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date: 20 January 2018

(p. 633) Index

(p. 633) Index

Note: page numbers in italics refer to figures. Those followed by n refer to notes, with note number.

Abbey, Jacob, 170
Abenakis, 33, 35
Abercromby, James, 141, 142
Abingdon, Earl of, 361
abolitionism
in Caribbean, 432
gradual, 436–37
in Great Britain, 440
growth of support, 253, 257, 434, 435–36
organizations, multiplication of, 435–36
origin in Quaker activism, 433–34
Revolution as launching point for, 473
women’s activism in, 624–25 See also slavery, white opposition to
abolitionists, 433–36
freeing of individual slaves by, 435
and natural rights rhetoric, efforts to evoke, 458–59
as small fraction of population, 428, 433
southern suppression of tracts by, 523
abolition of slavery, by state governments, 257, 258, 435, 436–37, 455, 459, 494
abolition of slave trade, 474
Acland, Lady Harriet, 278
“Act for regulating and shortening the Proceedings in the Courts of Law” (New Jersey; 1784), 546
Acts and Monuments (Foxe), 419
Adam, James, 504
Adam, Robert, 504
Adams, Abigail
on activists’ devotion to democracy, 121
family farm, wartime operation of, 276
impact of war on, 285
on marriage to John, 565
on slavery, 253
on women, legal rights for, 276
Adams, Charles Francis, 251
Adams, Henry, 251
Adams, John
on Boston Tea Party, 66
cautious approach to revolt, 114
on colonial autonomy, 94
concerns about revolutionary leveling, 567
on consent of the governed, 20
and Continental Army, 163, 168
on creation of new government, 145
as diplomat, 312, 323, 596
on disorder created by revolutionaries, 74, 143
and election of 1800, 606
on European decadence, dangers of, 622
and Federalist Party, 490
on foreign alliances, 150, 151, 152
on independence, 6, 144–45, 148, 153, 254
and instructions to representatives, 123
on juries, responsibilities of, 544
on loyalists, as percentage of population, 292
and Massachusetts constitution, writing of, 116
on Otis’s role in revolution, 127
and patriot law, 541
Plan of Treaties of, 152
on political science, 457
portraits of, 508
as president
and Alien and Sedition Acts, 552
and Haiti, 495
and Quasi-War with France (1798), 489, 604–6
and repair of British relations, 472
and U.S. diplomacy, 596–97, 604–6
and U.S. neutrality, 489
and radicals’ democratic egalitarianism, concerns about, 115
on Revolution, 8–9
on self-restraint, value of, 567
on slave lawsuits to gain freedom, 253
on state constitutions, writing of, 146, 147
on town meetings, 132
on U.S. diplomacy, 472
as vice president, 486
Adams, John Quincy, 499
Adams, Samuel
on American dominance, inevitability of, 23
on extra-legal bodies after independence, 132
and instructions to representatives, 123
on luxury, dangers of, 622
Townshend Acts resistance, 90–91
Addison, Joseph, 74
Additional Observations on the Nature and Value of Civil Liberty, and the War with America (Price), 364
Address to the Whites (Boudinot), 533
aesthetic, American revolutionary remaking of, 612
classical republican and Puritan foundations of, 615
and cultural boundaries, redrawing of, 614
and effeminate luxury, vilification of, 622–23
forms of cultural intervention in, 614
homespun
as domestic production, 612
as iconic emblem, 612
production of as home-centered, 612
social pressure to adopt, 617
as symbol of elite sacrifice, 612–13, 617
as symbol of unique American identity, 617–18
(p. 634) as undermining of British hierarchical culture, 613–14
household goods with patriotic messages, popularity of, 615
and idea of personal freedom, 616–17
importance to Revolution, 613–14
and imported English fabrics, use of for slave clothing, 618
national symbols and celebrations, replacement of, 615
and political and pedagogic power of things, 614, 615
postwar politically-themed textiles, 621–22
women’s active participation in, 619–20
African Americans
and American Revolution
history of research on, 250–52
lack of benefit from, 6
protest participation, 579
as artisans, 586–97, 589–90
competition with white artisans, 589–90
mutual aid societies of, 586
in North, 586–87
in South, 586, 587, 589–90
in backcountry, 34
as British Army soldiers, 474
and British support for abolition, 474
as Continental Army soldiers, 161, 162, 166, 173, 181, 254–55, 284
enlistment terms and rates vs. whites, 254–55
motives of, 255
number of individuals, 251, 254, 268–69n20
segregated and integrated regiments, 167
slave regiments, 256–57
slave substitutes for master, 255, 256
white reactions to, 166–67, 171, 255–56, 580–81
demands for equality, and republican period tightening of sexual mores, 567–68, 573
employment opportunities, limitations of, 583
evangelical church membership, 411
free postwar culture, “founding fathers” of, 264–66
in Indian villages, 34
and Industrial Revolution, impact of, 579
loyalists
motives of, 302–4
postwar removal to Nova Scotia, 263–64, 270n47, 303, 440
postwar removal to Sierra Leone, 264
and natural rights rhetoric, exclusion from, 448, 454, 456, 458–59, 461
in northern cities, 581
and print culture, 529, 532
as protest participants, 579
and Revolutionary War service, roles, 254
voting rights, postwar, 582, 586
women
antislavery textiles produced by, 625
employment, 588
first portrait of, 501
wartime experiences of, 276, 282, 284–85 See also free blacks; slaves
African Lodge of Freemasons, 529
African Methodist Episcopal Church, founding of, 266
age of manufactures, contributions to economic growth, 66
Agnew, John, 109
Agorondajats (Good Peter), 280
Alamance, battle of, 40
Albany Committee of Safety, 130
Albany Plan of Union (Franklin), 148
Albemarle County, Virginia, class tensions in, 112
alcohol, damage to Indian communities, 236
Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798
and print culture, 523–24, 526
and professionalization of republican law, 552–55
Alld, Benjamin, 170
Allen, Ethan, 35, 111, 146
Allen, Richard, 146, 265–66, 586
almanacs, 527
Alvord, Melinda, 584
Alweye, Ann, 565
Ambrister, Robert Christie, 475
American Bible Society, 532
American Equal Rights Association, 626
American Farmer, The (periodical), 530
American identity
narrative of exceptionalism and, 304–5
American Philosophical Society, 511, 580
American Political Society, 109–10
American preeminence, predictions of, 103
American Revolution, idea of
American perspective on Revolution, as inherently provincial, 2–3
events leading to, 64–66
consumer revolution and, 66–67
and transformation of complaints into revolt, 66
as evolutionary process, 5–8
exceptionalist narrative of
and American identity, creation of, 304–5
dwindling force of, 294
issues left unresolved in, 484
meaning of, Federalist/Democratic Republican struggle over, 483, 490, 496–97
motives for, multiplicity of, 6
popular interest in, 1
as populist revolt
Adams on, 8–9
vs. intellectual event, 1–2, 6
relative bloodlessness of, reasons for, 140
Amherst, Jeffery, 37, 38
Anderson, Adam, Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce, 20
Anderson, Benedict, 520
Anderson, James, 24
Andrews, Dee, 418
Andrews, John, 124, 125
Anglo-French War (1793–1802)
British aggressiveness against America in, 602, 603
and politicization of U.S. public, 489–90
U.S. negotiations with British during, 603
U.S. Proclamation of Neutrality (1793), 602
and U.S. diplomacy, 596–97, 601–3
and U.S. political division, 488–89
Angloworld, rise of, 469
Annapolis, Hamilton on, 55
Annapolis convention (1786), 393
Antibiastes, 269n27
(p. 635) Antifederalists, concerns of, 401–2
Antigua, and Revolutionary War, 429
Antiquities of Athens (Stuart and Revett), 504
anti-Regulators, 39
Anti-Slavery Friends, 625
antislavery movement
and British international influence, 473–74
Federalist support for, 495
apprentices
black, exploitation of, 589
and industrialization, impact of, 585
replacement with wage workers, 582, 585
apprentices’ libraries, 529
Aptheker, Herbert, 251–52
Aranda, Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, count de, 318, 323
Arbuthnot, Alexander, 475
architects, American
career trajectories, 503–6
competition from builders, 506–7
financial problems of, 504–5
struggle for recognition and patronage, 503, 506
training of, 504, 505
architecture, American
British influence on, 500, 501, 504, 512
public buildings, 504, 505
Capitol design competition, 503, 513–14
state capitol buildings, 511–12
Washington, D.C., design of, 511, 513–14
southern plantations, 501
architecture, publications on, 501, 506–7
area studies, and informal British Empire, obscuring of, 468
Armistead, James, 256
Armitage, David, 457–58
arms
Dutch provision of to U.S., 321
French provision of to U.S., 153
smoothbore musket
as basis of British Army tactics, 163–64
as standard weapon of European armies, 164
Spanish provision of to U.S., 153
U.S. inability to produce adequate supplies of, 315
Arnold, Benedict, and siege of Quebec, 201
Arnold, Peggy Shippen, 282
art, American
British influence on, 499, 500, 508, 514
and cultural authority, search for, 514
government support of, 509
artists’ efforts to secure, 499–500
in colonies, 502
for museums, 511
portraits, demand for, 500–501, 508, 509, 510
public perception of, 500
role in republic, as issue, 499–500, 503, 507, 508–9
