Oh, Bryn, 4 Jetpacks 4,415
Old Arcadia (Sidney),102
Old Athenian Comedy,95, 96t, 98
online contracting laws,484
(p. 762) online dating,295–96
online matchmaking,288
lying to get a lover,291–92
personality matching systems,288
search/sort/match systems,288
social network systems,288
truth and fiction,288–91
online relationships
evolution of,285–88
future directions of,292–93
location based dating,292–93
mobility and,294
social media and,292–93
online sociality, virtual musical participation and,388–89
Online Traveler,22
Ono, Yoko,451, 452f
onomatopoeia,260
“On the Psychology of the Uncanny” (Jentsch),173
ontological reproduction,45
ontological uncertainty,50, 52
ontology,42–48
general ontology of virtual worlds,43–45
social,45–49
virtual actions and,49–50, 53
virtual events and,53
virtual objects and,53
virtual reality (VR) and,45–49
open-ended evolution,543–44
Open Library of Humanities,274
OpenSim,407
OpenSteer code,626
optical illusions,57
optics.Seesight
ordinary social facts,47
organisms, virtual
design goals,535–36
environments and,11
evolution of,526–48
fitness of,531–32
fixed representation and structure of,533
lack of complex dynamics in environment,533–34
nature of the ecosystem,537–38
nature of the individual,536–37
nature of the medium,538–42
open problems with,531–34
restricted ecological interactions of,532–33
restricted population size and structure,534
organs, simulated,574–76, 575–76f
Orlando Furioso (Ariosto),101, 104
oscillation,475, 476
O’Sullivan, Simon,469, 470
the Other,267
otherness, construction of,95
“The Others” (James),102
Oz Project,512
Paine, Thomas,719
Rights of Man,719
painting,9, 407, 416, 463–77, 466
abstract,475
painter encounter circuits,466
process of,10
viewers and,10
virtuality and,463–77
The Palace,22
Palo Alto Research Center (PARC),19
Panoscope, Laval University Quebec,271
Paradise Ahead (Scott),451, 452f
Paradise Lost (Milton),258
paradisiacal lands,93–95
Parreno, Philippe,455
Pastoral Symphony (Beethoven),260
paternalism,692–93
patients,48
Pavel, Thomas,263
pedagogies,640
perception,5–6, 8–9, 12, 602–14. See also person perception; sensory stimuli; specific senses
of players,522
sidestepping,597–98
social,5
of space,9
surplus value of,66
virtual,602–14
virtuality of,64
perception-image,471–72, 474
performance art,10, 454
performativity,721
(p. 763) Perlin, Sid and the Penguins,520
personal characteristics,148
person perception,145–61
background,145–46
behavioral studies of,146–49
emotion and,147–48
future research and,154
gender and,147
identity and,148
interactions and,148–49
neuroimaging studies of,149–54
personal characteristics and,148
virtual characters and,145–61
Pew Research,35
phantasmagoric utopia,700, 708
phenomena,45, 721
phenomenology,684, 693, 694, 695
philosophical anthropology,688–90
phonogram,402
photography,7, 409, 410
phronesis,689, 690
phylogenesis,73
physicality, virtuality and,453–54
physical reality,46, 47
physical work, translated into virtual space,10
physiotherapeutic applications,596
Pike, Kenneth,742
planetariums,271
Plato,75, 93
The Republic,493
Platonism,4, 75, 482
plausibility, psychological,173–86
players,11, 522
digital actors and,522
emotions and,11
perception of,522
player-game relationship,6
Playing the Past,271
Pleasantville,104
plundering,467
Poisson learning,569–86
computational requirements,580
possible neural implementation of,580
Poisson motor commands,574–76
Poisson point process,12, 569–76
Poisson system identification,571–73, 572f, 577
Pollick, Frank E.,5, 145–61
Polo, Marco,97
Polyworld (Yaeger),528–29, 532, 533
Pop Idol (Mori),454
Poppy, Sysperia,447–48
