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date: 22 April 2019

(p. 591) Index

(p. 591) Index

A
ABCX model, of stressors in unemployment, 90–91
Abdeljalil, M., 484
Abele, A. E., 231, 232
ability, as moderator of goal setting, 131
Abrahamsen, B., 368
absenteeism, and job insecurity, 39, 113
academic performance, and success of school-to-work transition, 395–396
accents, and outcomes of international job search, 492
Accountancy Magazine, 299
Ackerman, P. L., 148
activation, of unemployed individuals, 159–160, 168
active vs. preparatory job-search behaviors, 263–264, 317, 389, 418
activity level, and job loss among older workers, 440–441, 444–445
Adams, C. E., 216–217
adaptability
and career transitions, 224
and older job seekers, 435–436
Addison, J. T., 46
Adler, G., 452
adverse impact, definition of, 518n1
affective attitudes, and job search, 191, 315, 342–343
affective events theory, 145, 146
affective reactions
to job insecurity, 39
to job search, 132
age
age discrimination, 451–453
and career-growth goals, 366
and coping with career interruptions, 233
and coping with identity threat, 228
and desire for reemployment, 150
diversity of in labor market, 144
and effects of job loss on mental health, 62–64
and experience of job loss, 438–443
and experience of repeated unemployment, 100
and generational impact of unemployment, 102–104
as human capital, 434–435
and international job search, 485
and job interview process, 331–332
and job search, 5
and job-search strategies, 152
and perceived job insecurity, 37, 48n2
research agenda for age-related differences, 155
and underemployment, 361
variations in job search, 143
agency-restriction model, 71, 72, 76, 88
agency theory, and research on unemployment, 18–19
agency workers, and temporary employment, 467–468, 469, 470–471, 473, 475, 477
Ägerström, J., 512
aggression, and unemployment, 74
Agrawal, A., 287
Ahmad, A. S., 510
Ajzen, I., 22
broader context of job search, 198
measures of intention and behavior, 191
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
social pressure to search for employment, 186
theory of planned behavior, 182, 321
theory of reasoned action, 146–147
alcohol consumption, and unemployment, 73, 92–93, 116, 444
Aldag, R. J., 260
Aletraris, L., 42
Allen, R. E., 382
job information sources, 389
alternative activities, and motivation theory, 169–170
amotivation, 164
Amundson, N. E., 557
analysis and methodology, post-World War II improvements in, 14
Anand, N., 284
Andersen, R., 362–363
Andersen, S. H., 570–571
Anderson, C. A., 38
Anderson, N., 341
anger, as reaction to job interviews, 342
Anong, S. T., 89
anticipated job loss
comprehensive model of, 35f
difficulties in researching, 79n6
effects on health and well-being, 103
prevalence of, 31–32
vs. job insecurity, 48n1
see also job loss
anxiety, and job interviews, 340–341, 344–345, 346t
apathy, among the unemployed, 11
applicant attraction, predictors of, 312–314, 317
applicant characteristics, and hiring discrimination, 509–512
appraisals, primary and secondary of events, 146, 150
Aquilanti, T. M., 548, 549, 553, 558
Aquilanti Integrated Model of outplacement services, 549, 558
Archer, J., 150
Armitage, C. J., 186, 191
Aronsson, G., 472
Artazcoz, L., 93
Arthur, M. B., 277
Arvey, R. D., 505
Ashforth, B. E., 131, 264
career planning, 384
career planning and development, 386
employment-fit perceptions, 392
job information sources, 389
job satisfaction, 391
job-search dynamics, 268
job-search intensity, 389
job-search outcomes, 390
personality traits and school-to-work transition, 395
person-job fit, 364, 411
school-to-work transition and success spiral, 393
sequential model of job search behavior, 421
Ashworth, K., 534, 536
Assertive Job-Hunting Survey, 263
assertive job-search behaviors, 263–264
attention deficit theory, and biased decision making, 508–509
attitudinal reactions
to job insecurity, 39
to job loss, 74–75
to underemployment, 367–368
attractiveness
and job interview process, 332
and type of employment, 334
attributional retraining, 345
attribution theory, and underemployment, 369
(p. 592) Austin, E. J., 383–384
Austin, J. T., 423
Austria
Marienthal study, origins of, 10
Marienthal study, summary of, 11
autonomous motivation, 164–165, 166
quality of motivation, 170–171
and refusal to job search, 169–170
and self-regulation, 211
autonomous regulation, 164
autonomy, psychological need for, 160–162
Autor, David H., 293
Avey, J. B., 407
Axtell, C. M., 41
Aycan, Z., 134–135
B
Baker, Wayne, 276
Bakke, E. W.
research on unemployment and families, 87
studies in Greenwich, 11–12
study in New Haven, Connecticut, 12
Bakker, A. B., 208–209
Bambra, Clare, 3
“Insecurity, Unemployment, and Health: A Social Epidemiological Perspective,” 111–125
Work, Worklessness, and the Political Economy of Health, 123n1
Banai, M., 34
job insecurity and job-search behaviors, 41
Banas, J. T.
job-search intensity and job satisfaction, 391
Bandura, A.
goal setting theory, 133
self-efficacy, 23, 423
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
theories of self-efficacy, 147, 148
Banks, M. H.
expectancy-value theory, 22
unemployment and mental health, 19
Barber, A. E., 260
job-search dynamics, 268
recruitment process, 312
sequential model of change, 322
theoretical models of job-search behavior, 420
Barling, J., 45
Baron, J. N., 278
Barrick, M. R., 332, 335, 336, 337, 344
Barros, E., 425
Barry, Margaret, 582
Bartum, D., 16
Bartunek, J. M., 285
Baruch, Y., 277
Basbug, G., 283
job-search behavior and underemployment, 363
job-to-job search outcomes, 409
self-regulatory model of job-search behavior, 423
Batenburg, R., 362
Batinic, B., 72
Bauder, H., 489
Bauer, T. N., 339
justice in job interviews, 342, 345
underemployment and turnover behavior, 368
Baumeister, Roy F., 215
ego depletion and prejudiced reactions, 508
self-presentation, 303
Bayer, U., 151
Beach, L. R., 262
Beal, D. J., 425
Beaverstock, Jonathan V., 304
behavior
actions taken, 171–173
intention-behavior gap, 206–208, 208t
and intrinsic and extrinsic work goals, 172–173
behavior, motivations for, 162–171, 163f
controlled regulation, 163–164
internalization, 163
intrinsic motivation, 162
motivation and job-search intensity, 164–167
and notion of “self,” 167–169
quality of motivation as moderating factor, 170–171, 211
refusal to job search, 169–170
behavioral consequences, of job insecurity, 40–41
behavioral coping theory, 194
behavioral intentions vs. behavioral goals, 146–147
belief in a just world (BJW), and response to job loss, 23–24
Benach, J., 93
Bendick, M., Jr., 511
benefits system, stabilizing quality of, 105
Benson, Wendi, 2
“Job Insecurity and Anticipated Job Loss: A Primer and Exploration of Possible Interventions,” 31–53
Berg, J. M., 227
Berger, M. C., 452
evaluating reemployment programs, 535
Bertrand, M., 509, 511
Beugre, C. D., 548
Beveridge, William, 99
Bibliography of Unemployment and the Unemployed (1909), 10
Billig, M. G., 506
Black, D. A., 535
Black, M. D., 216
Blackburn, M., 46
Blakely, T., 115
Blau, G., 33–34
grieving job loss, 150
job-search intensity, 389
preparatory vs. active job-search behaviors, 153, 263, 281
Blonk, R. W. B., 192
dissatisfaction as motivator in job search, 196
multiwave longitudinal study of job-search dynamics, 424
Blustein, D. L., 394, 396
Bohnert, D., 287
Bolino, M. C.