Articles of Confederation
adoption and ratification of, 391
amendment process, as unwieldy, 331
as blueprint for Constitution, 389–90
diplomacy under, limitations of, 389, 392, 472, 596, 598
excessive democracy under, elites’ perception of, 370, 381–84
economic conflict underlying, 372–84
historians’ acceptance of elite view on, 371–72, 385
fiscal management under, as unwieldy, 331–32, 335
reform efforts, 392–93
requisition system under, 331–32, 336, 340
and security, inability to ensure, 7
taxation powers under, reform efforts, 336
weakness of federal government under, 99, 389–90, 391, 484
Constitution as remedy for, 389–90
and Indians, inability to protect, 99
problems created by, 391–92, 394–95
reasons for, 391
and revenue, inability to collect, 331, 332, 340
writing of, issues in, 150
artisans
African American, 586–97, 589–90
competition with white artisans, 589–90
mutual aid societies of, 586
in North, 586–87
in South, 586, 587, 589–90
as Democratic-Republicans constituency, 492, 579, 582
demographics, 578, 581
economic status of
industrialization and, 582, 588
postwar depression and, 582
urban growth and, 582
and wage work as postwar norm, 582, 584, 585, 587, 588
and Industrial Revolution, impact of, 482, 579, 580, 584–85
and merchants, alliances between, 587, 588
military service, 580
political organization, 580, 581–82, 588
government opposition to, 585
political participation
benefits of, as below expectations, 578, 582
in prewar protests, 579–80
as product of Revolution, 578, 579–80
support for Constitution, 582
republicanism of, 578–79
slaves as, 581
social status, decline of, 585
in South, use of slave labor by, 589–90
suffrage, 579, 582 See also apprentices; journeymen
artists, American
financial problems of, 508
and revolutionary disorder, 499
role in republic, as issue, 499–500
struggle for patronage and recognition, 500–501, 507, 508, 514–15
artists, 18th century, studio galleries of, 510
Asbury, Francis, 415
Ashley, John, 258
association movement, 365
associations and clubs
French Revolution’s discouragement of, 627
print culture and, 528–29
women’s political activism and, 625–26
Athenaeum Portrait of Washington (Stuart), 507, 508
athenaeums, post-Revolution proliferation of, 528–29
(p. 636) Atlantic slave trade
British control of, and wartime slave supply, 221
British opposition to, 428
centrality to British imperial ambitions, 4
ending of, and British adoption of enforcement powers, 474
integration within larger transatlantic trade, 72
postwar boom in, 431
U.S. criticism of, as effort to deflect responsibility, 438–39
U.S. participation, end of, 437–38
U.S. postwar dominance of, 431
white opposition, growth of, 427
Attakullakulla (Little Carpenter; Cherokee chief), 240
Attucks, Crispus, 579
Austria
and League of Armed Neutrality, 321
and partitioning of Poland, 317
Autobiography (Franklin), 74
Babbitt, Elizabeth, 266
bachelorhood, introduction of concept, 566
backcountry
Africans in, 34
British regulation of
ineffectiveness of, 31–32, 36–37, 40, 41–42, 43, 86
stationing of British troops, 86
defined, 32–33
economic importance of, 33
evangelical challenges to governing classes in, 409–10, 412
of Georgia, wartime destruction in, 217
Indians in, 33
peaceful coexistence with whites, 33–35
whites’ desire to remove, 31
Indian-white violence in, 30–31, 37, 238
reasons for, 32, 42–43, 238
white anger about, 38–39
mixture of cultures, races and religions in, 33–34
of North Carolina
Cherokee War and, 37
patriot struggle for support in, 108–9
Regulator movement in, 39–40, 108–9, 407–8
settler anger at colonial government, 39–41
settler characteristics, 36
wartime destruction in, 217
and Royal Proclamation line, moving of, 42
of South Carolina
Cherokee War and, 37
disorder in, after Seven Years’ War, 40
Regulator movement in, 40–41
settler anger at colonial government, 39–41
settler characteristics, 36
wartime destruction in, 217
trade networks in, 33
whites settlers, 33–34
anger against colonial government, 32, 38–41, 42–43
whites traders in, 33
licensing of, 38 See also countryside
backcountry lands, settlement of
British restrictions on, 31
as cause of unrest, 32, 38, 39, 42, 43
ineffectiveness of, 31–32, 41–42
as source of Indian-white tensions, 34–35, 42–43
white pressure for, 33, 36, 41–42, 43
Backus, Isaac, 413
Bailyn, Bernard, 7, 264
bakers of New York City, labor organization by, 585
Ball, Elizabeth, 564
Baltimore
slave and free black artisans in, 587–88, 589
women laborers in, 588
Bancroft, George, 251
bank(s), private
European support for, 383
Bank of North America, 337, 338
closing of in Pennsylvania, 379, 383
popular opposition to, 377
Bank of Pennsylvania, architecture of, 506
Bank of the United States, establishment of, 345, 487
Banneker, Benjamin, 459
Baptist Church
African American membership, 411
and women, role of, 417–18
Baptists, numerical prominence, 409
Barbados
British retention of, 4
economic importance of, 4
Barbary pirates, and U.S. foreign policy, 599, 607
Barber, Isaac, 169
Baring, Francis, 470
Barrington, Lord, 177
barter system
consumer revolution of 18th century and, 70, 71, 72, 76–77
specie shortages and, 329
wartime strains on in countryside, 225–26
Beard, Charles, 251, 341
Beard, Mary, 251
Belich, James, 469
Bell, Tom, 58
Bemis Heights, battle of, 152
Benezet, Anthony, 252, 257, 434, 458
Benge, Obadiah, 171
Benjamin, Asher, 506–7
Bennington, battle of, 165
Bernard, Francis, 91, 499
Bett, Mum, 257–58
beverages in colonial America, 69 See also coffee; tea
Bibles, printing of in America, 531–32
Bigelow, Timothy, 109–10, 126
Bill of Rights
demands for, 401–2
and right to instruct representatives, 133–34
and tradition of enumeration of rights, 448, 450
Bingham, Anne Willing, 492
Bingham, William, 470, 508
Binney, Rose, 276
birth control, in early republican period, 572
Black Creek Baptist Church, 410
(p. 637) Black Dragoons, 208
Black Guides and Pioneers, 259, 264
Blackstone, Sir William, 165, 447
Bladen, Martin, 141
Bland, Richard, 97
Blecki, Catherine LaCourreye, 296
blockade, British, and deprivation in countryside, 218, 220
Bloody Massacre, The (Revere), 501
Board of Trade, British, 38
Board of Treasury, 335
Body of Mechanics, 128
Body of the Trade, 127–28
bondholders, political power of in early U.S., 340, 341
Bonvouloir, Julien-Alexandre Achard de, 151
Book of Architecture (Gibbs), 501
Book of Martyrs (Fox), 419
Book of Mormon, 532
Book of Negroes, 285
books
novels, American, 520, 521, 525
postal service prohibition on mailing of, 526
printing and publication of, 523–24
religious books, 531–32
textbooks, 531 See also print culture
Boston
activists’ mobilization of town meetings, 124
anti-Stamp Act protests, 75
architecture and city planning, 505
British occupation
damage to city during, 199
isolation of city during, 183, 198–99
refugees from, 219
withdrawal, 183, 199
capitol, design of, 512–13
committee of correspondence, 94, 95
customs agents, attacks on, 91
economy and culture of, 196–97
impact of Revolutionary War on, 199, 210–11
extra-legal governing bodies, creation of, 126–28
as focal point of British presence in North America, 197
as focus of research, 194–95
Knowles Riot (1747), 105
merchants, nonimportation agreements, 75–76, 87, 92–93
Museum of Fine Art, Paul Revere portrait in, 79
parallels with British seaport cities, 196–97, 199–200
protesters, British calls for prosecution of, 92
social status in, Hamilton on, 54
stationing of troops in, 91
ties to hinterland, 201, 209
town meeting, resistance to British rule, 91
“uncolonial” identity of, 197
Boston Athenaeum, 528–29, 530
Boston Committee of Correspondence, 107
Boston Evening Post, 73, 499
Bostonian Paying the Excise Man, The (cartoon), 78
Boston Massacre
removal of British troops from city following, 93
tensions leading to, 65–66, 106, 579
women and black participation in, 579
Boston Port Act, 124
Boston Society for Encouraging Trade and Commerce, 127
Boston Tea Party, 95
Adams (John) on, 66
cartoons on, 78
colonial leaders’ concerns about, 106
as common man’s protest, 579
consequences of, 66, 95–96, 106
events leading to, 66
as seminal moment in Revolution, 407
Boucher, Jonathan, 291, 296, 299–300, 305
Boudinot, Elias, 533
Bourne, Eunice, 502
Bowler, Margaret Fairchild, 568
Bowles, Carington, 465
Bowles, William Augustus, 465–66, 468, 470–71, 472, 474, 475
boycotts of British goods
complex motives underlying, 77–78
and construction of extra-legal bodies, 93, 97
enforcement of, 106, 109, 153
and remaking of American aesthetic, 615
against Stamp Act, 75, 87
against Townshend Act, 75–77, 92–93, 127
women’s support of, 76, 78, 79, 128, 153, 275, 502, 619–20
boycotts of slave-produced products, 625
Boy with a Squirrel (Copley), 501
Brandywine Creek, battle of, 182
Brant, Joseph (Thayendenegea; Mohawk chief), 238–39, 240, 242, 246
Brant, Molly (Konwatsitsiaienni), 42, 279
Braxton, Carter, 146, 149–50, 151–52
breeches makers, 584
Breen, T. H., 110
Brewster, John, Jr., 510
Bridenbaugh, Carl, 48, 194
“Briefe and Plaine Scheam” (Penn), 141
Brissot, J. P., 563
Bristol, England, American supporters in, 199–200
British Army
adaptability of, 182
adjunct forces, value of, 184–85, 187
alienation of civilian population, 185–86
