- The Oxford Handbook of African American Language
- List of Figures
- List of Tables
- About the Editor
- List of Contributors
- Language Use in African American Communities: An Introduction
- The English Origins Hypothesis
- The Creole Origins Hypothesis
- The Emergence of African American English: Monogenetic or Polygenetic? With or Without “Decreolization”? Under How Much Substrate Influence?
- The Origins of African American Vernacular English: Beginnings
- African American English over Yonder: The Language of the Liberian Settler Community
- Documenting the History of African American Vernacular English: A Survey and Assessment of Sources and Results
- Regionality in the Development of African American English
- The Place of Gullah in the African American Linguistic Continuum
- Rural Texas African American Vernacular English
- African American English in the Mississippi Delta: A Case Study of Copula Absence and r-Lessness in the Speech of African American Women in Coahoma County
- African American Voices in Atlanta
- African American Language in Pittsburgh and the Lower Susquehanna Valley
- African American Phonology in a Philadelphia Community
- African American Language in New York City
- African American Vernacular English in California: Over Four Decades of Vibrant Variationist Research
- The Black ASL (American Sign Language) Project: An Overview
- The Sociolinguistic Construction of African American Language
- Syntax and Semantics in African American English
- The Systematic Marking of Tense, Modality, and Aspect in African American Language
- On the Syntax-Prosody Interface in African American English
- Segmental Phonology of African American English
- Prosodic Features of African American English
- Language Acquisition in the African American Child: Prior to Age Four
- The Development of African American English through Childhood and Adolescence
- Development of Variation in Child African American English
- Narrative Structures of African American Children: Commonalities and Differences
- Some Similarities and Differences Between African American English and Southern White English in Children
- Assessing the Language Skills of African American English Child Speakers: Current Approaches and Perspectives
- African American Language and Education: History and Controversy in the Twentieth Century
- Managing Two Varieties: Code-Switching in the Educational Context
- Balancing Pedagogy with Theory: The Infusion of African American Language Research into Everyday Pre-K‒12 Teaching Practices
- History of Research on Multiliteracies and Hip Hop Pedagogy: A Critical Review
- African American Vernacular English and Reading
- Dialect Switching and Mathematical Reasoning Tests: Implications for Early Educational Achievement
- Beyond Bidialectalism: Language Planning and Policies for African American Students
- African American Church Language
- The (Re)turn to Remus Orthography: The Voices of African American Language in American Literature
- African American Language and Black Poetry
- African American Divas of Comedy: Staking a Claim in Public Space
- The Construction of Ethnicity via voicing: African American English in Children’s Animated Film
- SWB (Speaking while Black): Linguistic Profiling and Discrimination Based on Speech as a Surrogate for Race against Speakers of African American Vernacular English
- Racializing Language: Unpacking Linguistic Approaches to Attitudes about Race and Speech
- African American Standard English
- African American English in the Middle Class
- African American Women’s Language: Mother Tongues Untied
- Black Masculine Language
- Hip Hop Nation Language: Localization and Globalization
- African American Language and Identity: Contradictions and Conundrums
- Author Index
- Subject Index
Abstract and Keywords
The socio-historical reality of the segregation era defined the geographical and racial isolation of residential state schools for the deaf that led to the development of Black American Sign Language (Black ASL) in southern and border states after the end of the American Civil War. Even though residential state schools for White deaf children existed a few decades before the end of Civil War and sign language had been used, Black deaf children were limited to their own forms of sign language. The linguistic features of Black ASL are reviewed in the chapter based on data produced by two different generations of Black and White informants in the South. Our analysis identified specific features such as handedness, location of the sign, size of the signing space, the use of repetition, lexical differences, and the incorporation of spoken African American English into Black ASL.
Joseph Hill is Assistant Professor in the Specialized Education Services department at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. His research interests are socio-historical and -linguistic aspects of African-American variety of American Sign Language and attitudes and ideologies about signing varieties in the American Deaf community. His contributions include The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (2011) which he co-authored with Carolyn McCaskill, Ceil Lucas, and Robert Bayley and Language Attitudes in the American Deaf Community (2012).
Carolyn McCaskill is Professor in the ASL and Deaf Studies Department at Gallaudet University and has taught in that department since 1996. She attended the Alabama School for the Negro Deaf in Talladega and was in the first integrated class in 1968 at the Alabama School for the Deaf. She received her M.A. degree in Counseling with the Deaf, B.A. in Psychology and Ph.D. in Administration and Supervision from Gallaudet University. Carolyn has conducted numerous seminars and workshops related to Black Deaf people.
Robert Bayley is Professor of Linguistics at the University of California, Davis. He has conducted research on variation in English, Spanish, Chinese, ASL and Italian Sign Language as well as ethnographic studies of US Latino communities. His recent book-length publications include Sociolinguistic Variation: Theories, Methods, and Applications (edited with Ceil Lucas, 2007), The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (with Carolyn McCaskill, Ceil Lucas, and Joseph Hill 2011), The Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics (edited with Richard Cameron and Ceil Lucas 2013), and the five volume collection, Language Variation and Change (edited with Richard Cameron 2014).
Ceil Lucas, Ph.D. is Professor of Linguistics, Emerita at Gallaudet University, where she has taught since 1982. She was raised in Guatemala City and Rome, Italy. She is a sociolinguist with broad interests in the structure and use of sign languages. She has co-authored and edited many articles and books, including The Linguistics of American Sign Language, 5th ed. (with Clayton Valli, Kristin Mulrooney, and Miako Villanueva, 2010) and The Hidden Treasure of Black ASL: Its History and Structure (co-authored with Carolyn McCaskill, Robert Bayley, and Joseph Hill).
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