underemployment and job performance, 368
Booth, A., 468
Bordia, P., 45
Borgatti, S. P., 276
Borgen, William A., 6
“Job Loss: Outplacement Programs,” 547–560
outplacement programs, 552
Borghans, L., 532
Born, M. P., 191, 192
dissatisfaction as motivator in job search, 196
employment position and job search, 200
multiwave longitudinal study of job-search dynamics, 424
psychological distress after job loss, 362
resume screening, discrimination in, 503
Borrell, C., 93
Boswell, Wendy R., 4–5
“Employed Job Seekers and Job-to-Job Search,” 401–416
job search and networking goals, 277
job-to-job search outcomes, 408
leverage-seeking job searches, 409–410, 411
self-efficacy and job-search, 390
Boudreau, J. W., 406, 407, 409
Bourbonnais, C., 37
Bowers, S., 549
Boyar, S. L., 425
Bozionellos, N., 281, 282, 285, 485
Bradley, E. H., 444
Brady, D., 106
Brand, J. E., 40, 445
Brasher, E. E., 153–154, 284
Brass, D. J., 278
Breaugh, J. A., 312
Brenner, M. H., 14
Brett, J. M., 280
Bretz, R. D., 406, 408
Brewer, M. B., 507
Brewington, J., 46
Brief, A. P., 513
Brokenshire, R., 197
Brooks, N. G., 228
Brown, D. W., 278, 283
Brown, S., 151
Brown, S. D., 147
Brown, T. C., 133
Brunswick, E., 336
(p. 593) Buch, K., 149
Büchel, F., 365, 425
Budworth, M. H., 134
Bufton, Gina M., 3
“Job Loss and Job Search: A Social-Cognitive and Self-Regulation Perspective,” 143–158
Bundy, R. P., 506
Burchell, B., 16
Burdett, J. O., 556
Burgard, S. A., 40, 445
Burger, J. M., 344
Burke, R. J., 367
Burnett, J. R., 337
Burt, R., 279
Burt, Ronald S., 300
Butterfield, Lee D., 6
“Job Loss: Outplacement Programs,” 547–560
outplacement programs, 552
Butts, M., 281
Butz, D. A., 508
Byrne, D., 514
C
Cable, D. M., 266
Caldwell, D. F., 344
calling, identity and a sense of, 225, 226, 227
Campbell, I., 471
Campion, J. E., 346
Campion, M. A., 335, 339
candidate reactions to job interviews, 343
improving interview skills, 346
structured interviews and discrimination, 514
Cantillon, Bea, 106
Caplan, R. D., 22
job loss in marriages, 89–90
large-scale implementation of JOBS Program, 581
reemployment interventions, 150
unemployment and marital strain, 579
Cappelli, Peter, 307n3
Caranikas-Walker, F., 196
Card, D., 535, 567
Cardador, M. T., 227
career, definition of, 223
career adaptability, 234–236, 237–239
career aspirations, impact of unemployment on, 102–103
career development
and outcomes of international job search, 492–493
social-cognitive career theory, 147
Career Development Quarterly, 381
career exploration, and school-to-work transition, 383–384
Career Growth Model of outplacement services, 549
career history, and perceived job insecurity, 39
career identity, 277
career interruptions, 232–234
career issues, and underemployment, 369–370
career mobility, theory of, 365
career planning and development
and international job search, 489–490
and school-to-work transition, 383–387
careers
individual career investments and temporary employment, 471
mental models of, 230–234
of temporary workers, 468–469, 474f
career success, mental models of, 230–234
career trajectories
and economic and labor market circumstances, 223–224
career transitions, 4–5
and adaptability, 224
identity and coping during, 228–230, 234f
Carlier, O., 231
Carlsson, M., 509
Carnegie Trust, research on unemployed youth, 13
Carpenter, M., 565
Carroll, G. R., 283
Cartledge, N., 137
Carver, C. S., 135, 137, 148
Caska, B. A., 196
Catalano, R. A., 15
causal attributions, and response to job loss, 22–23
Cebulla, A., 533
Cerdin, J.-L., 484
certification, and international job search, 493–494
Chaiken, S., 515
challenge-hindrance theory, 196
Chalmers, J., 468
Chan, D. K.-S., 40, 41, 48n2
Chan, S. W., 446
older job seekers and reemployment, 450, 451
Chapman, D. S., 312, 313, 314, 341
Chapple, K., 279
Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., 217
chemistry, interpersonal, 301–302
Chen, C., 338
Chen, P. Y., 153–154, 284
Cheng, Bonnie Hayden, 4
“Through the Looking Glass: Employment Interviews from the Lens of Job Candidates,” 329–357
Cheng, G. H.-L., 40, 41, 48n2
Chia, S. L., 42
Chicoine, E., 168
child abuse or neglect, and unemployment, 74
child development, effects of family job loss on, 94
children, effects of unemployment on, 93–94
China, JOBS Program in, 582
Chiswick, B. R., 485
Chiu, S., 338
Choi, J., 578, 580, 581
Cianci, A. M., 131–132
Clark, A., 37
Clerkin, Thomas A., 306
client companies
and the use of headhunters, 304–305
see also headhunters
Clinton, M., 471
clothing and style of dress, and interview process, 333, 348
Cobb, S., 21, 576
cognition, and discrimination, 515
cognitive interference theories, and job interview anxiety, 340–341
cognitive processes, and reemployment program activities, 537, 539
cognitive reactions
to job insecurity, 39
to job search, 196
cognitive-transactional model of stress, 34
Cohen-Goldner, S., 490
coherence, sense of in unemployment, 75
Cole, M. S., 509
Colella, A., 514
collective purpose, and job loss among older workers, 440
collectivism
as contextual factor in job search, 200
and individual consequences of job loss, 66–67
Collison, J., 46
committment, as moderator of goal setting, 131
communication
alleviating effects of job insecurity via enhanced, 46–47
importance of in outplacement programs, 558
verbal and nonverbal in interviews, 336–337
competence
knowing-how competencies, 477
networking and maintaining, 277
psychological need for, 160–162, 186–187
complexity, as moderator of goal setting, 131
components and phases of job search, 4
confidence, and career adaptability, 234, 235, 236
Conger, J. A., 284
Connelly, B. L., 319
Conner, M., 186, 191
conscientiousness, and job search, 315, 395
conservation of resources theory, 366, 369
and comprehensive model of job insecurity, 35
and on-the-job resources, 472
contextual ambiguity, and discrimination, 515
(p. 594) contextual-level motivating factors in job search, 192–193, 193–197, 198–201
contingency headhunters
contingency workers, and underemployment, 362
contract employment
effects on families, 89
hetereogeneity of contracts, 471–472
and perceived job insecurity, 38
contractual flexibility, 465–466
control, and career adaptability, 234, 236
controlled motivation, 164–165, 166
quality of motivation, 170–171
and refusal to job search, 169–170
and self regulation, 211
controlled regulation, 163–164
control theory
empirical research on, 137
future research, 139–140
implications for job search, 135–139
negative feedback loop, 135–136, 136f, 137–138, 138
and theories of motivation, 129
vs. goal setting, 138–139
Converse, P. D., 215
Conway, N., 281
coping with job loss
gender differences in, 362
mediating and modifying variables of, 15
older workers and, 443–450
and phase model of self-categorization, 422
protective resources for, 91–92
strategies for, 67–68
transactional model of stress and coping, 146
Cormier, S., 558
Cortes, I., 93
cost-effectiveness of reemployment programs, evaluating, 533
Côté, S., 132, 151, 387, 390, 395
Couch, K. A., 451
counseling services, as part of outplacement programs, 550, 555, 556
country of origin, and international job search outcome, 495
Coverdill, James E., 4
“Contingency Headhunters: What They Do--and What Their Activities Tell Us About Jobs, Careers, and the Labor Market,” 293–310
job turnover process, 405
Cox, T., 513
Cox, T. H., Jr., 280
credential inflation, 362
Creed, P. A., 16
job search among high school students, 192
learning goal orientation, 316
outcomes of job-search behavior, 394
self-regulation in job search, 315
crime and unemployment, 106
criteria, headhunting and ability to identify, 305–306
Cropanzano, R.
affective events theory, 146
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
Crosby, F., 364
Cross, R., 276
Crossley, C. D., 166
affective attitudes, 315
economic rational choice theory, 194–195
job-search intensity, 390, 408
job-search strategies, 448
Crown, W. H., 361
cultural capital, and international job search, 487
culture, as contextual factor in job search, 200–201
curiosity
and career adaptability, 234, 236
and intrinsic motivation, 162
cybernetic control theory, 148, 209
D
Daguerre, A., 565
daily routine, coping with change in, 149, 162
Dalbert, C., 23
Daly, C. L., 260
Darity, W., Jr., 366
Darnold, T. C., 335
Davenport, P. R.
