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date: 19 November 2017

(p. 896) (p. 897) Subject Index

(p. 896) (p. 897) Subject Index

accommodation, linguistic,132, 142, 154, 237–38, 319, 413, 467–68, 787, 807, 822, 829, 863, 872
regional,147–55
acquisition
of AAL by children,439–51, 454–55, 458, 461, 512–21, 823
of AAL negation by children,483–89
of AAL question formation by children,480–83
of English by slaves,35, 40, 49, 91–92
first language (L1),47, 604
second language (SLA, or L2),29, 45–47, 71, 77n2, 391, 589
of Southern White English (SWE) by children,512–21
of Standard Classroom English (SCE),618–33, 638–50
adolescents,348, 457–58, 463, 467, 825, 829
in California,303–11, 843–44
female,304–05, 312n13
in New York,257, 283–85
use of slang by,302, 843–44, 867
affixation.See suffixes
African American Church Language (AACL),677–89
lexicon of,678, 682
African American Language (AAL)
distinctive features of,301–02, 310, 341–43, 358–59, 371–73, 457, 462–63, 786, 790, 794–95
grammatical innovations of,27, 116–18, 134, 192–97, 376–77, 383–85
in-group/out-group use of,245, 682, 723, 855
lexicon of,29, 50n3, 245–46, 249, 310, 592, 610, 696–97, 700, 707–09, 729, 839, 853
media representations of,68–69, 78–79n16, 329, 347, 606, 609, 695, 740–52, 760–63, 779, 828, 870
names and labels for,3–5, 50n3, 57, 85, 136n1, 340–41, 403, 664–65, 751–752nn2–3, 768nn2–6, 846n1
rural varieties of,136, 144, 150, 181–97, 201–15, 238–39, 241, 341, 572
African American Standard English (AASE),344, 789–98, 806
African American Women’s Language (AAWL),13, 15, 313, 728–30, 735–37, 817–30, 834, 846
African diaspora,285, 295n2, 660, 670, 876n3
communities,25, 27, 29, 65, 131–32
linguistic data,26–27, 36, 86, 210–11
varieties,26, 72, 86, 131–32, 210, 384–85, 387–88, 737
African languages,4–6, 36, 40, 45, 51–52, 67, 72–73, 78, 86, 94, 98, 100, 113, 171, 175, 182, 355, 386, 547–48, 764, 846
tone languages,427, 430, 432
West African,36, 119, 164, 166, 175n6, 185, 374, 423, 427, 430, 432, 583, 592
African Nova Scotian English (ANSE),36, 210–11, 391–96, 398
Africanisms,101, 163, 695
age-grading,303–04, 306, 308, 310
American Civil War,24, 96, 108, 110, 121n2, 170, 241, 416n1, 549, 680, 696, 698, 802
Ann Arbor.See King v. Ann Arbor
ask/axe.See metathesis
Atlas of North American English,225, 256, 284, 289, 411
attitudes.See language attitudes
audience design theory,304, 467
auxiliary verbs
absence of,51n9, 204, 460, 572, 829
contraction,115
inversion,26, 367, 478–79, 487–89, 516
negation,26–27
basilectalization,71, 75–76, 77n2, 168, 172. See also creole continuum
Beech Bottom (NC),144–47, 149, 152–53
bidialectalism,566–77, 593, 661–66, 758–59, 767, 807. See also multidialectalism
bilingual education,559, 661, 666, 767
bilingualism,306, 552, 554, 566–70, 572, 577, 807, 860, 872. See also multilingualism
Black American Sign Language (Black ASL),9, 316–35
attitudes toward,318, 329, 334
Deaf vs. deaf,335n2
fingerspelling,330, 335n4
lexicon of,330, 332–34
regional variation in,323, 332–34
Black English Case.See King v. Ann Arbor
Black Masculine Language (BML),828, 834–47
features of,841–42
Black Panthers,660, 837
black poetry,13, 706–19
Black Power movement,607, 611, 708, 712–13, 818, 830