pornography,13, 692–94
positive law,492
posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS),150
potentia,411
potentiality,4
La Poupee (Bellmer),447
presence,6, 207t, 209f, 232
action and,211–15
core,207t, 210
designing,215–16
distributed cognition and,592–94
distributed embodiment and,589–601
embodiment and,12, 589–601
extended (reflective),207t, 210–11
game studies and,227–28
history and terminology,223–24
immersion and,223–24, 226–27
information technology and,217
inner,6, 206
intentions and,209f
as an intuitive process,211–13, 216
layers of,206–11
literature and,226–27
measuring,215–16
media,6, 205–6
media specificity and,226–27
media studies and,227–28
metaphors and,227
model of,207t
as a neuropsychological phenomenon,216
physical,12
presence metaphor,433f, 434
the presence model,207t
presence variations,217
proto-presence,207t, 209
psychology of,206
self and,206–11, 209f, 216
social,5
spatial,5, 7
technological determinism and,224–25
telepresence,223
terminology of,223
three layers of,208–11
virtual worlds and,230
the present,210
present-directed intentions,210
primary environment,434–35
printing,7, 246–49, 250
projective space,59
project utopia,700, 705
property laws,10, 490–91, 492
proprioception-action coupling,209
Proske, Pierre,458
Caterwaul,458
proto-presence,207t, 209
proto-self,207–8
proxemics,29
proximity,7
psychoanalysis, Lacanian,7, 254–68
psychological plausibility,173–86
psychology,5–6
avatar,129–44
clinical,650–51
psychopathy, perception of,175–77
pure appearance,59
Putnam, Robert,675–76
Q Coin,502, 504
QRCode,438f
Quantum Link,20
quantum physics, reality and,720–21
Quaranta, Domenico,456
Rabelais, François, Gargantua and Pantagruel,102
Rainbow’s End (Vinge),25
“Rape in Cyberspace” (Dibbell),686
Ray, Thomas, Tierra,531, 536–37, 539–40, 544
ReaCTor display,422–23, 423f, 432
reading,247–48, 250
the real
definitions of,687–88
the virtual and,9, 483
the Real (Lacanian),7, 255–57, 259–60, 265, 267
realism,12, 261, 262, 581–82
levels of,602–14
sensory stimuli and,605–6
reality,720–24. See also augmented reality (AR); virtual reality (VR)
of avatar cyberspace,17–41
empire,722–23
interconnected planes of,107
material-discursive,720–22, 724
perception of,8–9
shared,4
as spectacle,723–24
subjective nature of,8–9
virtuality and,1, 4, 5, 6
virtuality of,162–72
virtual worlds and,351–63
visual,420–43
Real Life,416
real virtuality,12, 604–5
reasoning, intuition vs.,212t
“recollection image,”467, 473, 474–75
recording, digitalization of,9, 394–97
referents,46
regulation,165
rehabilitation,650–51, 653–56
virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE),654–56, 655f
reiteration,451–53
Rekimoto, J.,616–17
relationships, virtual world and,284
religion,7, 323–36, 717–18
actor-network theory (ANT) and,323–25
digital pilgrimage,330–32
religious artifacts,325–27, 328
social media and,7
virtual worlds and,8, 329
remediation,451–53, 460
Renaissance, imaginary worlds in,101
representation,10
cybrid,10, 460
evergent,10, 460
immediacy of,10, 434–35
modalities of,10, 445–48, 459–60
remediated,10, 460
symbolic,44 (See also the symbolic)
transmediated,10
virtual,10, 460
reproduction,11
reproduction fidelity,433–34, 433f
The Republic (Plato),493
(p. 765) Republic of Letters,248–49
responsive displays,596
Reuters,447
Reynolds, Craig,626
Rheingold, Howard,311, 685, 686
Richter, Marianne,687
Rider, Jeff,106
Rights of Man (Paine),719
Riner, Reed,19–20
Riva, Giuseppe,6, 13, 205–22, 649–65, 655–56
Robles-de-la-Torre, Gabriel,12, 569–86
robots,6, 173–86
Rodin, Auguste,458, 459f, 460f
Rodowick, David,471
Rome,5, 95
Roosevelt, Franklin D.,722
Rosedale, Philip,23