expectancy theory, 320
expectancy-value theory, 22
outplacement programs, 551, 557
Davey, K. M., 281
Davis, J. H., 47
Davy, J. A., 41
Dawson, S., 23
day-reconstruction method, and studying job search, 426
Deacon, Alan, 101
Dean, H., 565
De Beer, P. T., 530
De Boer, B. J., 208–209
Debrun, X., 104
Debus, M. E.
job insecurity and social safety net, 44–45
organizational performance and perceived job insecurity, 36
Deci, E. L., 148
autonomous vs. controlled choices, 211
self-determination theory, 160, 168
self-regulation/job-search questionnaire, 164
decision-making, and career adaptability, 234–235, 236
decision-making theory, and job-search strategies, 262
De Clerck, V., 471
De Cuyper, Nele, 5, 38
“Nontraditional Employment: The Careers of Temporary Workers,” 465–480
reasons for accepting temporary employment, 471
temporary workers and impression management, 472
DeGroot, T., 337
Deitch, C., 361
De Janasz, S., 288
De Jong, G. F., 362
De Jong, M., 200
de Jonge, J., 20
Dekker, R., 468
De Koning, J., 566
De Lange, A. H., 436
Delery, John E., 302
demands-abilities job fit, 364–365
demographics
demographic characteristics and job interviews, 331–332
further research on moderating effects of, 76–77
and job-to-job search, 407
moderator effects and interventions, 76
and perceived job insecurity, 37, 48n2
DeNisi, A. S., 46
De Pater, Irene E., 5
“Too Old to Tango? Job Loss and Job Search among Older Workers, 433–464
depression
and JOBS Program model, 576
and JOBS Program research, 578
unemployment as risk factor for suicide, 79n7
deprivation theory, and research on unemployment, 17–18
Derous, Eva, 5
“By Any Other Name: Discrimination in Resume Screening,” 501–522
impression management behaviors, 336
resume screening, discrimination in, 503
Deschacht, N., 435
deservingness, and response to job loss, 23–24
DeShon, R. P., 215
despair, among the unemployed, 11
Deutsch, R., 208
DeVaney, S. A., 89
Devendorf, S. A., 514
DeVinney, L. C., 363
De Witte, Hans, 5
autonomous vs. controlled motivation, 166
credential inflation, 362
impression management behaviors, 336
motivation for job search, 164
“Nontraditional Employment: The Careers of Temporary Workers,” 465–480 (p. 595)
reasons for accepting temporary employment, 471
subjective job insecurity, 33
temporary employees and job insecurity, 38
temporary workers and impression management, 472
De Witte, S., 164
Diamond, Peter, 253n1
diary study
of job-search dynamics, 424
of job-search efforts, 170
dimensions of job-search behavior, 260
Dineen, B. R., 313
Dipboye, R. L., 322
interview formats, 341
physical attractiveness in job candidates, 332
direct-hire temporary workers, 466
disabilities
impact of unemployment on workers with, 102, 103
and underemployment, 362
discrimination
actual vs. perceived, 504–506
discriminatory questions in job interviews, 341
forms of, 504
hiring discrimination, 503–506
and international job search, 492
in job layoffs, 438
and job search among older workers, 451–453
modern manifestations of, 513, 514–515
discrimination, in resume screening, 501–502, 506, 516, 518n5
and applicant characteristics, 509–512
determinants of, 509
future research directions, 516–517
human capital hypothesis vs. hiring discrimination hypothesis, 503–506
job and organizational characteristics, 512–513
labor market position of ethnic minorities, 502
methods to avert, 517
practical recommendations for avoiding, 517–518
recruiter characteristics, 513–516, 517–518, 518n4
social-psychological perspectives, 506–509
dissatisfaction, as motivating factor in job search, 196–197
distal vs. proximal goals, 130–131
distancing strategies, 149
Doherty, F., 192, 394
Dolton, P., 365
domestic violence, and unemployment, 74, 92–93
Donnelly, D. P., 404
Dooley, C. D., 15
Dorr, S., 366
Dossett, D. L., 132
Dougherty, T. W., 281
antecedents of networking behavior, 282–283
outcomes of networking behavior, 285
preinterview impressions, 322
Dovidio, J. F., 504
Dozier, J. B.
Career Growth Model of outplacement services, 549
outplacement programs, 557
positive effects of job loss, 149, 150
Dreher, G. F., 280
Dreher, George F., 306
Drever, A. I., 490
Dries, N., 231
drug use, and unemployment, 92–93
Dunford, B. B., 409
Dustin, S. L., 335
Dutton, J. E., 285
Dweck, C. S., 215
Dyke, A., 535
dynamics of job-search process, 268–269
E
Eales, M. J., 115
earning potential, effect of underemployment on, 367
Eby, L. T., 149
career competencies, 281
models of career success, 231
outcomes of networking behavior, 285
Eckstein, Z., 244, 490
economic costs of high unemployment, 99–100
economic development, and individual consequences of job loss, 65
economic downturns, increased mental illness during, 14–15
economic hardship
in context of job search, 195
effects on families, 88–89
economic job-search theory, 243–244, 253
basic model with stationarity assumption, 244–246
endogenous job-search effort, 249
job search while employed, 248–249
and labor market policy, 250–251
nonstationarity with anticipation, 247–248
nonstationarity without anticipation, 246
and personality, 251–253
search frictions, 243, 253n1
social networks and informal search channels, 249–250
economic markets
and career adaptability, 230, 234–236
effect on career trajectories, 223–224
economic rational choice theory, 194–195
economic stabilizers of unemployment, 104–105
education
and career planning and development, 384–385
educational attainment and family unemployment, 94
and effects of job loss on mental health, 61
and international job search, 486
and labor market position of ethnic minorities, 502
and underemployment, 362–363
effort
and dimensions of job search, 260–262
and goal setting theory, 132
ego depletion, and prejudiced reactions, 508
Eikemo, Terje A., 3
“Insecurity, Unemployment, and Health: A Social Epidemiological Perspective,” 111–125
Eisenberg, P., 13
duration of unemployment, 62
theoretical approaches to studying unemployment, 16, 17
Ellis, R. A., 264
emergency funds, availability to families, 88–89
emotion
and discrimination, 515
suppression of in interviews, 342–343
emotional contagion theory, 323
emotional model of job search behavior, 421–422
emotion-focused coping, 20
employability
defining approaches to, 562–566, 562t
efficacy of approaches, 566–569
enhancing, 43–44
full employment vs. full employability, 542
maintaining, 277
maintaining among employed workers, 454–455
maintaining among older workers, 454
maintaining among unemployed workers, 455
of older job seekers, 434–436
and temporary employment transitions, 469–471
employability programs, work first vs. human capital development approaches, 561–562
employed job seekers, 401, 403
antecedents of job search, 406–408, 410–411
directions for future research, 410–413
implications for employers, 413–414
methodology and analysis of research on, 412–413
operationalizing search, 403
outcomes, 411–412
outcomes of search, 408–410
overview of process used, 402f (p. 596)
push-and-pull factors influencing, 406
researching dynamic process of, 412
search and turnover process models, 403–406
vs. job turnover, 405–406
employees, impediments to satisfaction, 300
employers, and treatment of temporary employees, 477
employment
and environmental factors in well-being, 19–20
full employment vs. full employability, 542
lifetime employability, concept of, 43
manifest and latent functions of, 18
orientations toward, 224
setting employment goals, 182, 184
skill utilization and quality of, 72
social pressure to search for, 186, 191, 192
standard vs. nontraditional form of, 465
employment, temporary, 465–466, 473–475
agency workers, 467–468
careers of temporary workers, 474f
definition and statistics, 466–467, 477n1, 477n2, 477n3
future directions for research, 475–476
moderating factors, 471–473
practical implications regarding, 476–477, 476t
reasons for accepting, 471, 476
transitions and careers, 468–469
transitions and perceived employability, 469–471
types of, 467f
employment agencies, vs. headhunting firms, 295, 297
employment commitment, 194
employment contract, and perceived job insecurity, 38
employment position, in context of job search, 199–200
employment security vs. job security, 469
endogenous job-search effort, 249
Ensel, W. M., 279
entitlement, and response to job loss, 23–24