blackness,557, 740–41, 790, 796, 797n1, 819, 836, 838, 840, 842, 866, 871
blues music,134, 214n6, 678, 688, 707, 710, 718, 876n2
British English,26, 36, 38–39, 41, 44, 52n16, 72–73, 85–86, 100–01, 125, 128, 130–32, 163–64, 207, 215n15, 394, 513, 517
Brown v. Board of Education,548, 659–60, 664–65, 670
Cajun English,514–15, 531, 873
camouflaged forms,135, 342–43, 680, 699, 786–87, 790, 792–95
Caribbean,4, 6, 26–27, 29, 35, 38, 50, 60–61, 66, 70, 76–78, 87, 90–91, 94–96, 100, 127, 165–69, 293–95, 296n11, 496, 605, 850. See also West Indies
Caribbean English Creoles (CECs),45, 58, 64, 73–76, 91, 164, 169, 171–72, 202, 207, 211, 287–88, 291–92
features of,36, 39, 44, 66, 69, 71–72, 289, 292, 403
chain shifts,193, 225, 228–31, 243, 343, 412–14
Northern Cities Shift,148–49, 225, 257
Southern Shift,225–26, 228–31, 412–13
Western Merger,225
Charleston,62, 96–97, 112, 256
Chicago,660, 709, 803, 858
ciphas,603, 609, 613n1
civil rights,127, 527, 548, 611, 660, 726, 766, 777, 793, 797, 802, 819, 821–30
clitics,118, 392, 397–98, 620
Coahoma County,201–03, 205, 208, 210–13
complementizers,76, 360, 365, 367–68, 395
for to,23, 66, 69, 133–34, 136, 184–85, 822
say,66, 101, 134, 358
(p. 899) completive, or perfective, done,66, 189, 363–64, 372–73, 375–76, 378–79, 381–84, 516, 795
consonant cluster reduction (CCR),66, 391, 404–06, 442–43, 591
by social class,306–07
word-final,189, 300, 404, 443, 572, 592, 621, 729, 805
contractions,114–15, 304, 311, 390–91, 393–94, 397
contrastive analysis,550, 552, 562, 585–86, 592–97, 600
creole continuum,86, 98, 455, 470n2
acrolect,44, 51n11, 68, 170–71, 175n5, 346, 385
mesolect,44–47, 51n11, 170–71
Creolist view,6, 35–52, 71–76, 86, 126–28, 164, 169, 172, 175nn5–6, 181, 347, 373–74, 457
creolization,36–37, 48, 167, 171, 176, 890
decreolization,24, 44–45, 52, 62, 66–67, 69, 73, 75–76, 105, 170–71, 175n5, 176n17, 391
desegregation,548, 551–52
of Deaf schools,317–18
Diagnostic Evaluation of Language Variation (DELV),477, 489n2, 530, 540
Criterion Referenced Test (DELV-CR),530–31
Norm-Referenced (DELV-NR),489n2, 530–31, 533, 538
Screening Test (DELV-ST),489n2, 518–19, 530–31, 576, 617–18
dialect density measure (DDM),457–62, 465–68, 470n5, 567, 571, 576, 642, 649
dialect diversity (DVAR),567, 571, 575–76
dialectology,208, 241, 819, 866–67, 876n1
diglossia,678–79, 683, 688, 807
Dimensional Change Card Sort,569, 577n1
divergence/convergence,151–53, 303, 347, 409, 432, 854, 867–69, 873
discrimination,802, 842, 858, 883
housing,757
“double consciousness,”8–9, 553, 809, 874
ethnicity,140–42, 147, 153, 237–38, 240–42, 249, 342–44, 466, 469, 710, 806–12
ethnic diversity in New York,285–89, 292–95
impact on phonology,267–68, 270, 273–74, 410, 412–13, 415
media representations of,740–51
eye dialect,691–94, 698–700, 702, 883
ex-slave narratives and recordings,27, 36, 48–49, 67–72, 86, 101, 128–32, 136, 149, 187–90, 194–95, 423, 425–26, 430, 433n4
Faces Task,569, 577n2
falsetto,390, 424, 752, 779
forestressing,421–22, 432
founder principle,38, 60, 238, 347
French,182, 572, 592, 665–66, 859
GoldVarb,209, 288, 320, 391, 398n6, 404, 461
gospel music,678, 688, 867
Gray Oral Reading Test (GORT),617–18, 633n2
Great Migration,30, 39, 58, 65, 76, 101, 182–83, 197, 241, 257, 301, 682–83, 882