civilian supporters, lack of support for, 186
colonists’ familiarity with structure and tactics of, 163
discipline and training as keys to success of, 164
expansion of, during Revolutionary War, 355–56
and French intervention, impact on troop availability, 322–23
inability to squelch rebellion, 125
manpower limitations, effects of, 186–87
military camps in Southern England, 278–79
as model for Continental Army, 163, 165, 166, 169, 180–81
myths about, 177–78, 179
reliance on in Revolutionary War, 177
size of, 177, 184, 355
stationing of in America, 86
stationing of in Boston, 91, 93, 106
stationing of in cities, as irritant, 91, 105–6
stationing of in New York, 106
supply lines, vulnerability of, 186
(p. 638) British Army officers
demographics, 178
harshness of, as overstated, 179–80
pay, 178
professional skill of, 178, 179
slave owners among, 261
views on Continental Army, 180
British Army soldiers
African Americans as, 259, 260
casualties, 218
crimes by, 185–86, 204, 275–76, 278, 282
demographics, 178–79
Indians as, 235
as percentage of population, 277
professionalism of, 180
punishment of, 178–79
women’s fear of, 275–76, 282
women’s fraternization with, 278, 282
British blockade, and deprivation in countryside, 218, 220
British culture, loyalists’ attachment to, 305
British East Indian Company, British regulation and taxation of, 94–95
British Empire
British perceptions of, 16
British reassertion of after Revolution, 25, 27
health of, after Revolution, 8
print culture as instrument of, 520
structural problems with, British reformers’ identification of, 140–43 See also colonial administration by British
British empire, and imperial crisis
American colonies, administration of
British concerns about structure of, 140–43
British war debt and, 31, 36–37, 43
and contagion of republicanism, 24
dangers of reasserting, 22
debt from Seven Years’ War and, 31, 36–37, 43, 86
defense as motive for, 3, 17–18, 19–20
factors limiting, 21–22, 104
ineffectiveness of, 31–32, 36–37, 40, 41–42, 43, 86
necessity of reasserting, 3, 17–18, 19, 21–22, 23
stationing of troops and, 86, 91, 93, 105–6
subjugation of colonies as goal of, 142
authority of Parliament as issue in, 65, 86–87, 88, 89, 90–91, 92, 95, 97, 542
British consolidation efforts
British public opinion on, 86
impetus for, 85–86
legislation, 85, 86
colonial resistance and, 87–99
broad popular support for, 99
extra-legal bodies, formation of, 87–88, 89, 91–98, 106, 107, 123–29, 145, 153
decentralization structure of empire and, 85, 99, 104
British empire, informal (postwar)
and area studies approach, 468
Britain’s conscious shift to, 466–67
critiques of concept, 467–68, 475
cultural influence, 469–70, 500, 521
diplomatic influence, 466, 472–73
and international law, influence on, 466, 473–75, 603
and postwar constraints on U.S., 475–76
scholarship on, 466–67
trade and commercial power, influence of, 466–67, 469–71
British immigration to colonies, British concerns about, 22
British Loyalist Claims Commission, 291–92
British monarchy
colonial loyalty to, 88, 89, 144
power of, reformers’ efforts to diminish, 362, 365, 367
British Navy
aggessiveness of, and British loss of allies, 321
expansion of, during Revolutionary War, 355–56, 358
North administration’s effective leadership of, 358
role in British foreign policy, 16, 19, 24–25
British political philosophy, and origin of American revolutionary thought, 7
British politics, impact of war on
impact on North ministry, 356–60
impact on Parliamentary opposition, 360–64
impact on reform movements, 364–66
as less than anticipated, 367–68
scholarship on, 355
British Society for Effecting the Abolition of the Slave Trade, 435
Brodhead, Daniel, 243
Brown, Charles Brockden, 306, 525
Brown, Christopher, 473
Brown, James (merchant), 68
Brown, Matthew, 467–68
Brown, Roger, 349n55
Brown, William Hill, 521, 525
Bryant, Charity, 565
Buckingham, Joseph T., 584
Bulfinch, Charles, 504–5, 506, 512
Bulfinch, Hannah Apthorp, 505
Bulletin of Latin American Studies, 468
Bunker Hill, battle of
African Americans soldiers at, 255
and British tactics, changes in, 182
casualties, 277
and Continental Army, formation of, 163
Buntin, Aaron, 587
Burgoyne, John
and battle of Bennington, 165
on battle of Saratoga, 185
and Bemis Heights, battle of, 152
Hudson Valley expedition, 201
and 2nd battle of Saratoga, 359
and siege of Quebec, 201
Burke, Edmund
and British reform efforts, 8, 362
on British war strategy, 361
on colonies’ lack of plan, 104
on representation in British political system, 122–23, 137n32
Burnaby, Andrew, 103, 117
Bushell’s Case (1670), 545
Bushman, Richard, 500
(p. 639) business practices, honest, evangelical emphasis on, 411
Bute, Lord, 86
Butler, John, 242
Butler, Jon, 421–22
Byles, Mather, 60
Byrd, Thomas, 259
Byrd, William, 49, 57, 115
Byrd, William III, 259
Cahiers de doléances, 620
Cahokia, 34
Calliopean Society, 529
Campbell, Colen, 501
Canada
British acquisition of in Seven Years’ War, 143
British retention of in Revolution, 25
French loss of, 312
as impetus to Revolution, 43
U.S. border with, negotiation of, 363, 364 See also Quebec
capital, U.S.
design of, 511, 513–14
move to Washington, D. C., 343, 487, 513
Capitol building, U.S.
design competition for, 503
Rotunda paintings in, 509
Captain Pipe (Delaware chief), 238, 243
Carey, Matthew, 525, 532
Caribbean
abolitionist movement in, 432
British defense of, 363
colonial soldiers employed in, 21
fear of slave revolts in, 429
Franco-Spanish threat to British possessions in, 322
slavery in, British support for, 431, 432
Carleton, Guy, 201, 440
Carlisle, Abraham, 546
Carlisle, Lord, 188
Carlisle Commission, 359
Carp, Benjamin, 194, 195
Carpenter, Samuel, 172
carpenters, 587
Carter, Landon, 114, 152
Carter, Robert, 57
cart men in New York City, labor organization by, 585
Cartwright, John, 364, 365
Catawba
in backcountry, 33
in Revolutionary War, 239–40
Catherine the Great (Empress of Russia), 317, 319, 321
Catholic Church, in America, print culture and, 523
Catholics, exclusion from Irish politics, 365–66, 367
Cayugas
postwar lands, 245–46
in Revolutionary War, 240
certificates of indebtedness, 334–35
Chalmers, George, 24
Chambers, William, 504, 512–13
Champion, Deborah, 617
Champion, Henry, 617
Chandler, Winthrop, 510
Chandler family (Worcester county, Massachusetts), 109
Chaney, John, 170
Channing, Edward, 251
chapbooks, 525
Charles II (king of England), 149
Charles III (king of Spain), 311, 314, 318, 320, 324
Charleston, South Carolina
British naval assault on (1776), 208
British occupation, 189, 208
departure, 209
refugees from, 219
slaves’ flight behind British lines, 208–9
vehement resistance to, 209
economy and culture of, 195–96
impact of Revolutionary War on, 209, 210–11
extra-legal bodies, formation of, 129
as focus of research, 194–95
isolation from hinterland, 209
Jeremiah slave rebellion plot, 208, 254
loyalist flight from, 263
parallels with West Indies cities, 195–96, 209–10
taverns in, 59
Charlestown, battle of (1775), 198–99
Charlotte Temple (Rowson), 525
Charter of Privileges (Pennsylvania), 146
Chartres, Illinois country, 34
Chase, Samuel, 131
Chastellux, Marquis de, 383, 439
Chatham, William Pitt, Earl of. See Pitt, William (the Elder)
Chauncy, Charles, 532
Cherokee
in backcountry, 33
Chickamauga, 243–44, 246
integration with white culture, 237
land and, 237, 240, 241, 245, 246
and postwar print culture, 529, 533
in Revolutionary War, 240–41, 243–44, 245
U.S. peace with, 600
violent resistance to settlers, 237–38
and wartime destruction, 217
women, U.S. attacks on, 280
Cherokee Phoenix (newspaper), 533
Cherokee War (1760–1761), 37
Chew, Benjamin, 265
Chickamauga, in Revolutionary War, 244
Chickasaws, in Revolutionary War, 245
Child, Lydia Maria, 293
children of unwed parents
revolutionary-era rise in number of, 563–64, 566
support of, 563–64, 571–72
Childs, James, 109
Chillicothe, Ohio country, 34
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793), 551–52
Chloe (enslaved woman), 283
Choctaws
land, efforts to retain, 246
in Revolutionary War, 245
Choiseul, Étienne-François de, 151, 313–14, 319
Choisy, Claude Gabriel de, 284
Christian History (periodical), 413
Christian missionaries to Indians, 237
Christian republicanism, influence on Revolution, 421–22
churches, wartime suspension of services, 227
(p. 640) cities
British stationing of troops in, 91, 93, 105–6
colonial, research on, 194–95
in early republic
growth of, 514, 582
interweaving of interests, 211
Cities in Revolt (Bridenbaugh), 194
Cities in the Wilderness (Bridenbaugh), 194
citizens, power of under republican law, 551, 554–56
civic space, in early republic, 513, 514
civil rights, in American discourse
vs. natural rights, 89, 98–99, 447–48
shift to natural rights emphasis, 448, 449–56 See also natural rights
Civil War, predictions of, 117
Claims of the Delaware Indians, 234–35
Clark, George Rogers, 243
Clarke, Richard, 95
Clarkson, Thomas, 434, 440
classicism
influence on American art, 501, 503, 514
and U.S. architecture, 506, 512
Clay, Henry, 475
Clerke, Philip, 362
Clinton, Henry
and Charleston, siege of, 208
and French intervention, impact of, 187–89
Revolutionary War strategy, 183, 184