environmental factors, in mental health, 19–20
equilibrium theory of coping, and underemployment, 365–366
Erdogan, B., 368, 370
Erlinghagen, M., 39
ethnic-enclave labor, 489
ethnic identification hypothesis, and discrimination, 510, 511
ethnicity
as contextual factor in job search, 200–201
as determinant of hiring discrimination, 509
diversity of in labor market, 144
and job interview process, 331–332
and underemployment, 362
ethnic minorities
definition of, 518n2
and job search, 5
labor market position of, 502
ethnic prominence hypothesis, and discrimination, 509, 511
evaluation design, principal approaches, 527
events, primary and secondary appraisals of, 146, 150
expectancy theory, 320–321
expectancy-value theory, and research on unemployment, 21–22, 193–194
Expectations and Actions (Feather), 22
experience sampling method
and study of job-search dynamics, 424–425
using in future research, 78
experimental research, and impact evaluation, 527–528, 532
exploration, and career adaptability, 234–235
exploratory job-search strategy, 262, 418, 449
external regulation, 163
extraversion, and job search, 315, 395
extrinsic motivation, 171
and self-regulation, 211
eye contact, maintaining in interviews, 348–349
F
facilitators and trainers, in JOBS Program, 577, 578, 582–585
fairness, and job interviews, 341–342
Falba, T. A., 444
Falbe, C. M., 338
families
adaptation to stress, 90–91
family formation, and unemployment, 73–74
family resilience and coping with job loss, 91
further research on effects of job loss on, 77
health consequences of unemployment, 114
implications of job insecurity for, 40
neglect and abuse, and unemployment, 74
risks of unemployment to, 578–579
as support systems, 44
families, and unemployment
cascade of stressors, 90–91
directions for future research, 94–95
effects of Great Recession, 87
effects of reduced household income, 88–89, 95
family outcomes, 93–94
family resilience and coping with job loss, 91
identities and family roles, 92–93
male vs. female unemployment, 93
pathways of affect, 88f
protective resources for coping with job loss, 91–92
research perspectives on, 87–88
stress and mental health effects, 89–90
family situation, as contextual factor in job search, 200
Fang, T., 489
Farley, J. A., 264
Faulconbridge, James R., 304
Feather, Norman, 2
autonomous vs. controlled motivation, 166
expectancy theory, 320, 321
grounding research in theory, 160
“Historical Background to Research on Job Loss, Unemployment, and Job Search,” 9–29
quality of employment, 72
feedback
control theory and negative feedback loop, 135–136, 136f, 137–138, 138
as moderator of goal setting, 131–132
Feij, J. A., 381, 392
Feldman, D. C., 39
career issues and underemployment, 370
cognitive appraisals of job loss, 196
concept of underemployment, 359
coping with job loss, 149
education and work experience, 384
models of career success, 231
outplacement services, 549, 551, 552, 553–554, 557
psychological distress after job loss, 362
relative deprivation theory and underemployment, 364
school-to-work transition, 380, 381
theoretical approaches to effects of underemployment, 369
underemployment, 366
underemployment and job performance, 368
Feldt, T., 90
Felps, W., 407
Fernandez, R. M., 284
Ferrera, M., 117
Ferrie, J., 113
Ferris, Gerald R., 281
impression management, 302
political skill inventory, 283
financial insecurity, in context of job search, 195
financial strain, for older workers in job loss, 439
Fineman, S., 17, 21
(p. 597) Fink, S. L., 17
Finland, JOBS Program in, 582
Finlay, William, 4
“Contingency Headhunters: What They Do--and What Their Activities Tell Us About Jobs, Careers, and the Labor Market,” 293–310
job turnover process, 405
Fireman, S., 404
first impressions, in job interviews, 335
Fishbein, J., 22
broader context of job search, 198
determinants of behavior, 193
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
theory of reasoned action, 146–147
Fisher, Dan, 297
Fiske, S. T., 507, 515
Flament, C., 506
flexibility
and older job seekers, 435–436
and temporary employment, 465–466
Flinders program of research, 15, 22
Flynn, M., 488
focal phenomena, and selecting research designs, 424–425
focused job-search strategy, 262, 418, 448–449
Folkman, S., 20
primary and secondary appraisals of job loss, 150
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
transactional model of stress and coping, 146
Fontinha, Rita, 5
“Nontraditional Employment: The Careers of Temporary Workers,” 465–480
Foo, M.-D.
unemployment and marriages, 90
Fordyce Letter, The, 295, 297, 307n4
Forret, Monica, 4
“Networking as a Job- Search Behavior and Career Management Strategy,” 275–292
establishing professional networks, 489
gender roles and unemployment, 233
Forrier, A., 471
Forsythe, S. M., 333
Fort, I., 151
Fountain, C., 449
Fox, S., 339
Foxman, L. D., 552
Francesconi, M., 468
Frank, J., 468
Franke, M., 344
Franzen, A., 275
Frayne, C. A., 133
Frenette, M., 493
Frese, M., 67, 68, 132, 447
Friedland, D. S., 580, 581
Froese, F. J., 488
Fryer, D. M., 10, 11
agency-restriction model, 71, 72, 76, 88, 162, 441
agency theory, 18–19
future orientation and coping with job loss, 447
research on positive effects of job loss, 77–78
unemployment and health, 114
Fugate, M., 131
goal setting theory, 132
job-search goals, 387
Full Employment in a Free Society (Beveridge), 99
Fullerton, A. S., 37
Furda, J., 45
future orientation
in context of job search, 200–201
and job loss among older workers, 441
G
Gaertner, S. L., 504
Gailliot, M. T., 508
Galesic, M., 424, 425
Galic, Z.
analytic strategies, 425
multiwave longitudinal study of job-search dynamics, 424, 425
Gallo, W. T., 444
Galor, O., 365
Galunic, C., 279
Garcia, M. F., 514
Gardner, Richard G., 4–5
“Employed Job Seekers and Job-to-Job Search,” 401–416
Gardner, Timothy M., 307n5
Garen, J. E., 452
Gatewood, R. D.
coping with job loss, 149
engagement in non-work activities, 210
Gault, J., 386
Gebel, M., 232
Geisinger, K. F., 264
gender
and effects of job loss on mental health, 60–61, 76, 233
and international job search, 485
and interventions for consequences of job loss, 75–76
and job interview process, 331–332
job loss and masculine identity, 92–93
and labor market outcomes, 518n3
male vs. female unemployment, 93
and type of employment, 334
and underemployment, 361–362
and unemployment rates, 79n2
and use of outplacement services, 552–553
and verbal self-guidance in job search, 134–135
generational impact of unemployment, 102–104
Gerhart, B., 332
Gersick, C. J., 285
Giannnantonio, C. M., 260
Gill, B., 489, 490
Gilliland, S. W., 342, 345
Gini score of income distribution, 79n4
Glebbeck, Arie, 5–6
“The Evaluation of Reemployment Programs: Between Impact Assessment and Theory-Based Approaches,” 525–545
globalization, and hiring discrimination, 510
global job markets, and recent economic downturns, 360
global-level motivating factors in job search, 192–193, 197–198
goal-establishment system, in self-regulation, 209–211
goal maintenance strategies, 214
goals
goal conflicts, 210–211
goal-establishment phase of job search, 182, 184
goal proximity, 210
goal specificity, 209–210
and intrinsic and extrinsic work goals, 172–173
learning goal orientation, 213
multiple goals, 211
performance goal orientation, 212–213, 213f
subconscious goal primes, 217
goal setting
and career planning and development, 387
checklist for job seekers, 139
generating reemployment intentions and goals, 146–147
proximal vs. distal goals, 130–131
SMART goals, 139
goal setting theory, 130–135, 130f
functional vs. dysfunctional self-talk, 133–135
future research, 139–140
and generating reemployment goals, 147
goal setting research, 132–135
and job interviews, 342
moderator variables, 131–132
and motivation for job search, 196
and theories of motivation, 129
vs. control theory, 138–139
goal-shielding implementation intentions, 214, 217
goal specificity, in goal setting theory, 132
goal-striving phase, of job-search process, 184, 185, 209, 212–215
goal theory, and control theory, 135–137
Goffin, R., 340
Goldney, R. D., 18
Goldrick-Rab, S., 564
Goldsmith, A. H., 366
Gollwitzer, P. M., 151, 423, 586
Gordon, J. R., 228
Gordon, M. E., 505
(p. 598) Gorgievski, M. J., 436
Gould, S., 281, 384, 386
Govorun, O., 508
Gowan, M. A.