Rosenweig, Ron,270
Rothko, Mark,446
Rowling, J. K.,265
RSVP.com,288
Rudd, David,7, 254–68
Ruddick, Sara,692–93
Russia, virtual economy of,496–97, 505
Russian Formalists,262
Ruyer, Raymond,68n9
Ryan, Marie-Laure,86, 229
Salen, Kate,228, 229, 230
Sannazaro, Jacopo, Arcardia,102
Sarkozy, Nicolas,506
Sartre, J.-P.,74
Satava, R. M.,649, 650
satirical writings,101–2, 108
Saussure, Ferdinand,258
scale,11
Scarborough, James K.,5, 129–44
Schafer, R. Murray,372
Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph,73
science fiction,102–4, 700–703
cyberpunk,701–2
Scott, Victoria458
Scotus, Duns,411–12
Searle, John,46–47, 50
secondary worlds,262–66
Second Front, The Gate,458, 459f, 460f
Second Life,8–10, 23, 26, 33, 42, 49, 87, 105–6, 188, 192, 199, 328, 333, 345, 407, 414, 416–18, 444–45, 448, 452–58, 481, 489–91, 700, 702, 704
live music concerts in,384–87, 388f
live music performance in,378–91
Second Life Community Conference,450
virtual music performance in,379f, 381f
A Second Life Machinima (Fei),456f
Seedbed (Acconci),451
self,209f
attachment theory and,179–82
consciousness and,206–8, 210
core self,207–8
digital technologies and,12–13
embodiment and,6, 13, 589–601
evolution of,6, 207–8, 216
extended,207–8
immersion and,266
incorporation of tools and,6, 216
instability of,4, 76–77
intentions and,209f
mediated presence and,589–601
notion of the,179–82
presence and,6, 206–11, 209f
proto-self,207–8
sense of,6, 12
social networking systems (SNSs) and,194–99
technology and,12–13
theories of,6
virtual,4, 187–204
selfhood,207–8, 689
self-presence,5, 135–36
self-presentation,192
self-reflection,6
self-representation,7
self-reproduction,543–44
semantics
semantic uncertainty,50
shifts in,112–13
Sensorama,19
sensory stimuli,12, 602–14. See also perception; specific senses
the sensuous,58, 61, 68n4
separate distant spaces,107
Seven Easy Pieces (Abramovic),451
(p. 766) sex,7, 284–302, 690–92. See also adultery, virtual; cybersex; pornography
digital technologies and,7–8
fantasy sex,308
phantom,310–11
social media and,7
social networking and,7
technology and,7–8
sexual harassment, online games and,344
sexual politics, video games and,8
shader programs,426
Shakespeare, William,4, 108, 262
imaginary worlds in,98
Macbeth,98
A Midsummer Night’s Dream,98
mythic spaces in,99–101t
The Tempest,98
two varieties of virtual worlds,98, 101
world of fairies and spirits,98
world of reversal and deception,98
The Shallows: What the Internet is Doing to our Brains (Carr),76
Shambhala,102
Shangri-la,102
Sheridan, Thomas,223
Shneiderman,620–21
Sid and the Penguins (Perlin),520
Sidney, Philip, Old Arcadia,102
sight,12, 67n1
virtuality and,55–70, 420–43, 463–77
signifieds,258–59
signifiers,258–59
signs,4, 72
SimEarth: The Living Planet (Wright),555
sim escuelas,34f
Simmens, Eddie,7, 284–302
simplex,66
The Sims,29, 521, 523, 529
Sims, K.,529, 532, 540, 541
the SimStim,305, 306, 318
simulacra,4, 454–57
Simulacra and Simulation (Baudrillard),454–55
simulations,10, 11, 24, 45, 115–18, 513, 516, 551–52, 556
artificial life and,554f, 556f
of bodies,569–86
of bodily tissues,574–76, 575–76f
environmental science and,549–68, 550–51
intuition and,213–15
military,12, 13, 424, 666–79
multiagent,553
virtual experiments,552f
simulative forward model,214, 214f, 215f
Simulator Networking project (SIMNET),669
Singer, Michael,224
single-player games,20
SketchUp,25
Skype,24
Slater, Mel,223–25
smartphones,12
augmented reality (AR) devices and,617
mobility and,7
smell,12, 602–14, 603f, 609f
Smith, Roger,13, 666–79
Snow Crash (Stephenson),20
Snow Globe study,31
social cues,517
social facts,46, 47
social identity,14