slaves of rebels, promise to free, 208–9, 261, 284, 429
on supplies, inadequacy of, 186
timidity of, 188
Clive, Robert, 3
Closen, Baron von, 181
clothing
cost of, 70
Indians, influence on colonists, 71
as sign of social status, 52–53, 69
coartácion, 253
Cobbett, William, 526
Cockerell, S. P., 505
Coercive Acts of 1774 (Intolerable Acts), 43
colonial responses to, 96–97, 106, 107
enforcement of, 96
events leading to, 66, 106
impetus for, 95
provisions of, 66, 95–96, 106
resistance to, 66, 124–26
and restoration of patriot unity, 106
coffee, American consumption of, 69
coffeehouses
British, lack of American counterpart to, 60
in Philadelphia, as sites of political mobilization, 69
Coker, Daniel, 265
Colden, Cadwallader, 33
Cole, Nathan, 413
Colonel Tye (African American guerrilla leader), 262
colonial administration by British
British concerns about structure of, 140–43
British war debt and, 31, 36–37, 43
and contagion of republicanism, 24
dangers of reasserting, 22
debt from Seven Years’ War and, 31, 36–37, 43, 86
defense as motive for, 3, 17–18, 19–20
factors limiting, 21–22, 104
ineffectiveness of, 31–32, 36–37, 40, 41–42, 43, 86
necessity of reasserting, 3, 17–18, 19, 21–22, 23
stationing of troops and, 86, 91, 93, 105–6
subjugation of colonies as goal of, 142
colonial assemblies
autonomy on domestic issues
as issue, 65, 86–87, 88, 89, 90–91, 92, 95, 97
before Seven Years’ War, 105
common men as members of, 57
dominance by wealthy families, 105
Stamp Act resistance, 88
Townshend Act resistance, 91–92
colonial charters, and decentralization structure of empire, 85, 99, 104
colonial culture
vs. British culture, 49–50, 53, 59
Hamilton on, See Itinerarium (Hamilton)
historians’ misconceptions about, 48–49
lack of structure or tradition in, 57 See also aesthetic, American revolutionary remaking of; social class in America
colonial governments
differences in, 104–5
diversity of constitutions in, British concerns about, 141
ignorance about geopolitical forces affecting Britain, 143
paper money (bills of credit), 327–28, 329, 332, 333, 347n19
imperial regulation of, 330–31
loss of value, 333
shortages, impact of, 330–31
relative weakness of, and vulnerability to rebellion, 105, 183–84
takeover of by patriot committees of correspondence, 106, 107, 126
taxation by, 328–29
local governments, 328
payment with certificates of indebtedness, 334–35
payment with commodities, 329 See also law in colonies
colonies
boundary and territory disputes among, 149–50
differences between
in governmental structure, 104–5
and lack of mechanism for dispute resolution, 141
as perceived impediment to unified action, 103–4
as source of conflict, colonists’ fear of, 144, 148, 149–50, 153
divisions within
chronic instability resulting from, 105–10
as impetus toward revolution, 114, 117
and patriot struggle for support, 107–10, 110–14
class tensions and, 109, 110–11, 112, 114
preexisting tensions and, 112–13
as perceived impediment to political action, 103–4
and Revolutionary War, hobbling of American efforts, 116
and state constitutions, shaping of, 115–16
economic value of, 313
(p. 641) European perception of, and political power in Europe, 15, 16, 17, 25
haphazard nature of establishment of
and autonomy, 85
and creative adaptability, 104, 105
relations with Great Britain, before Seven Years’ War, 85
Colored Patriots of the American Revolution, The (Bell), 250–51
Colton, Samuel, 130–31
comfort, standards of, consumer revolution of 18th century and, 67
commercial system, international, Federalist support for U.S. participation in, 598–99
Committee of Mechanics, 581
Committee of Privates, 131
Committee of Secret Correspondence, 150, 316
Committee on Finance. See Congressional Committee on the Treasury
committees of correspondence
boycott enforcement by, 109
establishment of, 94, 106
as extra-legal bodies, 106
and intercolonial cooperation, 96
internal dissent created by, 106
London versions of, 206
takeover of governmental functions by, 106, 107, 126
committees of safety/inspection/observation, 130, 145, 153
common law constitutionalism, republican law and, 543–44, 550
Common Sense (Paine), 98, 149, 484, 580
Concord, battle of
and Continental Army, formation of, 163
patriot guerrilla tactics in, 181
as spur to patriot initiatives, 108, 110, 128
as turning point in Revolution, 5–6, 97–98, 147, 148, 198
Conestoga Indians, vigilante violence against, 38
confederation
Continental Association’s de facto functioning as, 149
debate on desirability and timing of, 147–50 See also Articles of Confederation
confiscations
by Continental Army, 334–35
of loyalist property, 228, 334
by state governments, 335
Congressional Committee on the Treasury (Committee on Finance), 335
Connecticut compromise, 395–96
Connecticut Historical Museum, homespun clothing in, 612–13
Connecticut state
abolition of slavery, 436–37
debtor relief measures, 379
print culture in, 519
Connolly, John, 31, 43
Conoghquieson (Oneida chief), 240
consent of the governed, colonial vs. British interpretations of, 19–20
Constitution
Articles of Confederation as blueprint for, 389–90
and Atlantic perspective of historians, 389
division of responsibilities under, 389–90
early successes under, 403
fiscal and monetary powers in, 342
implementation of by first Congress, 403
purposes of
limiting of state democratic excesses as, 485
Madison on, 388–89
power to enforce existing authority as, 390, 394, 400
protection of elite interests as, 115, 231, 341–42, 389
reform of Articles of Confederation as, 392–93
security as, 388–89, 394
ratification of, 402
debate on, 401–2
as turning point in Revolution, 6
and right to abolish government, 133
and state governments, noninterference with, 400
consequences of, 403
taxation power in, 341, 342
and trade with Britain, 470
written, uncertainty of rights under British rule as impetus for, 99 See also Bill of Rights
Constitutional Convention
agreement about problems of democracy at, 370
branches of federal government as issue in, 396
calling of, 393
commerce regulation as issue in, 392, 395, 398–400, 599
Connecticut compromise, 395–96
enforcement power as issue in, 396
force against state governments as issue in, 397–98
independent functioning of federal government as issue in, 396–97
as national/federal hybrid, 400
New Jersey (small state) plan, 395, 397–98
Pinckney plan, 395
representation as issue in, 393–94, 395–96
sectional rivalries and, 398–400
slaveholding interests, provisions demanded by, 400, 432, 441, 442, 494
slave trade as issue in, 398, 399
small state delegates, concerns of, 394, 395
suppression of direct democracy as goal of, 231
taxation power as issue in, 395, 397–98, 398–400
veto of state laws as issue in, 394, 396, 397
Virginia plan, 394–95, 396, 397
Constitutional Society of Philadelphia, 206
consumer goods
personal expression through, 73–74
restrained consumption, advocates of, 73–74, 77
consumer revolution of 18th century, 412–13
and British cultural influence, 500
evangelicals and, 413–15
impact on American public, 66–67
interplay of British and American economies in, 67
interplay of local and imported products, 70–71
labor disruptions and abuses supporting, 67, 72, 73
local barter economies, 70, 71, 72, 76–77
and print culture, rise of, 501
and rural gentry, 509
consumers, evangelicals as, 412–15
(p. 642) Continental Army
articles of war
as copy of British articles, 163, 166
on punishment of soldiers, 168
British Army as model for, 163, 165, 166, 169, 180–81
British views on, 180
civilian responses to, 161–62, 172
civilians traveling with, 161, 173, 283, 581
and clothing shortages, 226
confiscations by, Congressional authorization of, 334
creation of, 162, 163
and fall of New York, 203
as hierarchical, conservative entity, 163, 167
logistics, 172
militias’ support of, 165
quotas, and class conflict, 229–30
rank
enforcement of distinctions in, 169
and pay, 167
service in, as punishment, 169
size of, 162
structure of, 162
success of, and French intervention, 189
tactics of, 182–83
myths about, 164, 178, 181
at Valley Forge, 172, 226, 256
volunteers, conditions laid down by, 110–11
in winter, reduced size of, 162
Continental Army officers
familiarity with British Army structure and tactics, 163
motives for service, 169–70
pay, 167
punishment of, 167, 169
separation from enlisted men, 167
social status of, 166, 181
striking of soldiers, as common practice, 169
wives and children of, in camp, 173
Continental Army soldiers
African Americans as, 161, 162, 166, 173, 181, 254–55, 284
emancipation as incentive for, 162, 167, 255, 256
enlistment terms and rates vs. whites, 254–55
motives of, 255
number of individuals, 251, 254, 268–69n20
segregated and integrated regiments, 167
slave regiments, 256–57
slave substitutes for master, 255, 256
white reactions to, 166–67, 171, 255–56, 580–81
artisans as, 580
casualties, 162, 218
as community, 161, 172–73
demographics, 161, 162–63, 166, 181
deserters, 171, 172, 218
disabled, postwar fate of, 227
enlistment bonuses and other incentives, 162–63, 169
harsh conditions endured by, 161, 171, 218–19
inadequate governmental support for, 172
Indians as, 235, 239
IOUs issued to, 344, 374
legal rights, partial relinquishment of, 165–66, 171