coping with job loss, 149
engagement in non-work activities, 210
outplacement services, 549, 551, 552–553, 556, 557, 558
grade-point-average, and success of school-to-work transition, 395–396
Granovetter, M. S., 265, 278
Grau, A., 287
Graversen, B. K., 535
Gray, M., 95
Great Depression, studies on job loss and job search, 9–13
Greater Avenues to Independence program, 535
Great Recession
and financial outlook for older workers, 439
and job availability in economic recovery, 568
longstanding unemployment from, 87
mass layoff events during, 35–36
and objective job security, 438
and perceived job insecurity, 437
and recent history of job loss and job search, 1
recovery of global job markets from, 360
and self-employment for older workers, 447–448
Greenberg, D., 533
Greenhalgh, L., 33
job insecurity, 44
organizational norms of fairness, 47
organizational performance and perceived job insecurity, 36
Greve, A., 494
Grey, A., 37
Gribble, L. C., 553, 558
grievances, and perceived job insecurity, 39
Griffeth, R. W., 196
group competition theory, and discrimination, 506
Guest, D., 281, 471
Gutek, B. A., 92
H
Hackett, G., 147
Hackney, H. L., 558
Hagger, M. S., 217
Haider, S. J., 451
Hall, Sarah J. E., 304
Halvari, H., 169
Hamann, D. J., 154
Hambrick, D. C., 129–130
Hamilton, J. E., 94
Hamori, Monika, 298
results of headhunting, 306
work and practices of headhunters, 307n3
Handler, J., 564
handshake, in job interview, 319, 335, 336–337
Hangartner, D., 275
haphazard job-search strategy, 262, 418, 449
Harcourt, M., and S. Harcourt, 488
Harriman, D., 130
Harrison, R., 16–17
Hart, David, 307n5
Hartley, J., 15, 21
Hartman, K., 383–384, 385
Harvey, J., 361
job attitudes and underemployment, 368
measurement issues and research on underemployment, 370
relative deprivation theory and underemployment, 364
Hassel, Alice, 2–3
“Individual Consequences of Job Loss and Unemployment,” 57–85
Hausknecht, J. P., 339, 345
Hawkinson, Paul, 307n4
Hawthorne, L., 485, 493
headhunters
business relationships with client companies, 296–297, 304–305
evaluating prospective candidates, 301–302
financial footing of industry, 295–296
identifying job candidates, 297–299, 300–301
impression management, 299–300, 302–304
insights provided by, 300–304
and job turnover process, 405
matching clients and candidates, 299–300, 308n12
methods of building clientele, 296–297
in other countries, 299, 304, 305
practical advice on, 306–307
source companies, 307n8, 308n9
structural holes and headhunting practices, 300
work and practices of, 293–295, 307n3
headhunters, directions for future research, 304–307
candidates and source companies, 305
client companies, 304–305
headhunting firms, 304
impression management, 305–306
producing candidates, 306
health
international variation in job security and, 122
and job insecurity, 111–114
perceived status as motivator in job search, 197
self-reported health and health behaviors, 116
self-reported health and unemployment, 118, 121t, 122
and temporary employment transitions, 470
unemployment and health, 114–116
welfare-state regimes and, 116–118
health care benefits, and hiring of older workers, 452
health care utilization, and job insecurity, 113
Hebl, M. R., 333
Heinrich, C. J., 535
Heinrichs, N., 366
Hellgren, J., 33
Hennessey, H. W, 280–281
Heywood, J. S., 453
Hiemstra, A. M. F., 503
Highhouse, S., 166
job-search strategies, 448
recruiter characteristics and discrimination, 514
high school graduates, school-to-work transition, 394
Hilber, G., 452
Hill, J. M. M., 16–17
hiring discrimination, 503–506, 509–516
hiring expectations, 314, 320
Hirsch, B. T., 452
historical background, of research on job loss and job search
agency theory, 18–19
deprivation theory, 17–18
early twentieth-century concerns, 10
expectancy-value theory, 21–22
fourteenth-century attitudes, 9–10
implications of research, 25
improvements in methodology and analysis, 14
in post-World War II era to 1990s, 14–16
significance of research, 24–25
stage theories, 16–17
stress and coping models, 20–21
studies from Great Depression, 9–13
theoretical approaches, 16–24
vitamin model, 19–20
Hobfoll, S. E., 35
conservation of resources theory, 472
theoretical approaches to effects of underemployment, 369
Hoffmeister, O., 490
Holistic Outplacement Model, 549
Hollenbeck, J. R., 137
Holtom, Brooks C., 294, 368
Hom, P. W., 196, 404
Hoogtanders, Y., 563–564, 565
Hosoda, M., 511, 512
hostility, and unemployment, 74
Hough, L., 132, 363
House, J. S., 15
job insecurity and worker health, 40
unemployment and mental health, 578
household size, as contextual factor in job search, 200
Howard, A., 21
(p. 599) Howe, G. W., 89–90
Hua, S. S., 132
Huang, T., 336
Hudson, S., 485
Huffcutt, A. I., 331, 336, 339
Huffman, M. L., 279–280, 389
Hughes, L. W., 407
Hulin, C. L., 38, 553
human capital
competitive advantage of, 301
and international job seekers, 486, 490–491
measures to enhance, 455
and older job seekers, 434–435, 454
human capital attainment
and career competencies, 277
and family unemployment, 94
human capital development, vs. work first approach to employability, 561–562, 569–570, 571
defining approaches, 562–566, 562t
future directions for research, 570–571
intervention models, 563–564
program efficacy, 566–569
rationale and targets of approaches, 562–563
relationship to individual participants, 565–566
relationship to labor market, 564–565
human capital theory, and underemployment, 365
Human Development Index (HDI), 79n3
hypoegoic self-regulation, 216–217
hysteresis, theory of, 366, 562
I
Ibrahim, S., 40
identified regulation, 164
identity
coping with identity threat, 228–230
and early retirement, 446–447
and job loss among older workers, 439–440
and phase model of self-categorization, 422
work-related identity threats, 225–228
identity, vocational, 165, 224–230
identity and coping during career transitions model (ICCT), 230
identity change, and school-to-work transition, 380
identity theory, and effects of job loss, 92–93
Ilgen, D. R., 148
immigrants
and local institutional resources, 488, 490
and underemployment, 362
immigration policies, and international job search, 483–484
immigration status, and perceived job insecurity, 37
impact evaluation, of reemployment programs, 527–531
implementation intentions, 214, 217
Implicit Association Test, 515–516
implicit personality theory, 332
impression formation theories, and discrimination, 507–508
impression management
future research, 305–306
and headhunters, 299–300, 302–304
and job interview behavior, 334–336
and preparing for interviews, 348–349
income distribution
Gini score to measure, 79n4
and impact of unemployment, 106
income inequality, and individual consequences of job loss, 65
incongruence model, 76
individual antecedents, of perceived job insecurity, 37–39
individualism
and consequences of job loss, 66–67
as contextual factor in job search, 200
inductive theory building, 129–130
Industrial Age, and concept of unemployment, 58
industry sector, and perceived job insecurity, 37
informal search channels, and economic job-search theory, 249–250
Inkson, K., 277, 485, 491
insecure employment
insecurity, sources of feeling, 12
instrumental attitudes, and job search, 191
integrated regulation, 164
intensity, and dimensions of job search, 260–262
intention-behavior gap, 206–208, 208t
intention-behavior moderators
and goal establishment, 209–211
and goal striving, 212–215
intentions, implementation intentions, 214, 217
interdependence theory, and job interviews, 335
internalization, and autonomous job search, 163
international job search, 495–496
antecedents of, 485–487
career development and promotion, 492–493
future directions for research, 496
immigration policies and labor market, 483–484
moderators of, 487–488
moderators of outcome, 494–495
motivations to engage in, 484–485
objective outcomes, 491–492
postmigration investment in human capital, 490–491
practical implications checklist, 496–497
process of, 483f
search strategies, 489–490
subjective outcomes, 494
international job seekers, 481, 495–496
backgrounds of, 481–483
challenges to, 5
earnings of, 493–494
future directions for research, 496
practical implications checklist, 496–497
Internet
and job search among older workers, 449
and job-to-job search, 412
internships, and school-to-work transition, 384–385
interval job-search strategy, 419
interventions
and approaches to employability, 563–564, 565–566
for consequences of job loss, 75–76
and job-search behaviors and success, 419
JOBS Program content, 578
JOBS Program protocols, 576
reemployment interventions, 236
verbal self-guidance in job search, 133–135
interviews
candidate checklist for practice, 347–349
candidate preferences, 339–340
candidate responses, 340–342
comprehensive model of performance, 331
discriminatory questions in, 341
hiring discrimination and structure of, 505
improving interview skills, 344
interview anxiety, 340–341, 344–345, 346t
interview structure, significance of, 333–334, 338
and preinterview impressions, 322–323
reciprocal processes in, 323–324
and studying episodes of job search, 426
type of job, significance of, 334
verbal and nonverbal communication in, 336–337
interviews, from the candidate perspective, 329–331, 346–347
candidate behaviors, 334–339
candidate characteristics, 331–334
candidate reactions, 339–343
candidate recommendations, 343–346, 347t
checklist for practice, 347–349
conceptual framework, 330f
intrinsic motivation, 162, 171, 211
introjected regulation, 163–164
(p. 600) intuition, and decision-making, 235
Inzlicht, M., 508
Ireland, JOBS Program in, 582
Isaksson, K., 33
J
Jackson, C., 511
Jackson, D. J. R., 484
Jackson, P. R.