Gullah,29, 36–37, 45–47, 58, 60–64, 98–99, 163–77, 801, 822
features of,45, 68–69, 72–73, 374–75
relationship with AAL,57, 64, 67, 69–70, 76, 86, 98, 102n1, 169–75, 185, 374–75
relationship with CECs,58, 61, 64, 67, 72–73, 76
relationship with LSE,111–12
representation in literature,68–69, 78–79n16, 693, 695
Guyanese Creole,61, 72–73, 552
habitual do,23, 136
Haitian Creole,499, 728, 829, 859
High Point Analysis,493, 497, 499, 505, 575
Hip Hop,135, 219, 257, 285, 309, 679, 688, 710, 718, 724, 779, 841–47, 850–60, 912
as a pedagogical tool,12, 603–13, 669, 778, 872
knowledge of,307–08
See also rap
Hip Hop Nation Language (HHNL),135, 603–13, 850–60
relationship with BML,840–45, 846n1, 847n2
homogeneity myth,140, 148
hybrid view,28–30, 36, 125
hypercorrection,394, 410, 573, 621, 796, 798n14, 804, 812n4
hyphy,610, 613n2, 853–54
identity,236, 292, 295, 310, 590, 638, 677, 680, 693–95, 730–31, 736, 774, 777–78, 827, 838, 840, 853–54
African American,153, 691, 696, 708, 777, 806–08, 810, 863–76
African American women,728, 819–20, 822, 826–27, 829
American,695, 698
Black,304, 695, 835–36
Black (male),842, 844–45
Caribbean,293
cultural,239, 677, 715
ethnic,147, 238, 342, 466, 469, 806, 808
female,723, 727
Hip Hop,309, 854–56
local,239
place,292
racial,775, 782–83
regional,147, 151
social class,289
southern,151
stage,727
youth,309
identity markers,681–89, 708
illiteracy,698–99, 703. See also literacy
indignantcome,134, 343
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act,527–28, 542, 547
integration,152–53, 268, 273, 286, 556
in Liberia,112, 120, 122n9
in schools,122n9, 150, 153, 318–19, 321, 323, 548, 556, 587
interlanguages,51n5, 58, 70–71, 74, 77n2
intonation,360, 365–66, 388, 390, 395, 424–32, 433n6, 496, 479, 737, 776
in African American Church Language (AACL),686–87
use by females,735, 826–27
Jamaican Creole,45, 47, 72–73, 167, 176, 210–11, 374, 431
Jeantel, Rachel,728, 760–63, 828–29, 868
Jim Crow,6, 39–40, 58, 72, 76, 78, 547, 697, 741–42, 749, 753, 764, 787. See also segregation
King v. Ann Arbor,12, 126, 548, 555–58, 562, 663, 669, 865, 870
(p. 901) language assessment,440, 520, 526–40, 641
language attitudes,236–37, 246–47, 302–03, 309–10, 311n8, 341, 695–97, 744, 773–83, 809–12
and African American women,818, 821–22, 826, 829
language ideology,237–39, 250n1, 283, 339–40, 547–548, 549, 561, 576–77, 773–83, 796, 809–12, 820, 834, 851, 863–64, 869, 875
in literary representations of AAL,78–79n16, 693–99
language sampling,516, 533, 536, 574
language shift,171, 176n17, 572
lexical stress,289, 426–27, 430–31
Lau v. Nichols,664, 667
lexifier,61, 64, 66, 71–72, 113, 167, 175n5, 288. See also superstrate
lies,495, 502, 828
Liberian Settler English (LSE),29, 36, 105, 111–21, 210–11
lingua franca,74, 79nn19–20, 860
Linguistic Atlas Projects,219, 226, 234, 416
Atlanta Survey,220–24
Linguistic Atlas of the Gulf States (LAGS),202, 204, 216, 220, 412, 421
Linguistic Atlas of the Middle and South Atlantic States (LAMSAS),149, 156, 220, 225, 410, 412
linguistic insecurity,554, 804
linguistic profiling,755–68, 783
literacy,232, 283, 440, 568, 572, 574, 639–40, 661, 667, 669, 703, 843
acquisition of,508, 587–89, 617–19