and military discipline, limits of, 169
motives for service, 169, 170–71
pay, 167
pensions for, 170, 227, 283
percentage of population serving as, 162
postwar civilian life, 173
pride of, 172
punishment of, 167–68, 169, 181
substitutes for, 166, 171, 181, 221
terms of service, 162, 171
training of, 172
wives and children of, in camp, 172, 173, 283
Continental Association
decision to endorse, 106
and extra-legal bodies, establishment of, 145
and nonimportation, at national level, 129–30
and union, as issue, 148
Continental Congress, 1st
confederation as issue at, 148
and Declaration of Rights, 96–97
events leading to, 66, 96, 106
on independence, 140
money supply as issue in, 331
and nonimportation policy, at national level, 129–30
sanctioning of extra-legal governing bodies, 98, 145
Continental Congress, 2nd
actions taken by, 97–98
British efforts to prevent, 97
British occupation of Philadelphia and, 204–5
debate on confederation, desirability and timing of, 147–50
diplomatic efforts, 316
and foreign alliances, debate on necessity and timing of, 150–52
monetary policies, and inflation, 205–6, 222–23
motion for independence, 147, 150
vote for independence, 152
Continental dollar, and wartime inflation, 205–6, 222–23
Continental Loan Offices, 332, 344
continental perspective on Revolution, 4–5, 15–27
Contrast, The (Tyler), 623
Conventicle Act of 1664, 545
Convention of 1800, 605–6
Cook, Charles, 410
Cook, James, 3
Cooke, Samuel, 252
Cooper, David, 458–59
Cooper, James Fenimore, 292–93, 305, 306, 524
Copley, John Singleton, 306, 499, 500, 509, 510
copyright laws, and print culture, 524
Corbin, Francis, 327
cordwainers (shoemakers), 584
Cornstalk (Shawnee chief), 238, 242, 243
Cornwallis, Charles
African American soldiers in army of, 260
on British-freed slaves, as encumbrance, 187
limited resources of, 189
southern campaign (1780–1781), 208, 259–62
at Yorktown, 261
cotton, and slavery, resurgence of, 494
cotton gin, and industrialization of plantation life, 584
Country and the City, The (Williams), 195
Country Builder’s Assistant, The (Asher), 506–7
(p. 643) countryside
percentage living in, 216
postwar depression in, 223–24
and farmer debt, 223–24
farmers’ debt protests, 230–31 See also backcountry
countryside, Revolutionary War in
and collapse of governmental and social structures, 227–28
disorder engendered by, bandits exploiting, 219
economic destruction wrought by, 220–24, 374
and farming
armies’ requisitioning of goods, 216, 219, 224, 225–26
change to subsistence farming, 221, 226
difficulty of daily life, 224
disruption of, 216, 219, 223
economic collapse and, 222–23
and labor supply, dwindling of, 221–22
livestock, loss of, 216, 223
traditional barter system, strains on, 225–26
and per capita income, 223
physical destruction wrought by, 216, 217–18, 223
and popular control of government, 228–30
refugees, 217, 219, 228
trade, disruption of, and deprivation, 218, 220–21
as understudied, 216, 227
violence against civilians, 217
courts in colonial America, and riotous egalitarianism of citizens, 60
Coxe, Tench, 305
Coxheath Camp, 278–79
Craige, Thomas, 170
Crawford, John, 565
Crawford, William, 244
creation myths of American Revolution, 2–3, 407–8
credit markets
postwar tightening of, 375
popular protests against, 376, 380–81
prior to war, 219
creditors, impact of debt relief laws on, 381–82
Creek Indians
alliance with Spanish, 597–98
in backcountry, 33
diplomacy with Confederation, 598
land and, 246, 474
leaders of, 465
in Revolutionary War, 241
trade, agents for, 470–71
U.S. peace with, 600
violent resistance to settlers, 237–38
and wartime destruction, 217
Cresap, Michael, 238
Cresswell, Nicolas, 71
Crèvecoeur, J. Hector St. John de, 36, 295–96, 300–302, 305, 306, 306n1
Crewe, John, 362
Crisis, The (Paine), 301
Critical Period, The (Fiske), 371
Cronkhite, Maria, 173
Cronkhite, Patrick, 173
Cronon, William, 195
Crow, Jeffrey, 109
Cuba (enslaved woman), 277
Cuffe, Paul, 474
cultural activities, suspect manliness of, 530
cultural backlash against Revolution, 6
cultural transformations, difficulty of dating, 64
Currency Acts, 330–31
Custis, Nelly Parke, 490
customs agents in Boston, attacks on, 91
Dartmouth, Earl of, 357
Daughters of Liberty, 78, 274, 275
Davenant, Charles, 141
Davenport, James, 73
Davies, Eleanor, 418
Davis, David Brion, 4, 427, 473
Deane, Silas, 24, 151, 316–17, 318, 323
Death of General Montgomery in the Attack on Quebec, The (Trumbull), 509
Death of General Warren at the Battle of Bunker Hill, The (Trumbull), 509
Death of General Wolfe (West), 509
debating societies for women (London), 279
Deborah (enslaved woman), 285
debt, national
consolidation of, 343–44, 486
Morris’s disowning of, 335–36
plan to retire, 344
debt, state
as dominant postwar issue, 340
nationalization of, 344, 486
tax revenue and, 339
debt from Revolutionary War
efforts to nationalize, 337
nationalization of, 343–44, 486
payments to France on, 600
debt of farmers, post-war
causes of, 223–24
debt protests, 230–31
debtors, in postwar economic crisis
and local enforcement, suspension of, 380–81
origins of financial problems, 372–74
relief measures’ impact on creditors, 381–82
and state policies
debt relief measures, 379–80
exacerbation of crisis by, 374–76
popular protests against, 376–78, 380–81, 382
popular reform proposals, 378–79
serving of elite interests by, 374, 375–76, 379
debtors laws, as source of settler anger, 39
DeCamp, Mary, 570
decency, standards of, consumer revolution of 18th century and, 67
Declaration of Independence
and Democratic-Republican ideology, 484
events leading to, 98
indictment of King George in, 99
natural rights listed in, 448, 454–55
delayed significance of, 457–59
and pursuit of happiness, 457
on Revolution as civil war, 292
on right of revolution, 448, 457
as turning point in Revolution, 6
Virginia Declaration of Rights and, 454
(p. 644) Declaration of Rights (Continental Congress, 1774), 96–97, 455
Declaration of Rights (English Convention Parliament, 1689), 447, 455
Declaration of Rights (Virginia, 1776), 133, 454, 456, 457, 458, 459
Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms, 458
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (France, 1789), 455–56
Declaration of the Rights of Woman (de Gouges), 620
Declaratory Act of 1766, 88–89, 360–61
Deetz, James, 500
defense of colonies
colonists’ concerns about, 144, 147, 150–53
union of colonies proposed for, 142
DeLancey, Susan, 293
Delaware Indians
in backcountry, 33
Coshocton, 243
of early 20th century, petition for compensation for services to U.S., 234, 246
land and, 5, 34, 237, 238
in Revolutionary War, 234, 235, 242–43, 244, 245
and Royal Proclamation line, 42
territory demanded of, 234
violent resistance to settlers, 237
democracy
colonial development of, 7
economic equality as prerequisite for, 378–79
as issue in writing of state constitutions, 146
democracy, direct/excessive
vs. British concept of representation, 122–23
in colonial militias, 125–26, 131
and committees of safety, 130, 153
Constitution as effort to check, 115, 231, 341–42, 389
continuation of under Constitution, 389, 403
decline of after independence, 132–35
elite fear of, 115, 148, 154, 370, 381–84
economic conflict underlying, 372–84
historians’ acceptance of elite views on, 371–72, 385
enforcement of decisions in, 122, 123
and extra-legal bodies, formation of, 123–25, 130–31
fundamental principles of, 122
instructions to representatives in, 122, 131
in Massachusetts colony
and takeover of colonial government, 123–28
tradition of, 121–22
vs. modern democratic practices, 123, 134–35
and officeholders’ as servants of the people, 122
out-of-doors assemblies characteristic of, 123, 129
patriot activists’ devotion to, 121
and radical action, ease of adopting, 123
and tradition of popular sovereignty, 123
democratic egalitarianism
in colonial America
and conditioning of citizens for Revolution, 60–61
and social disorder, 60
taverns as space of enactment of, 55–57, 59
as goal of revolutionaries, 110, 111, 114–15
elite fears regarding, 115 See also social leveling
Democratic-Republicans
constituencies, 492–93, 495–96, 579, 582
establishment of, 487–90
and Federalists, battle with
over future direction of nation, 484
over understanding of Revolution, 483, 490, 496–97
for women’s support, 491–92
on French Revolution, 488
ideology of, 484, 493–94
exclusion of women from, 491–92
and slavery question, 494–96
and Quasi-War with France (1798), 489
Democratic-Republican Societies, 133
Democratic Society of Pennsylvania, 602
Denmark, and League of Armed Neutrality, 321
Dennie, Joseph, 522, 526–27, 528, 530
DePeyster, Arent, 243
Dickinson, Cadwalader, 547
Dickinson, John
and Articles of Confederation, writing of, 150
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, 92, 453
and nonimportation agreements, 92, 93
Quakers and, 296
resistance to independence, 146, 148, 149, 307n19
at Second Continental Congress, 98, 147, 152
on simplicity, as virtue, 615
on Townsend duties, 90
Diderot, Denis, 459
Dinah (enslaved woman), 283
Dinah (free woman), 284
diplomacy, British
advocacy for Indian interests, 474–75
proposed diplomatic recognition of Indian nations, 474
diplomacy, U.S.