age and effects of job loss, 442
duration of unemployment, 62
unemployment and mental health, 19
Jackson, S. E., 345
Jacquet, F., 151
Jahoda, Marie
activity level, importance of, 440
and agency theory, 18–19
attitude toward employment, 72
defining unemployment, 59
and deprivation theory, 17–18
effects of long-term unemployment, 14
job-search motives, 160
latent-deprivation model, 70, 71
latent functions of employment, 114
Marienthal and other studies by, 11, 57
mediating processes, 76
origins of Marienthal study, 10
research on unemployment and families, 87
theoretical approaches to studying unemployment, 16, 17
time structure and work, 441
underemployment, 366
Jaidi, Y., 318, 321
Jarrett, J. E., 10
Jenn, Nancy Garrison, 307n6
Jensen, L., 361
Jeon, K. S., 535
Jeurissen, T., 20
Jiang, Lixin, 2
“Job Insecurity and Anticipated Job Loss: A Primer and Exploration of Possible Interventions,” 31–53
Jirjahn, U., 453
Job, V., 215
job agencies, employee-client relationships, 78
job assessment, and preparing for interviews, 348
job attendance, self-management of, 133
job attitudes
and job-to-job search, 412
and underemployment, 367–368
job availability, and employability programs, 568
job candidate behaviors, and interview process, 334–339, 337
candidate sincerity, 338
directions for future research, 338–339
first impressions, 335
general impressions, 335–336
identifying and practicing behaviors, 349
impression management behaviors, 334–336
moderating factors, 337–338
nonverbal and verbal communication, 336–337
job candidate characteristics, and interview process, 331–334
demographic characteristics, 331–332
directions for future research, 334
interview structure, significance of, 333–334
physical appearance, 332–333
style of dress, 333, 348
type of job, significance of, 334
weight, 332–333
job candidate reactions, and interview process, 339–343
directions for future research, 342–343
interview anxiety, 340–341, 344–345, 346t
justice in job interviews, 341–342
preference for types of interviews, 339–340
responses to interviews, 340–342
job candidate recommendations, and interview process, 343–346
improving interview skills, 344
increasing perceptions of justice, 345–346
reducing anxiety, 344–345, 346t
job characteristics
and applicant attraction, 313
and discrimination in resume screening, 512–513
job choice, predictors of, 312–314, 317
job creation, governmental, 160
job information sources, 388–389
job insecurity
affective vs. cognitive, 34
alleviating effects via enhanced communication, 46–47
alleviating effects via enhanced control, 45–46
alleviating effects via enhanced employability, 43–44
alleviating effects via enhanced support systems, 44–45
alleviating effects via organizational justice and trust, 47
alleviating negative effects of, 43t
attenuating adverse safety outcomes, 47–48
behavioral consequences of, 40–41
and career trajectories, 224
cognitive, attitudinal, and affective reactions to, 39
comprehensive model of, 34–35, 35f
consequences of, 39–42
defining, 111–112
dimensionality of, 2, 33
evidence for positive outcomes, 42
and health, 111–114
implications for well-being, 40
individual antecedents, 37–39
and industry sector, 37
measures of, 33–34
mental and physical reactions to, 437
moderating effects of perceived, 42–48
nature of, 32–34
objective insecurity, 437–438
and older workers, 436–438
organizational antecedents, 36–37
organizational consequences, 42
perceived insecurity, 436–437
prevalence of, 31–32
proximity to organizational core, 38
psychological effects of, 15–16
qualitative vs. quantitative, 33–34
socioeconomic antecedents, 35–36
sources of feeling, 12
stages of, 33
subjective vs.objective insecurity, 32–33
vs. anticipated job loss, 48n1
and work-related identity threats, 225–228
job insecurity, a social epidemiological perspective on
explaining job insecurity and health, 114
international variation in job insecurity and health, 122
job insecurity and health, 111–114
social protections in welfare-state regimes, 117–118, 118f
unemployment and health, 114–116
welfare state regimes and health, 116–118
job interviews, and multidimensionality of job search, 266–267
job interviews, from the candidate perspective, 329–331, 346–347
candidate behaviors, 334–339
candidate characteristics, 331–334
candidate reactions, 339–343
candidate recommendations, 343–346, 347t
checklist for practice, 347–349
conceptual framework, 330f
job loss
benefits of writing about, 554
and career trajectories, 224
causal attributions and response to, 22–23
consequences of, 2–3
effects on child development, 94
effects on work identity and well-being, 226, 228
financial and psychological impacts of, 438–439
frequency of, 143–144
future research on positive effects of, 77–78
grieving process and, 150
and identity theory, 92–93
increased recognition of context, 144
personal and societal costs of, 15 (p. 601)
positive effects of, 77–78, 149–150
potential benefits for older workers, 447
reactions to, 149, 575–576
research agenda, 154–155
self-efficacy and response to, 23
self-regulation perspective on, 148–150
social-cognitive perspective on, 148–150
social-cognitive process model of, 145f
and social-cognitive theory, 146
and stages of grief, 417–418
theoretical perspectives on, 3–4
and underemployment, 360
and work-related identity threats, 225–228
job loss, among older workers, 433–434, 453–455
advantages and challenges of, 453
aftereffects of, 438–443
and age discrimination, 451–453
coping with job loss, 443–450
employability and associated stereotypes, 434–436
and maintaining employability, 454
perceived vs. objective job insecurity, 436–438
process model, 434f
job loss, and families
cascade of stressors, 90–91
directions for future research, 94–95
effects of Great Recession, 87
effects of reduced household income, 88–89, 95
family outcomes, 93–94
family resilience and coping, 91
identities and family roles, 92–93
male vs. female unemployment, 93
pathways of affect, 88f
protective resources for coping with job loss, 91–92
research perspectives on, 87–88
stress and mental health effects, 89–90
job loss, historical background of research, 9–29
agency theory, 18–19
deprivation theory, 17–18
early twentieth-century concerns, 10
expectancy-value theory, 21–22
fourteenth-century attitudes, 9–10
implications of research, 25
improvements in methodology and analysis, 14
in post-World War II era to 1990s, 14–16
significance of research, 24–25
stage theories, 16–17
stress and coping models, 20–21
studies from the Great Depression, 9–13
theoretical approaches, 16–24
vitamin model, 19–20
job loss, individual consequences of
and age, 62–64
attitudes, 74–75
causal effects on mental health, studies of, 68–70
coping strategies, 67–68
differences across national borders, 65–67
differences among countries, 65–67
duration of unemployment, 62, 63f
explaining negative mental health effects, 70–72
gaps in research, 76–79
and gender, 60–61
hostility and aggression, 74
on mental health, 59–60
moderators of effects on mental health, 60–64
physical health and health behavior, 72–73
practical conclusions of research, 75–76
sexual behavior and family formation, 73–74
and socioeconomic status, 61–62
job loss and underemployment
prevalence of, 360
research perspectives on, 363–366
job performance, and underemployment, 368
job-person fit, and applicant attraction, 314
job previews, 305–306, 314
JOBS: A Manual for Teaching People Successful Job-Search Strategies, 584–585
job satisfaction
after job-to-job search, 409
impediments to, 300
sources of feeling, 12
and temporary employment, 471
job search
affective vs. instrumental attitudes, 191
among temporary workers, 469
basic model with stationarity assumption, 244–246
characteristics of, 181–182
checklist for, 139
clarity and intensity of, 132, 164–167, 185
components and phases of, 4
control theory and, 135–139
definition of, 181, 422
demands of, 575–576
duration of, 143–144
effect of economic hardship on, 89
effort and intensity, defining, 403
facilitating or impending factors, 193
financial and other costs of, 305
generating reemployment intentions and goals, 146–147
goal setting theory, 130–135
goal setting vs. control theory, 138–139
habits and routines, significance of, 217
increased recognition of context, 144
individual salient beliefs motivating, 192–193