assessment of,469, 504, 521, 551, 617–33
instruction,554, 559–62, 603–13
relationship with storytelling,495–96, 504, 508
literary dialect,49, 78–79n16, 126, 691–704
Louisiana (French) Creole,214n1, 873
Martin, Trayvon,728, 760–63, 828, 868
Maryland,38–39, 51n7, 85–91, 93, 98, 100, 107, 111, 120, 172, 416n1, 804
Black ASL in,317, 322
metathesis,189, 270–71, 408–09, 796, 829, 868
minstrelsy,16, 78–79n16, 740–42, 744, 749–50, 752n5
Mississippi,41, 69, 100, 109–11, 122n4, 128, 201–02, 204–05, 299, 317, 552, 709. See also Coahoma County
Mississippi Delta,201–15
monophthongization,150, 243–44, 247, 249, 274, 284, 292, 294, 410, 462, 729, 807–08
multidialectalism,455, 566, 696, 767
multilingualism,98, 455, 566, 767
multiple negation.See negative: concord
multivariate analysis,28, 320, 324, 393, 395, 398
narration,492–509, 574–76, 597, 649, 680, 683, 697, 699–703, 763, 824–26
macro- and microstructure,575–76
Native Americans,70, 92–93, 165, 168–69, 230, 586, 764, 793, 873
negative
contraction,115
inversion,72, 116, 310, 483–89
New Orleans,318, 709, 751, 858
New York City,78, 147, 149, 210, 256–57, 280–89, 291–96, 299, 310, 411, 413, 604, 623, 709, 794, 858
NORMs,867, 876n1
North Carolina,51n7, 60, 65, 69, 86, 95–96, 98, 111, 128, 144–54, 172, 175n1, 175n8, 176n22, 344, 412–14, 425–26
deaf schools in,318–19, 324
Oakland School Board Resolution,4, 548, 558–60, 562, 665, 869
Palo Alto (CA),43, 210–11, 215, 302–05, 307–09
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test,515, 541
phonological phrase,388–89, 392, 395, 397
Phonological Survey of Texas,412, 415
(p. 902) pidgins,35–38, 50n2, 51n5, 58, 70–72, 74–75, 77n2, 79n20, 100, 113, 166, 792
Hawaiian Pidgin English,663, 766
Nigerian Pidgin English,374–75, 860
Vernacular Liberian English,113, 119–20
West African Pidgin English,70, 74, 113, 132, 166
Pittsburgh,150, 236–51, 412–14
plantations,38–39, 48, 57–63, 65, 67, 70, 72–76, 77n1, 78n8, 78–79n16, 86–87, 89, 91–92, 95–100, 109–10, 125, 127, 163–72, 175n5, 175n7, 176n16, 182–83, 203, 213, 214n2, 347, 697–700
media representations of,740, 742–46, 748
plural marking,173, 176n22, 189, 302–03, 363, 591, 805
in Liberian Settler English,118–19, 173
possessive marking,476–78, 620–33
“possible selves,”838–40, 874, 878
post-traumatic slave syndrome,873, 876n3
prestige,12, 135, 287, 410, 573, 688, 820, 828
class and,289, 292
covert,125, 296n13, 806, 809, 813n10, 846, 871–72, 876n2
occupational,802
overt,288, 296n13, 806, 813n10
power and,175, 828, 883
standard,410, 804, 806, 813, 881
prosodic phonology,376, 387–98
prosodic rhythm,422–23, 432
prosodic word,388–89, 392
r-lessness,23, 145–147
reading dialect,825
rhythm and blues,678–79, 790
Roswell (GA),230–34
Samaná English,65–66, 122, 131, 374, 391
San Francisco,272, 300, 306–09, 311n8, 526, 613n2, 853, 856, 858
Savannah,68, 78–79, 112
Scotch Irish,6, 92–95, 98–102, 165, 241, 245–46
Sea Islands,40, 79, 112, 163, 165–70, 680, 801, 882
segmental phonology,10, 403–16
segregation,39–40, 51n6, 58–59, 61–62, 65–67, 70, 75–76, 78n8, 78n13, 165, 167, 239, 242, 272, 283, 552, 696, 726, 749, 764, 803, 820
of deaf schools,317–19, 321, 323, 335
of public schools,153, 317, 633n5, 659
Sharing Time,492, 496, 501, 509n1
signifyin(g),300, 493, 495, 610, 678, 688, 808, 847n3, 851