under Adams, 596–97, 604–6
Anglo-French War and, 596–97, 601–3
British aggressiveness and, 600
under Confederation, limitations of, 389, 392, 472, 596, 598
as executive function, under Constitution, 599
Federalist views on, 596–97, 599
French Revolution and, 596, 601–2
and Genêt mission, 489, 602, 603
under Jefferson, 606, 607–8
Jefferson’s vision of, 597
and law of nations, 597, 599, 602, 607–8
successes of, 403
Jay Treaty (1795), 603–4
Peace of Paris (1783), 595
Treaty of Amity with France, 595
Treaty of San Lorenzo (1794), 603
under Washington, 596–97, 600–601, 602, 603–4
disabled soldiers, postwar fate of, 227
disease
military deaths from, 218
runaway slaves’ deaths from, 225
soldiers return home with, 218, 227
Diverse Voyages Touching the Discovery of America and the Islands Adjacent (Hakluyt), 520
divisions within colonies
chronic instability resulting from, 105–10
as impetus toward revolution, 114, 117
and patriot struggle for support, 107–10, 110–14
class tensions and, 109, 110–11, 112, 114
preexisting tensions and, 112–13
(p. 645) as perceived impediment to political action, 103–4
and Revolutionary War, hobbling of American efforts, 116
and state constitutions, shaping of, 115–16
divisions within United States, early tensions generated by, 116–17
divorce practices
republican period reforms of, 569–70
in revolutionary era, 564–65
Dixon, Annie, 565
Dixon, Henry, 565
doctors, in colonial America
social status of, 49, 50–51
training of, 51
Doerflinger, Thomas, 143–44
domesticity, evangelicalism and, 418
Dorsey, Peter, 437
Douay Bible, 532
Douglass, Frederick, 266, 304, 459, 523
Dragging Canoe (Cherokee chief), 238, 241, 244, 246
Drake, Sylvia, 565
Drayton Hall plantation (South Carolina), 501
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857), 556
Drinker, Elizabeth, 282
Drinker, Henry, 78
Drinker, John, 547
Droit du Gens, Le (The Law of Nations; Vattel), 599, 607
Dromo (slave), 47
Duane, William, 522
Dubois, Laurent, 473
Dudley, Catherine, 273, 275, 278, 286
Dudley, Charles, 273, 286
due process, vice admirality courts and, 86
Dunglass, Lord, 180
Dunmore, John Murray, Earl of
Lord Dunmore’s War, 31–32, 43, 238
as slave owner, 261
slave regiments, formation of, 259
and slaves of rebels, promise to free (Dunmore’s Proclamation), 115, 225, 251, 254, 284, 302, 429–30, 440
Dunning, John, 362
Durfee, Richard, 216, 217
Dutch Republic
alliance with Britain, refusal of, 319
intervention in Revolutionary War, 187
loss of territory in Revolutionary War, 324
peace negotiations, 362
support of U.S. independence, 321, 322
U.S. bonds sold in, 332, 338
war with Britain, 321–22, 323
Dutch settlers, peaceful coexistence with Indians, 33
Dwight, Timothy, 521
Dyer, Mary, 418
Earl, Ralph, 509, 510
East India Company
and Britain’s informal empire, 467
and British taxation, 18, 20
Seven Years’ War and, 18
economic power of colonies
British concerns about, 22–23
British efforts to check, 23
impact on British economy, 20
importance to British Empire, 20–21
loss of, impact on Britain, 4, 8, 20, 24, 25
rapid population growth of colonies and, 20–21, 22–23
as source of political power in Europe, 15, 16, 17, 19
economy, American
prior to Revolutionary War, 219
during Revolutionary War, 220–24 See also fiscal policy
economy, postwar crisis in
artisans and, 582
and foreign investment, suppression of, 382–83, 599
and local debt law enforcement, suspension of, 380–81
origins of, 372–74
as matter of class perspective, 384
relief measures’ impact on creditors, 381–82
and state policies
debt relief measures, 379–80
exacerbation of crisis by, 374–76
popular protests against, 376–78, 380–81, 382
popular reform proposals, 378–79
serving of elite interests by, 374, 375–76, 379
Edling, Max, 349n55
education
as prerequisite for republican citizens, 523
in Southern states, 522, 531
textbooks, 531
Edwards, Jonathan, 532
Edwards, Laura, 547–48
Eggleston, Edward, 251
Eleventh Amendment, 552
Eliot, Joseph, 161
elite. See entries under wealthy elite
Ellis, Henry, 43
Embargo Act of 1807, 583, 590, 607
Emerson, Mary Moody, 530
empire, United States as, 8
Encyclopédie, on natural law, 459
enforcement of decisions, in colonial direct democracy, 122, 123
English Convention Parliament (1689), Declaration of Rights, 447, 455
Enlightenment thought
and disruption of hierarchical structures, 560, 561
and revolutionary era sexual practice, 560–61
equality, as Democratic-Republican basic principle, 493, 496
exclusion of women from, 495
and slavery question, 494–96
Equiano, Olaudah, 474
Equillo (slave), 587
Ernst, Joseph, 331
Escott, Paul, 109
Ethiopian Regiment, 259, 284
European armies, standard tactics of, 163–64
evangelicalism
ascendency, historical phenomena included under, 409
and democratization of American Christianity, 408
and domesticity, 418
and movement toward revolution, 408, 412, 414, 421–22
political convictions, range of, 408
and Regulator movement, 408
and riotous egalitarianism of colonial America, 60
and social marginality, 411
and women, role of, 415, 417–18
(p. 646) evangelicals
class tensions in, 414–15
as community/public, 413–14
as consumers, 412–15
and disorderly, feminized body, 416
gender identity in, 415–18
as insurgents, 409–12
as martyrs, 418–20
as patriots, 420–22
periodicals for, 413–14
and slavery, views on, 410–11, 421
social and economic profile of, 411
support for Revolution, 420
Ewald, Johann, 260–61
“Examination of the Acts of Parliament Relative to the Trade and government of our American Colonies, An” (Abercromby), 141
exceptionalist narrative of Revolution
and American identity, creation of, 304–5
dwindling force of, 294
executive power, as issue in new U.S. government, 485–86
extra-legal bodies
colonists’ formation of
as prelude to Revolution, 87–88, 89, 91–98, 106, 107, 123–29, 145, 153
tradition of direct democracy and, 123–25, 130–31
Continental Association and, 130–31
Continental Congress’s sanctioning of, 98, 145
elimination of after independence, 132
legal immunity given to, 130–31
in post-independence rebellions, 132–33
Falkland Islands crisis of 1770–1771, 313–14
Faneuil, Peter, 127
Faneuil Hall, 127
farmers
and credit market, importance of, 219
as Democratic-Republicans constituency, 492–93, 579
and industrialization, 591
nonimportation agreements, impact of, 110–11
postwar debt, 223–24
postwar debt protests, 230–31
and Revolutionary War
armies’ requisitioning of goods, 216, 219, 224, 225–26
change to subsistence farming, 221, 226
difficulty of daily life, 224
disruption of farming, 216, 219, 223
economic collapse, impact of, 222–23
and labor supply, dwindling of, 221–22
livestock, loss of, 216, 223
sales to military, as unreliable market, 220–21
traditional barter system, strains on, 225–26
Farmer’s Weekly Museum (newspaper), 526–27
farm workers, as percentage of work force, 578
fathers of bastard children, policies on
in early republican period, 571–72
in revolutionary period, 563–64
Fauquier, Francis, 330
federal district courts, support for law of nations, 599–600
federal form of government, American preference for, 99
federal government
under Articles of Confederation, weakness of, 99, 389–90, 391, 484
Constitution as remedy for, 389–90
and Indians, inability to protect, 99
problems created by, 391–92, 394–95
reasons for, 391
and revenue problems, 331, 332, 340
under Constitution
Americans’ expectations for, 384–85
and creation of national political culture, 485
early issues in, 485–86
powers given to, 485
and slavery, passage of issue to state governments, 441–42
Federalist Papers
on Constitution, as invigoration of Confederation powers, 390
on judicial review, 554
on law of nations, importance of adherence to, 599
Federalists
and Democratic-Republicans, battle with
over future direction of nation, 484
over understanding of Revolution, 483, 490, 496–97
for women’s support, 491–92
elitist rhetoric of, 492
establishment of, 487–90
ideology of, 483–84, 493
and international commercial system, participation in, 598–99
newspapers controlled by, 401
and Quasi-War with France (1798), 489
and slavery question, 494
understanding of Revolution, 483
and U.S. diplomacy, 596–97
views on France and French Revolution, 488, 605
female academies, 529
Female Moral Reform Society of New York, 626
“female politicians,” 491
Ferguson, Elizabeth Graeme, 296
Field, Erastus Salisbury, 510
Fielder, John, 171
“First Report on Public Credit” (Hamilton), 343
First Seminole War, 474–75
fiscal policy
under Articles of Confederation, 331–35
reform efforts, 335–38
Bank of North America and, 337, 338
Britain as model for, 337, 345, 346, 487
of colonial governments, 328–29
under Constitution, 342, 403
federal retreat from, after Peace of Paris, 338, 340
Hamilton’s reforms, 343–46
scholarly research on, 328 See also funding of Revolutionary War
fiscal problems, post-war
and foreign investment, suppression of, 382–83, 599