integrating with recruitment, 316–318
intensity and effort, among older job seekers, 448
intensity and effort, defining, 403
international job search strategies, 489–490
interventions and outcomes, 150–152
measurement issues and research on, 153–154
and mindfulness training, 217
and mindset of unlimited willpower, 215
and modern self-regulation models, 167–169
motivational and self-regulatory perspectives on, 183f
multiple job options, 211
outcomes of networking for, 284–285
perceived behavioral control over, 186–187, 192
personal attitude toward, 186
potential for lowered mental health, 67
predictors of behaviors and outcomes, 315–316
process of, 182–184
procrastination and, 235–236
refusal to search, 169–170
research agenda, 154–155
search clarity, 151
and self-efficacy, 133–135, 390
self-regulated job search, 147–148, 206
significance of motivation in, 164–167
significance of quality in, 185
social-cognitive process model of, 145f
and social influences, 152–153
studying episodes of behavior, 425–426
temporal considerations in, 152
theoretical approaches to, 318–322
theoretical perspectives on, 3–4
theories of motivation, 129–130
and verbal self-guidance, 133–135
vs. recruitment, 316t
job search, among older workers, 433–434, 453–455
advantages and challenges of, 453
and age discrimination, 451–453
employability and associated stereotypes, 434–436
and maintaining employability, 454
process model, 434f
job search, and school-to-work transition, 379–381, 394–396, 398
career planning and development, 383–387
defining success of, 381
education and work experience, 384–385
implications for research and practice, 396–398 (p. 602)
integrative model of, 382, 383f
interrelatedness of stages, 394, 396
intervention framework, 397t
job information sources, 388–389
job-search intensity, 389–390
job-search stage, 387–392
key challenges, 382
stakeholders in success of, 396
work adjustment, 392–396
job search, historical background of research, 9–29
agency theory, 18–19
deprivation theory, 17–18
early twentieth-century concerns, 10
expectancy-value theory, 21–22
fourteenth-century attitudes, 9–10
implications of research, 25
improvements in methodology and analysis, 14
in post-World War II era to 1990s, 14–16
significance of research, 24–25
stage theories, 16–17
stress and coping models, 20–21
studies from the Great Depression, 9–13
theoretical approaches, 16–24
vitamin model, 19–20
job-search behavior
predictors of, 315–316
and underemployment, 363
job-search behavior, a theory of planned, 183f, 184–187, 191–201
characteristics of, 205–206
conceptualizing self-regulation in, 209–216
contextual and global-level motivating factors, 192–201
empirical support for core relationships, 187, 188t190t, 191–192
intention-behavior gap, 206–208
intention-behavior moderators, and goal establishment, 209–211
intention-behavior moderators, and goal striving, 212–215
job attainment, 187
job-search intention, 185–187, 187, 191
motivational and self-regulatory perspectives on, 207t
nonconscious self-regulation, 216–217
practical suggestions regarding, 201, 218
predictors of job-search intention, 191–192
self-regulation, functioning of, 208–209
theoretical underpinnings, 185–187
job-search behavior, multidimensionality of
behaviors and sources, 261t
content and direction of behavior, 262–268
definition and dimensions, 260
dynamics and persistence, 268–269
effort and intensity, 260–262
future research directions, 271–273
implications for employment counselors, 270–271
implications for job seekers, 270
informal and formal sources of information, 264–265, 418
job interviews, 266–267
job-search strategies, 262–263
networking, 265
preparatory and active behaviors, 263–264
quality of job-search behaviors, 267–268
relationships within and between dimensions, 269–270
specific behaviors and sources, 265–267
vs. unidimensionality, 259–260, 273
job-search behavior, of the unemployed
analytic strategies for studying, 425
antecedents and outcomes of, 419–420
categorizing behavior, 418–419
dynamic nature of, 420
methodologies of research into search dynamics, 424–425
studying episodes of behavior, 425–426
theoretical models of dynamics in, 420–423
unique aspects, 417–418
job-search research
future directions of, 322–324
integrating with recruitment research, 311–312, 316–318, 317–318, 324, 325
literature overview, 314–315
practical implications of, 324–325
recommendations for individuals and organizations, 325
signaling theory, 318–320
job search strategies, among older workers, 448–450
job-search theory, and underemployment, 366
job security
and organizational tenure, 438
vs. employment security, 469
job-seeking behavior
and expectancy-value theory, 21–22
JOBS Program, 6
adaptation of, 588
benefits to participants, 584, 585f
conceptual framework of, 577f
cycles of active teaching and learning, 583f
delivery of, 583–584
and demands of job search, 575–576
design of, 583
effectiveness in service settings, 581
future directions for research and practice, 586–588
group influences of, 580–581, 587
international dissemination of, 581–582
mechanisms underlying effectiveness of, 580
model of, 576–578
protocol for training and delivery, 582–585
research program, 578–582
and risks of unemployment, 578–579
support materials, 584–585
tests of efficacy, 579–580
job tenure, and perceived job insecurity, 37–38
job-to-job search, 401, 403
antecedents of, 406–408, 410–411
directions for future research, 410–413
implications for employers, 413–414
methodology and analysis of research on, 412–413
operationalizing search, 403
outcomes, 408–410, 411–412
overview of process, 402f
researching dynamic process of, 412
search and turnover process models, 403–406
vs. job turnover, 405–406
Johnston, L., 452, 505
Jones, L. P., 78
Jordan, Michael, 131
Judge, T. A., 406
justice, in job interviews, 341–342, 345–346
justice, organizational, 47
K
Kacmar, K. Michelle, 302
Kalb, G., 468
Kalil, A., 94
Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., 395
Kanfer, F.
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
theories of self-regulation, 147
Kanfer, Ruth, 3
defining job search, 138, 260, 388, 448
education and job search, 486
effect of economic hardship on job search, 89
employment position and job search, 199
evaluating reemployment, 154
goal setting theory, 139, 140
intensity of job search, 185
“Job Loss and Job Search: A Social-Cognitive and Self-Regulation Perspective,” 143–158
job-search dynamics, 269–270
job-search effort and intensity, 261
job-search intensity, 389
job-search intensity and job satisfaction, 391
measuring job-search intensity, 153
outplacement programs, 553
perceived financial need, 195
personality traits and job search, 146 (p. 603)
personality traits and school-to-work transition, 395
preparatory and active job search behaviors, 263
resource allocation model, 148
self-regulation model, introduction of, 420
underemployment, 363
volitional job seeking, 168
Kantrowitz, T. M.
defining job search, 138, 448
effect of economic hardship on job search, 89
Kapoor, R., 104
Karasek, R. A., 16
Karl, K., 287
Kasl, S., 21
Kasl, S. V., 444, 576
Keaveny, T. J., 382, 389
Kelloway, E. K., 45
Kelvin, P., 9–10
Kent, Derin, 5
“International Job Search,” 481–499
Kernan, M. C., 137
Kerr, C., 101
Kessler, R. C., 15
stress and coping models, 21
unemployment and mental health, 578
Khapova, S. N., 227
Khatiwada, I., 361, 362
Kieselbach, T., 549–550, 551, 552, 553, 556, 558
King, E. B., 510
Kinicki, A. J., 41
coping with job loss, 149, 365
goal setting theory, 131, 132
job-search goals, 387
well-being during unemployment, 58
Kinnunen, U., 44, 90
Kira, Mari, 5
“Too Old to Tango? Job Loss and Job Search among Older Workers,” 433–464
Kirk, J. J., 549
Kirnan, J. P., 264
Kitanaka, Anna, 307n7
Klehe, Ute-Christine
advance notice of redundancy, 46
career planning and development, 385, 386
focused job search strategy, 151
goal setting theory, 132
job insecurity and job search behaviors, 41
“New Economy Careers Demand Adaptive Mental Models and Resources,” 223–241
reemployment quality, 363, 391
research on positive effects of job loss, 78
results of mandatory reemployment course, 165
“Too Old to Tango? Job Loss and Job Search among Older Workers,” 433–464
“What to Expect: The Oxford Handbook of Job Loss and Job Search,” 1–6
Klein, H. J., 131–132
Kleinmann, M.