the social imaginary,13, 698, 698–711
social interaction,9, 390
social media,7, 292–93, 636. See also social networking systems (SNSs)
online dating and,295–96
religion and,7
sex and,7
social networking systems (SNSs),6, 7, 744
addiction to,192–98
identity and,194–99
self and,194–99
social ontology,42
social perception,5
social personas,594–95
social reality,46
social representations,14
society, technologies and,6–8
Society of the Spectacle (Debord),407
socio-technical imaginary,700
Socrates,493, 689
SolSys,19, 20
sonic content,8
sonic virtuality,8, 351–63, 364–77, 374f, 378–91, 392–404
Sony Online Entertainment,490
Søraker, Johnny,689
(p. 767) indexicality,687–88
sound.See audio
South West Island, Northern Territory,557f, 558f
space, perception of,9
spatial presence, avatars and,133–35
Spore (Wright),555
sports training,596
Stanford University,21
Stanislavski, An Actor Prepares,518
Star Trek,412, 701, 703
statistical modeling,668
status functions,47
Steed, Anthony,9–10, 420–43
Stenslie, Ståle,7–8, 303–22
Stephenson, Neal,25, 27, 35
the Stoics,413, 414
stop-motion animation,514
storytelling, interactive,513
story worlds,512
St. Paul, conversion on the road to Damascus,80
Strikwerda, Litska,692–93
Stuart, Susan,687, 690–91, 695
stutterers,34f
subjectivity,8–9
ethical subjectivity,79–80
the figural and,470–71
the sublime,14, 729
surface as hinge,466, 470, 471, 475, 476
surgery,13, 652–53
surround-screen displays (SSDs),421, 421f, 422–23, 422f
Sutherland, Ivan,112, 223, 304, 412, 615, 701
Swift, Jonathan, Gulliver’s Travels (Swift),102
Swimmer,530f
the symbolic,7, 44
the Symbolic (Lacanian),255–57, 266
synchronicity,450
system architecture,9
system identification,571–73, 572f
Systems Maintenance (Hoberman),446
Tacitus,95
tactile telepresence,312
the tangible,10
Tangible AR (TAR),619, 622–24
task-emotions,166
taste,12, 602–14
Taylor, Tim,11, 526–48, 530f
techne,408
technological determinism,224–25, 231
“technological sublime,”729
technology.See alsospecific technologies
art and,9–10, 408–9 (See also new media)
culture and,6–8
embodiment and,11
ethics of,13
medical clinical uses of,13, 649–65
normalization of,5
prior forms of,482
society and,6–8
street use of,5
TED talks,31
teleconferencing,596
teledildonics,7, 311
telepresence,223
“Telepresence” (Minsky),223
The Tempest (Shakespeare),98
temporality,471–72
temporal neural codes,579–80
Tencent,502
Terdiman, Daniel,25
Tetris,228, 229, 482
textual worlds, as immersive,86
texturing,446
theater,108, 262, 271. See also drama
theater studies,5
theatrical space,8
Thirteen Most Beautiful Avatars (Mattes),452, 453f
Thomas, The Illusion of Life,515–16
Thorpe, Jack,669, 676
The Thousand and One Nights,95
A Thousand Plateaus (Deleuze and Guattari),471
3D avatars,291
3D cinema,24, 407
3D environments, immersive,87
3D microgravity environment,24
3D modeling,11, 269–70, 420–43, 427f
eco-simulation and,561–62, 562f
environmental science and,549–68
in real time,439–41
3D virtual environments,24, 48
immersive,105
(p. 768) 3D virtual worlds,20, 105
3D vision, virtuality of,64–65
Tierra (Ray),527–28, 531, 536–37, 539–40, 544
Timmerman, John H.,103, 106
Tinmith system,439–40
Tinwell, Angela,6, 168, 173–86
TinyMud,105
Tolkien, J. R. R.,7
Lord of the Rings trilogy,262–64
tools
incorporation of,6, 216
virtuality and,4
Tost, Laia,272
touch,12, 569–86, 602–14. See also haptic system
traditum,88
La trahison des images (Magritte),258
training,13, 513
“always on,”673–74
military simulations and,673–74
sports training,596
Transforming Virtual World Learning (Hinrichs and Wankel),33
transmediation,448–51, 454
transportation, immersion as,230–31