and local debt law enforcement, suspension of, 380–81
origins of, 372–74
as matter of class perspective, 384
and state policies
debt relief measures, 379–80
exacerbation of crisis by, 374–76
(p. 647) popular protests against, 376–78, 380–81, 382
popular reform proposals, 378–79
serving of elite interests by, 374, 375–76, 379
fishing industry, wartime destruction of, 220
fishing rights, U.S.-British negotiation of, 363, 595
Fiske, John, 251, 371
Fletcher v. Peck (1810), 555
Flight of Feeling, The (Stern), 308n26
flogging. See lashing
Florida
British, as buffer with Spanish possessions, 315
postwar British dealings in, 472–73
Spanish dropping of claims to (1794), 603
Spanish efforts to recover, 320, 324
Spanish loss of in Seven Years’ War, 312–13
West Florida Revolution of 1810, 473
Floridablanca, José Moñino y Redondo, count de, 318, 323
food riots, women and, 276
foreign alliances, debate on necessity and timing of, 150–52
foreign investment in early U.S., factors suppressing, 382–83, 599
Forten, James, 586
Fort Niagara, 280
Fort Pitt, 42, 245
Fort Stanwix (Fort Schuyler), 241
Fort Wilson riot (1779), 206, 546
forty-five, significance of number for Whig radicals, 76
Founding of the Second British Empire, The (Harlow), 467
Fox, Charles James, 24, 362–64
Foxe, John, 419
Fox Indians, 472
Fox-North administration, 363–64, 367
framers of Constitution, security as concern of, 6–7
France
alliance with, 152
debate on necessity and timing of, 150–52
efforts to secure, 151, 316–17
independence as prerequisite for, 316
necessity of, 315–16
antislavery movement, growth of, 427
arms provided to U.S., 153
and Falkland Islands crisis of 1770–1771, 314
Federalist views on, 605
as focus of British foreign policy, 15–17
foreign policy, 4, 17, 19
intervention in Revolution
and British Parliament’s views of war, 360
British responses to, 187–88, 205, 208, 355–56, 361, 431
and British supply lines, vulnerability of, 186
and control of seas, 188–89
ending of war, motives for, 323
European political conditions and, 17
expenditures for, consequences of, 311, 317, 323, 324, 357
and globalization of struggle, 187–88, 189
initial covert aid, 317
motives for, 313–14, 317, 319, 320
open support, impact of, 319–20, 322–23
peace negotiations, 362
and reduced availability of British troops for American operations, 322–23
risks and concerns, 311, 316, 317
Spanish support of, 320
territory gained in, 322, 323–24
Treaty of Amity and Commerce (1778), 595
loans, gifts and subsidies to U.S., 332, 336
postwar relations with U.S., strains in, 392
and Seven Years’ War
concerns about British power following, 313–15
debt following, 317
events leading to, 18
foreign policy following, 19
loss of, 18–19, 312
weakness following, 315, 319 see also entries under French
Francis, Josiah, 472
Franklin, Benjamin
Autobiography, 74
on continental dollars, 334
on Currency Act of 1764, 330
design of continental dollars, 332–33
as diplomat, 151, 312, 316–17, 318, 323, 336, 596
frugality of, 74
on land bank bills of credit, 330
and natural law as basis for policy, 601
and paper money, support for, 332
and Parliamentary Stamp Act hearings, 75
on slavery, 437
and union, plan for, 148
on vigilante violence against Indians, 38
on women, proper role of, 74
Franklin, Deborah, 74
Franklin, Jane, 74
Frederick the Great (king of Prussia), 321
Free African Society, 266, 586
free blacks
as artisans, 586–87, 589
and emancipation, struggle toward, 427–28
population, rapid postwar increase of, 436, 581
slave ownership by, 589
in southern states, curtailment of rights of, 432
women, employment, 588, 590
freedom
in early republican law, as right to share in power of state, 543–44
patriots’ rhetoric of, and slavery, 252–54, 266–67, 302–4
property as integral to concept of, 43, 73
freedom of the press
factors contributing to, 523
libel and sedition laws and, 523–24
Freeman, Artillo, 173
Freeman, Elizabeth, 258
French aesthetic, revolutionary remaking of, 612
and cultural boundaries, redrawing of, 614
forms of cultural intervention in, 614
importance to Revolutionary goals, 613–14
male focus of, 619
and political and pedagogic power of things, 614, 615, 616
post-Revolution commemorative objects, 623–24
and public-private boundary, 618–19
and radical changes in daily life, 619
sans-culottes
as iconic emblem of, 612
as negatively-defined style, 613, 616
(p. 648) as new focal point of national cohesion, 616–17
as symbol of social leveling, 613, 615–16, 618
as undermining of British hierarchical culture, 613–14
use of legal compulsion in, 617
French and Indian War. See Seven Years’ War
French Army
African American soldiers in, 260
escaped slaves, harboring of, 284
French Canadians, and Revolutionary War, 25
French Caribbean, abolition of slavery, 473
French Navy, Boston as base for, 199
French Revolution
American views on, 488
clubs and associations, discouragement of, 627
and politicization of American public, 489–90
U.S. popularity of, 602
and U.S. diplomacy, 596, 601–2
and women
active political role of, 620, 624
exclusion from political participation following, 620, 624, 627
and French aesthetic, remaking of, 619 See also French aesthetic, revolutionary remaking of
Freneau, Philip, 487–88, 526
Frey, Sylvia, 208, 260
Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians by Pacific Measures, 39
Fritz, Christian, 553–54
fugitive slave clause, inclusion in Constitution, 400
Funding Act of 1790, 343–44
funding of Revolutionary War by British
and annual expenditures, 357
debt from, 357
limited postwar disruption from, 357, 358
North’s financial skills and, 357
funding of Revolutionary War by U.S.
bonds, federal, 332
confiscations and, 334–35
consequences of, 357
federal printing of money, 332–34
loans from European nations, 332, 336, 338, 374
state bills of credit, 339, 342, 373, 392
federal efforts to regulate, 333
postwar tightening of supply, 374–76, 379 See also paper money
fur, uses of, 71
fur trade, 71, 236
Gabriel (slave artisan), 587
Gadsden, Christopher, 129
Gage, Thomas
in British fiction, 278
and Coercive Acts enforcement, 96
and extra-legal bodies, efforts to squelch, 124–25
as governor of colonies, 96, 97, 253
occupation of Boston, 198–99
and Royal Proclamation line, moving of, 42
and white settlement, efforts to regulate, 42
Gallagher, John, 466–67
Galloway, Joseph, 96, 148, 291
Gano, Stephen, 417
Gardoqui, Don Diego de, 392
Garrison, William Lloyd, 442
Gaspée (British Navy schooner), burning of, 94
Gates, Horatio, views on militia, 164
Gee, Joshua, 142
gender identity
early modern concept of, 561
in early republican period, 568
in evangelicals, 415–18
General Society of Tradesmen and Mechanics, 582
Genêt, Edmond-Charles, 489, 602, 603
George, David, 303
George III (king of Great Britain)
and battle of Yorktown, response to, 360
and British Revolutionary War strategy, 177, 356, 360
colonial public opinion on, 98
colonists’ loyalty to, 88, 89, 144
declaration of rebellion in colonies, 98, 140
denunciations of colonial defiance, 92
and Fox-North administration, 367
indictment of in Declaration of Independence, 99
New York statue of, 502–3
and Rockingham administration, 361
and Shelburne administration, 363
siding with Parliament by, as fatal blow to colonists’ strategy, 98
support of North ministry, 356–57
Georgia
awarding of slaves as enlistment bonus, 430
backcountry, wartime destruction in, 217
constitution, on juries, powers of, 546
and slaves as soldiers, 256–57
Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, 278
Georgian architecture, 501
Germain, Lord George, 357–58, 359, 360, 361
German (Hessian) mercenaries
British necessity of using, 319
as counterproductive, 184
French concerns about, 319
as provocation, 147, 152
Gerry, Elbridge, 134, 370, 401
Gibbs, James, 501
Gibraltar, in Revolutionary War
British focus on retention of, 25, 359, 363
Spanish efforts to recover, 318, 320, 322, 323
Gibson, James, 565
gift books, 529
Gilbert, Benjamin, 170
Glasgow
economy and culture of, 196–97
impact of Revolutionary War on, 200
global perspective
and dwindling force of exceptionalist narrative of Revolution, 294
and loyalists, new understanding of, 305
Gloucester, John, 265
Godwin, William, 525
Golden Hill riot, 128, 579
Good Peter (Agorondajats), 280
Gordon, George, 207
Gordon riots (London, 1780), 207
Gouges, Olympe de, 620
Gould, Eliga, 3, 8
Gould, Philip, 307n11
(p. 649) government legitimacy, American conception of, 447
Graber, Mark, 556
Grasse, comte de, 431
Gray, Thomas, 521
Graydon, Alexander, 166, 171
Great Awakening, First
as dress rehearsal for Revolution, 407
and politicization of evangelicals, 408
and print culture, 532
Great Awakening, Second
and African American evangelicalism, 411
and democratization of American Christianity, 408
Great Britain
and American colonies, control of
British concerns about structure of, 140–43
British war debt and, 31, 36–37, 43
and contagion of republicanism, 24