job insecurity and social safety net, 44–45
organizational performance and perceived job insecurity, 36
Kluve, J., 534, 535
Kluwe, J., 566
Knerr, C. S., 137
knowing-how competencies, 477
Koen, Jesse, 5
career adaptability, 234
focused job search strategy, 151
goal setting theory, 132
mandatory skill training, 236
reemployment quality, 363
research on positive effects of job loss, 78
results of mandatory reemployment course, 165
“Too Old to Tango? Job Loss and Job Search among Older Workers,” 433–464
use of job search strategies, 262
Koestner, R., 168
König, C.
job insecurity and social safety net, 44–45
organizational performance and perceived job insecurity, 36
Kõnig, C. J., 42
Konrad, A. M., 278, 283
Krieshok, T. S., 216
Kriska, S. D., 336
Kristof-Brown, A., 344
Kubler-Ross, E., 150
Kulik, C. T., 512
Kyyrä, T., 446
L
labor market
active labor market policies, and employability, 566–567, 569
and approaches to employability, 564–565
balance of power in, 100
and career adaptability, 234–236
demand as contextual factor in job search, 199
and economic job search theory, 243–244
effect on career trajectories, 223–224
ethnic-enclave labor, 489
and individual consequences of job loss, 66
international deregulation of, 112
and international job search, 483–484
and job-to-job search, 407–408
occupation-specific demand and international job search, 495
position of ethnic minorities in
and psychological impacts of job insecurity and loss, 16
and reemployment programs, 543n7
and temporary workers, 472–473
and work first approach to employability, 562–563
labor market policy, and job search behavior, 250–251
labor unions, and international job seekers, 488
LaFrance, M., 341
Lahey, J. N., 452
Lam, H., 488
Lambert, T. A., 450
Lancaster, 244
language proficiency, and international job search, 486–487
Lasker, B., 11
László, K. D., 114
Latack, J. C., 149
Career Growth Model of outplacement services, 549
coping with job loss, 438, 439, 443
outplacement programs, 557
positive effects of job loss, 149
reactions to job loss, 452
latent deprivation theory, 70, 71, 114
Latham, Gary P., 3
expectancy theory, 320
goal primes, 217
“Goal Setting and Control Theory: Implications for Job Search,” 129–141
goal setting research, 132, 133
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
verbal self-guidance, 134
Lay, C. H., 197
Layard, R., 566
layoffs, and workload of remaining employees, 100
Lazarsfeld, Paul
duration of unemployment, 62
Marienthal study, 57
origins of Marienthal study, 10
stages of unemployment effects, 13
theoretical approaches to studying unemployment, 16, 17
Lazarus, R. S., 20
primary and secondary appraisals of job loss, 150
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
stress and coping models, 21
transactional model of stress and coping, 146
leader-member exchange theory, 44
Leana, C. R.
cognitive appraisals of job loss, 196 (p. 604)
coping with job loss, 149
outplacement services, 549, 551, 552, 553–554, 557
psychological distress after job loss, 362
relative deprivation theory and underemployment, 364
learning, and older job seekers, 435–436
learning goal orientation, 213
learning goals, and goal setting theory, 131
learning model of job search behavior, 421
Leary, M. R., 216–217
Leavitt, T. D., 361
Lee, C. H., 446
Lee, F. K., 187
Lee, Jeong-Yeon, 306
Lee, T. H., 410
Lee, T. W.
job attitudes and underemployment, 368
turnover process, 404, 408, 410
Lee, Tae Heon, 294
Lee, Thomas W., 294, 307n1
leisure activities, and fulfilling a sense of calling, 227
Lekan, D. F., 552, 556
Lekes, N., 168
Lens, W., 164, 166
Lent, R. W., 147
LePine, M. A., 390
Leroux, J., 548, 549, 553, 558
Leroy, N., 151
Levashina, J., 335, 339
leverage-seeking job searches, 409–410
Levy, M. L., 89–90
Lewin, K.
field theory, 484
theoretical approaches to studying unemployment, 16
Li, Xian, 5
“Job-Search Behavior of the Unemployed: A Dynamic Perspective,” 417–429
older job seekers and reemployment, 450–451
liability of foreignness effect, 483–484, 489
Lievens, F., 337, 338
“life design” career approach, 224
lifetime employability, concept of, 43
Lilly, R. S., 369
limited resource model, and biased decision making, 508
limiting long-term illness, and unemployment, 116
Lin, N., 279
Lindsay, Colin, 6
“Work First versus Human Capital Development in Employability Programs,” 561–574
LMSI, and access to income-earning activities, 79n5
Lo, I., 336
local institutional resources, and international job seekers, 488
Locke, Edwin A., 3
control theory and job search, 135, 137
“Goal Setting and Control Theory: Implications for Job Search,” 129–141
goal setting theory, 147
social-cognitive perspective on job loss and job search, 145
Lockwood, A., 281
long-term illness, and unemployment, 116
Lord, R. G., 137
Loretto, W., 565
Louis-Guerin, C., 40
Lubbers, R., 395
Luciano, J. M., 551, 552, 557
Luksyte, A., 365, 369–370
Luthans, F., 280–281, 284
M
Macan, T., 341, 343
MacDermid, S. M., 425
Macnicol, J., 568
Madamba, A. B., 362
Maertz, C. P., 425
Maestas, N., 450
Mainiero, L. A., 233
Maitoza, Robyn, 3
“Job Loss, Unemployment, and Families,” 87–98
Malinen, S., 452
Mallinckrodt, B., 367
Mallon, M., 489, 490, 491
Malmberg-Heimonen, I., 581
Maloles, C. M., 42
Mannix, L. M., 333
Marcia, J. E., 165
Marienthal study
effects of unemployment, 57
origins of, 10
significance of economic development, 65
summary and historical background of, 11
market-mediated temporary employment, 466–467
marriages
effect of economic hardship on, 89–90
job loss and loss of identity, 92–93
“rigid” vs. “flexible” roles in, 92
social support in coping with job loss, 91
stress and mental health effects of unemployment, 89–90
Martin, H. J., 552, 556
Martinez, Tomás, 297
Massengrill, D. P., 505
Mauno, S., 38
Maurer, T. J., 344
Mawritz, Mary B., 3
“Goal Setting and Control Theory: Implications for Job Search,” 129–141
maximizing job search strategy, 262–263
Mayer, R. C., 47
Maynard, D. C., 364, 365
job attitudes and underemployment, 368
underemployment and turnover behavior, 368
Mazzeo, C., 564
McBey, K., 491
McCallum, S., 285
McCarthy, Julie M., 4
discriminatory questions in job interviews, 341–342
job interview anxiety, 340
structured interviews and discrimination, 514
“Through the Looking Glass: Employment Interviews from the Lens of Job Candidates,” 329–357
McConahay, John, 513
McConnell, A. R., 229
McCool, Joseph Daniel, 307n3
McCoy, L., 33–34
McCubbin, H. I., 90
McDonnell, Anthony, 301
McFadyen, R. G., 420
McFarland, L. A., 336, 514
McKay, R. A., 216
McKee-Ryan, Frances M., 3, 4
age and effects of job loss, 442
age and individual consequences of job loss, 63
causal effects of job loss on mental health, 69
coping with job loss, 67
duration of unemployment, 62
equilibrium theory of coping, 365
job attitudes and underemployment, 367, 368
“Job Loss, Unemployment, and Families,” 87–98
job loss and gender, 61
measurement issues and research on underemployment, 370
“Reemployment Quality, Underemployment, and Career Outcomes,” 359–375
relative deprivation theory and underemployment, 364
significance of unemployment protection, 65–66
theoretical approaches to effects of underemployment, 369
well-being during unemployment, 58
work-role centrality, 227
McKenna, S., 490, 491
McVicar, D., 568
Meadows, P., 566, 567