Transvision system,616–17
trompe l’oeil,7, 259–60
trompe l’oreille,7, 260
Tron (Disney),19–20, 454
Turbulence.org, Mixed Realities,458
Turkle, Sherry,76, 639, 685, 707
Twitter,6, 81, 106, 197–98
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (Bergson),717–18
The Two Sources of Morality and Religion (Bergson),717–18
Übermensch,82
Ukiyo-e,473
Ulam, Stanislaw,668
Ultima IV,200
Ulysses (Joyce),261
Umwelt,74
the uncanny,173–86
Uncanny Valley,5, 6, 154–55, 155f, 173–86
uncertainty,50–52
Underworld,93
UNESCO,272
Univac computers,668
universal suffrage,718
universal Turing machine,414
University of Colorado School of Medicine,651
University of Columbia’s Computer Graphics and User Interfaces Lab,270
University of Washington,31
US Air Force,669
user-generated content,8
auditory,353–54
fourth wall and,359
sonic,351–63
in virtual worlds,352
user interfaces, handheld augmented reality (HHAR) devices and,615–35
US Marine Corps,670–71, 671f
US National Library of Medicine,651
US National Research Council,660
utilitarianism,692, 695
utopia,13–14, 728
forms of,700
phantasmagoric,700, 708
project,700, 705
utopian spaces,7
utopian writings,101–2
watershed,700, 706
Utopia (More),102, 104
utopian literature,101–2, 108, 728
Vallor, Shannon,690
Vermeer, Johannes, Girl with a Pearl Earring,468, 469f, 475
Victorian age,102
video games.Seegames
Video: The Distinctive Features of the Medium (Antin),447
viewers,9, 448, 466
paintings and,10
viewer encounter circuits,466
Vinge, Vernon,25–26, 35
Rainbow’s End,25
VIRTSIM simulator,424
the virtual,683
definition of,2, 239, 481
(p. 769) definitions of,687–88
“Entwurf” and,75–76
essence and,75–76
ethics and,4
neural processing and,153–54
perceptions of,55–56
as potential,4
pre-Internet,729
the real and,9, 483
technological,481–82, 487
two senses of,115–16
virtual acoustic ecology (VAE),373
virtual actions,49–50, 52–53
virtual addiction,6, 187–204
virtual applications.See also virtual applications
to affect the actual,138–40
current applications,138–39
future applications,130–40
virtual architecture,246–48, 251
virtual art
ambiguity of identity,416
artificial agency,417
environmental fluidity,416
immersion,416
interaction,416
networked collaboration,417
representational vectors in,448
six dimensions of,416–18
Virtual Art Initiative,417–18
virtual assault,50
virtual bodies,705–6, 708
virtual characters,6, 145–61
behavioral studies of,146–49
emotion and,147–48
gender and,147
humanization of,177–79
identity and,148
interactions and,148–49
neuroimaging studies of,149–54
personal characteristics and,148
person perception and,145–61
triggering perceptions of psychopathy and,175–77
uncanny and,175–77
virtual communities,687
virtual dystopia,727–37
virtual endoscopy,652–53
virtual environments (VE),420–43, 430f, 549–68, 687
addiction and,187–204
addiction to,187–204
brain response to,12
cultural heritage in,269–83
ethics in,688
history in,269–83
institutional reality and,47
interactive,6
models of,11
new perspectives on addiction to,192–200
ontological uncertainty in,50–52
organisms and,11
perception in,602–14
realism in,602–14
real virtuality and,602–15
senses in,602–15
smell in,602–15, 603f, 609f
taste in,602–15
touch in,602–15
uncertainties in,4
virtual events,52–53, 65
virtual experience,76–77
virtual groups, religion and,329–30
virtual heritage,269–83
authenticity and,273
classification of environments,279
content and,274
culture and,272
data and,273, 274
definition of,270–72
evaluation of,278, 279
games and,276
interaction and,274–77, 279
issues and objectives of,272–77
long-term usage and,274
ownership and,277, 279