in Black Poetry,713–17
by females,824–26, 828
by males,825, 836, 838–39
slavery,39, 65, 88–90, 166–71, 182–83, 416, 668, 670, 680–81, 696–99, 755–56, 820, 839, 876n3
end of,24, 39, 58, 182
representations of in literature and poetry,719, 741–44
socioeconomic status,283, 307, 344, 440, 446, 456, 515, 533, 567, 640, 651, 659, 788
working class,136n1, 307, 494–95, 797n9, 800, 804–05, 810, 812, 819–21, 826–29
solidarity,245, 345, 680, 806, 810–11, 863
among women,726, 729–30, 737, 825–27
importance of in comedy,724–26, 729–30, 737
South Carolina,29, 37–38, 40, 48, 51nn6–7, 57–58, 60, 62, 69–70, 76, 77n1, 78n8, 86–87, 96–100, 102n1, 108, 110–11, 128, 136n1, 163, 165–72, 175n8, 176n16, 176n19, 177n24, 241, 306
Spanish,46, 97, 131, 284–85, 390, 422, 424, 531, 592, 666–67, 829, 859, 872
(p. 903) specific language impairment (SLI),507, 512, 537
speech styles,50, 759, 773–74, 778–83, 808
differences between male and female,817–18, 828
stereotypes,549, 583, 600, 693
of African American women,817–19, 821, 829
of African Americans,727, 732, 735, 737, 740–42, 746, 748–51
of Gullah,69, 78–79n16, 174
of Native Americans,793
of regional dialects of American English,262, 287
of women,817, 821
Story Grammar Analysis,493–94, 499, 503, 505
Structured Photographic Expressive Language Test,531
subject-verb agreement,64, 66, 394, 443, 517–18, 571, 593, 622, 632–33
substrates,29, 26–37, 48, 58–59, 62, 66–67, 72–73, 75–76, 78, 163, 166, 175n6, 175n10, 238, 285, 416, 423, 430
suffixes,118, 128, 136, 245, 263, 373–74, 376–80, 384, 390, 394–98. See also verbal –s
superstrates,27, 44, 166, 170, 172, 175n10, 182, 384. See also lexifier
suprasegmentals,11, 387–88, 390, 735, 795
tag questions,730, 732, 736, 818–20
tense-mood-aspect (TMA) marking,343, 371, 373–84
Test of Language Development-Primary,515
Texana (NC),144–47, 149, 153–54, 210–11, 232
Texas,43, 68–69, 100, 128, 148, 181–97, 204, 424
deaf schools in,317–18
phonological features of AAL in,407, 410–12, 414–15
Uncle Tom’s Cabin,743–45, 748
uniformity controversy,140–41, 342, 344, 409, 416, 822. See also homogeneity myth
unstressed bin, 101, 116–17, 360, 373, 383
Varbrul,302, 307–08, 325, 404
variable rules,209, 301–02, 374, 475, 626
vernacular(s),63, 68, 74, 77n2, 78n9, 85, 117, 344–47, 455, 470n3, 786, 788, 800–01, 807–08
in African American Church Language (AACL),679, 682–83, 687
in comedy,725, 727–28, 731
features,117, 788, 791–92, 794–95, 808, 825, 830
literary representations of,694, 698, 707–08, 715
use of by men and women,820–21, 824–26, 828–29
Virginia,37–39, 48, 51nn6, 58–60, 62–64, 69, 74, 77nn1–3, 85–96, 98–100, 108–11, 120, 172, 250n14, 804
Black ASL in,317–19, 322, 324
vowel mergers
low back (or cot-caught),150, 242, 244, 249, 257, 288, 414–15
Wechsler Individual Achievement Test,505
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children,646
West Africa,60, 106, 113, 121, 166–67, 175n6, 175n9, 185, 374, 724
oral tradition,496, 724
West Indies,9, 38, 80, 88–90, 95–96, 132, 165, 169, 172, 280, 284–96
witchcraft
hoodoo records,49, 86, 101, 129–30
Salem Witch trials,38, 51n5, 64, 70–71, 74
Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-educational Battery,468–69, 624, 628, 631, 633, 637