participation and,277
realism and,273, 279
technology and,274
virtual heritage artifacts,7
virtual interactive characters,511–25
acting and,517–18
AI “directors” and,518–19
animals as,520
(p. 770) virtual interactive characters animation and,515–16, 519, 520–21
appeal of,515
automatic creation of content and,518–19
creating engaging and expressive,521–22
emotions and,520
movement and,515–16
nonverbal cues,517
simulation and,517
social cues,517
the staging problem and,518–19
techniques of,515
virtualiter,411
virtuality,38, 82, 284–302, 460, 467, 581–82, 639, 713–17
acoustic,8–9
actuality and,1, 10
from ancient myths to cyberspace,105–8
ancient uses o,9
Aristotle on,175
of audio,367–69
of avatar cyberspace,17–41
binarisms and,739–45
computer-generated,9
concepts of,365–67
consciousness and,713–15
definition of,1, 2, 3–5
discourse and epistemes,715–17
double,9
embodied cognition and,369–72
emic (insider) vs etic (outsider),742–43
ethics and,67, 80, 683–97
events and,65–67
excess of,4
existential concept of,3–5
film and,471–72, 473–74
forms and,63, 67
foundations of,3–5
freedom and,80
humanity and,14, 712–26
human spirit and,71–85
image and,9–10
immersive,18–26, 38
invention and,80–82
in the modern age,98–104
mythic spaces and,97
mythologies of,105–8
openness and,80
as “other space,”105–8
painting and,463–77
paradox of,5, 111–25
perception and,64
physicality and,453–54
presence and,205–21
prior forms of,7
proximity and,7
reality and,1, 4, 5, 6, 162–72, 720–24
real vs. unreal,741–42
religion and,323–36
shared,4
“shared dimension” and,105–8
signs and,4
sonic,8, 372–74, 374f
summary of,717
theory of,4
as tool,562–66
tools and,4
uses of,743–44
utopia vs dystopia,743–44
values and,67
virtual world vs. virtual reality,739–41
visuality and,420–43, 463–77
in western thought,410
virtuality continuum,9–10, 430–35, 430f
virtualization
humanization and,73–74
marginalization by,505–6
virtual law
contracts and,489–90, 492
copyright and,492
jurisdiction and,488–89, 492
landscape of,487–92
property and,490–91, 492
reality of,483–87
trajectory of,492–94
virtual learning environments (VLEs)
limitations of,644–45
unique affordances of,641–43, 642t
virtual model paradigm,565–66, 565t
virtual money,47
Virtual Museum of the Via Flaminia,271
(p. 771) virtual musical participation, actualizing online sociality and,388–89
virtual music performance, avatars and,384–87
virtual objects,42, 44, 52–53, 327
Virtual Places,22
virtual projection,446
virtual reality (VR),12, 17, 20, 22, 205, 687, 704
artistic and literary contexts,257–62
burn victims and,31
coining of the term,412
cybersex in,309–10
education and,34f
environmental science and,549–68
environments,87
envisioning,55–70
fantasy and,262–66
Lacan, Jacques and,255–57
Lacanian perspective on,254–68
learning environments and,32–33
in neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation,653–56
ocular-centric bias to early notions of,271–72
PTSD treatment and,33, 34f
recreating virtual reality in,421–30
second worlds and,262–66
social ontology of,45–49
social representations and,14
on an SSD,422, 422f
storytelling and,31
virtual health-related support groups,29–30
vs virtual world,739–41
virtual reality (VR) hardware,656–58
virtual reality (VR) software,656–58, 657f
virtual reality (VR) systems,423–25
research and clinical issues,660–61
safety issues,659–60
technical challenges,658–59
visual representation on,424–25f
virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE),654–56, 655f
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML),270
virtual self, allure of,187–204
virtual simulators,668–69, 668f
virtual space
printing and,246–49
words and,241–43
writing and,243–46
Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM),274
virtual temples, interactive,323–36
virtual weight loss group,31
virtual-world education theater, military simulations,675–76
virtual-world objects,10
virtual worlds,21, 23, 35, 86, 87, 105, 107, 481, 687
acoustemology and,337–48
“always on,” 673–74,675
anonymity and,707
art and,407–19
art in,10
art of,407–19
benchmark of,35, 38
as a city,705
communication in,239–53
digital,4, 87, 92
entertainment-based,511–25
ethnomusicology and,378–91
evolution in,526–48
experience of,6
experiencing the “virtual” in,382–83
in fantasy genre,103t
future of,26–35
general ontology of,43–45
in the Gilgamesh Cycle,89–91t
in the Greek and Roman world,94
in healthcare,650–51
how to create,703–5
human origins and,71–73
immersion in,222–36
immersive,222–36
incorporation and,231–33
legal institutions and,10
made visible on stage,95
medical clinical uses of,649–65
Middle Ages,97–98
military simulations and,669–70
music and,355, 380–81
mythologies in,105–8
myths and,88–98
in the Odyssey,89–91
(p. 772) ontology and,4, 42–43
person perception and,146–49
physical reality of,42–54
predigital,87, 92
presence/immersion,230
presence in,205–21
purposes of,88–92, 92–98
reality and,351–63, 685–87
religion and,8, 323–36
in science fiction,103t
science fiction and,700–703
in Shakespeare,99–101t
the social imaginary of,698–711
social life and,707
social reality of,42–54
structural elements of,4
for training,29
translation of art in,444–62
user-generated content in,351–63
vs virtual reality,739–41
visual representations of,95
virtue ethics,13, 684, 689, 692–95
virtuous circles,689–90
the virtuously real,262–66
virtus,411
Visible Human data,651
vision.Seesight
visual integration space, military simulations,676–77
visual leaps,471–72
visual multiuser graphical worlds,19
visual representations, virtual worlds and,95
vividity,210
VLearn,24
voice-changing devices,344, 345
voice-chat,337–48
online games and,341–42
voice functions,8, 337–38
Voiskounsky, Alexander,34–35
Voltaire
Candide,102
Micromegas,102
von Neumann, John,527, 536–37, 544, 668
V-R reinforcement,191–92
Wagner, D.,617–18
Walhalla,93
Ware, Roberta,454, 455
war games,667–68
Warhol, Andy,452
watershed utopia,700, 706
Waterworth, Eva L.,12, 589–601
Waterworth, John A.,6, 12, 205–21, 205–22, 589–601
WebEx,24
Weikhmann, Christopher, Koenigspiel ("King’s Game"),667
Wellman, Barry, The Internet in Everyday Life,686
Whistler, James McNeill, Cremorne Gardens, No. 2,475
Whitehead, Alfred North,67n1
Wiener, Norbert,685
Wii,25
Wikileaks,78, 81
Wikitude,617
Wilbur, Sylvia,223–24
Wilke, C., Avida,528, 534, 536
Williams, R., The Animator’s Survival Kit,515–16
Winnicott, Donald,74
Wired,703
Witmer, Bob,224
Wittgenstein, Ludwig,470
Woolley, Benjamin,255, 260
words, virtual space and,241–43
“The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproducibility” (Benjamin),409
worldhood, art and,414–16
World of Warcraft,26, 32, 49, 105, 199, 333, 357, 417, 444, 447, 481, 498, 728, 730, 736, 742
avatars,735
as dystopia,727, 734
as virtual world,735
WoWGlider,484–86, 488, 489, 491, 492, 493
WorldsAway,22
Worlds Chat,20, 21f, 35
Worlds Incorporated,20
World Wide Web,19, 27
WoWGlider,484–86, 488, 489, 491, 492, 493
(p. 773) Wright, Will
SimEarth: The Living Planet,555
Spore,555
writing,6, 7, 243–46, 250
Xerox,19
Yaeger, L., Polyworld,528–29, 532
Yolen, Jane,265
YouTube,106
Zabel, Gary,9, 407–19
z-buffers,428
Zimbabwe,504
Zimmerman, Eric,228, 229, 230
Zipes, Jack,266
Žižek, Slavoj,74, 266, 266–67
Zola, Émile,261
Zuckerberg, Mark,723
Zynga,499