dangers of reasserting, 22
debt from Seven Years’ War and, 31, 36–37, 43, 86
defense as motive for, 3, 17–18, 19–20
factors limiting, 21–22, 104
ineffectiveness of, 31–32, 36–37, 40, 41–42, 43, 86
necessity of reasserting, 3, 17–18, 19, 21–22, 23
stationing of troops and, 86, 91, 93, 105–6
subjugation of colonies as goal of, 142
and American colonies, economic assets of
British concerns about, 22–23
British efforts to limit, 23
impact of loss of, 4, 8, 20, 24
importance to British Empire, 20–21
rapid population growth and, 20–21, 22–23
as source of political power in Europe, 15, 16, 17, 19, 27
and American colonies, loss of
and British foreign policy, 24–26
impact of, 4, 8, 20, 24, 25
American public’s dislike of, and U.S. diplomacy, 602
and continental perspective on Revolution, 4
European allies, lack of, 17, 312, 319, 355
post-Revolution efforts to resolve, 25
reasons for, 321
and Revolutionary War, 17, 320–21, 322
Seven Years’ War and, 18–19
and Falkland Islands crisis of 1770–1771, 313–14
financial system
as model for U.S., 337, 345, 346, 487
strength of, 331
foreign policy
after Revolution, 24–26
consistency of through 18th century, 26–27
Continental involvement as issue in, 15–17
European balance of power as focus of, 15–17
European interests, 16
French military power, fear of, 15–16
Indian policy
changes in, after Seven Years’ War, 36–38
distrust of Indians and, 37
invasion, Franco-Spanish threat of, 322, 355, 356, 361, 366
and law of nations, violations of, 602
ongoing influence in Americas after Revolution, 6, 8, 324
power of after Seven Years’ War, 312
European concern about, 313–15, 317
and Revolutionary War (See also funding of Revolutionary War by British)
debt from, 368
fiscal reforms following, 362
motives for concluding, 323
possessions lost in, 322, 323–24, 363
power of, after War, 324, 368
Revolution from perspective of, 3–4
and Seven Years’ War
British objectives in, 15
British public opinion on, 19
debt from, 31, 36–37, 43, 64–65, 86
European political climate following, 18–19
events leading to, 18
French and Spanish desire for revenge for, 19, 313
French and Spanish possessions acquired in, 312–13
power following, 312, 313–15, 317
success in, 17, 18–19, 64, 86
and slavery
abolition of slave trade, 474
antislavery lawsuits, 435
antislavery movement, growth of, 427, 428, 440
gap between rhetoric and action on, 440
government support of, 430–31
self-scrutiny regarding, 439–40
social stratification in, vs. America’s fluid class system, 49–50, 53, 59
taverns vs. coffeehouses in, 60
and U.S. diplomacy, 596, 600–601
weaver riots in, 73
women in, wartime experiences, 277–79 See also entries under British
Greathouse, Daniel, 30, 238
Greek classicism, and U.S. architecture, 506
Greek Revival style, and U.S. architecture, 506
Green, Jacob, 458
Green, James, 171
Greene, Catharine, 173
Greene, Jack P., 21, 331
Greene, Lorenzo, 256
Greene, Nathanael
on Continental Army term of service, 171
wife of, in camp, 173
Greenfield Hill (Dwight), 521
Green Mountain Boys, 35, 111
Green Springs, battle of, 182–83
Grenville, George, 86
Griffitts, Hannah, 296, 297–99
Gross, Robert, 162
Grotius, Hugo, 449, 599
guerrilla tactics
by autonomous armed bands of colonials, 111–12
by Continental Army
debate on use of, 181–82
as exaggerated myth, 164, 178, 181
gun ownership, and social leveling in colonial America, 49–50
gunpowder and shot, British distribution of to Indians, 37
Habermas, Jürgen, 520
Haiti
Jefferson’s quarantine of, 606
rebellion, U.S. support of, 605
(p. 650) Hakluyt, Richard, 520
Haldimand, Frederick, 31
Halifax, Nova Scotia
founding of, 197
military importance of, 202
parallels with Portsmouth, England, 197
retreat of British forces to, 183–84, 202
Hall, David, 308n22
Hall, Prince, 529
Hallet, Stephen, 514
Hamilton, Alexander (Treasury Secretary)
on Constitution, need for, 598
and Federalist ideology, 483–84
“First Report on Public Credit,” 343
on French Revolution, 488
on judicial review, 554
land investments, 382
and New Army, U.S., 605
and Paterson, New Jersey, establishment of, 583
on the people, poor judgment of, 370
and Quasi-War with France (1798), 489
“Report on a National Bank,” 345
“Report on Manufactures,” 343, 583
“Report on the Establishment of a Mint,” 345
“Report on the Public Credit,” 486–87
as Secretary of Treasury
artisans’ views on, 492
economic vision, triumph of, 487
and Federalist newspapers, 488
Jefferson’s views on, 601
national bank, creation of, 345
nationalization of debt, 343–44, 486
and Panic of 1792, 344–45
on states’ postwar debt, 340
on slave regiments, 257
on strong national credit, benefits of, 345
and U.S. diplomacy, 598, 602, 603, 604
and Whiskey Rebellion, 603
Hamilton, Dr. Alexander
and American democratic egalitarianism, acceptance of, 55, 61
background, 47, 48
class consciousness of, upon arrival in America, 48
as doctor
and social status, 49, 51
training, 47
health of, 47
social status of in America, as fluid, 51–52
tour of Northern U.S. (1744), 47–48
on William Morison, 52 See also Itinerarium (Hamilton)
Hamilton, Henry, 242
Hampton, battle of, 113
Hancock, John, 91, 166
Hannah (enslaved woman), 275
Hannah, Ann, 566
Hanover, British rule in, 16
Harlow, Vincent, 466, 467
Harrison, Benjamin, 148
Hartford Convention (1814), 473
Hartley, David, 364
Hartley, Thomas, 134
Hartog, Hendrik, 541
Hatch, Nathan, 408
Hawkins, John, 172–73
Haynes, Lemuel, 255, 266, 458
heart religion, rise of, 409
Heath, Joseph, 508
Hemings, Sally, 573
Henry, Patrick, 42, 87, 153
Henry, Ralph, Miney and Molly, 285
Hessian mercenaries. See German (Hessian) mercenaries
Heyrman, Christine, 411
Higginson, Stephen, 340–41
Hildreth, Richard, 251
Hillsborough, Lord
colonial defiance of, 91–92
hard line on American tax resistance, 91, 92, 93
and white settlement, efforts to regulate, 41, 42
Hillsborough, North Carolina, Regulator violence in (1771), 407–8
historians
Atlantic
new frameworks for Revolution, 2
views on Constitution, 389
British
on empire as British destiny, 16
focus on age of manufactures, 66
cultural
focus on meaning of material things, 66
new frameworks for Revolution, 2
declining interest in American Revolution, 1
imperial
on informal British empire, 467
new frameworks for Revolution, 2, 3–4
views on Constitution, 389
on independence, history of views on, 139–40
institutional, new frameworks for Revolution, 2
new imperial, on informal British empire, 467–68
political, approaches to analysis of rights, 450
of Revolution
Adams on role of, 9
new theoretical frameworks of, 2–5
task of, as ongoing, 9
social, on Revolution, as populist revolt, 1
Historical and Chronological Deduction of the Origin of Commerce (Anderson), 20
Hoban, James, 514
Hobbes, Thomas, 449
Holton, Woody, 342
home as political space, and women’s political activism, 620–23, 624–26, 627
homoerotic relationships, in revolutionary era, 565–66
honest business practices, evangelical emphasis on, 411
Hopkins, Samuel, 252
Hosier, Harry, 265
hospitals, venereal disease treatment by, 563
Howe, Richard
and New York, capture of, 202, 203
and North’s war strategy, 359
Howe, William
caution of, 187
and flexibility of British tactics, 182
and New York, capture of, 202, 203
and North’s war strategy, 359
and 2nd battle of Saratoga, 359
strategy of, 184
Howell, David, 336
Hulton, Anne, 275
(p. 651) Hume, David, 7
Humphreys, David, 521
Hunt, Lyn, 451
Husband, Herman, 39–40, 408
Hutchinson, Anne, 418
Hutchinson, Thomas
accountability of, as issue, 94
account of revolution, scribal publication of, 297
as notable loyalist, 291, 295
on representation, theory of, 137n32
and slavery, 253
Tea Act and, 95
Hutchinson, William, 170
iconoclasm, images of British monarchy and, 503
Ide, Ichabod, 170
Ide, Israel, 170
identity, American
narrative of exceptionalism and, 304–5
print culture and, 520, 530–31
immigrants, European
as artisans, 589
British immigration to colonies, British concerns about, 22
Irish, employment, 588, 590
and politicization of evangelicals, 408
and religious controversy, 419
volume of, in mid-18th century, 48
imperial reformers, anticipation of American independence, 140–43
indents, 344
indentured servants
Baltimore artisans, 587
flow of from Europe, war’s interruption of, 221
in urban workforce, 581
working conditions, 585
independence
Americans’ ambivalence toward, 6, 139, 140, 143–53
Britain’s informal empire and, 466
and confederation, debate on desirability and timing of, 147–50
and conflict among colonies, colonists’ fear of, 144, 148, 149–50, 153
and creation of new government, as daunting prospect, 144, 145–47, 153
and defense, colonists’ concerns about, 144, 147, 150–53
and direct democracy, decline of, 132
as evolutionary process, 5–8
and foreign alliances, debate on necessity and timing of, 150–52
imperial reformers’ predictions of, 140–43
negotiations on terms of, 362–63
as prerequisite for foreign alliances, 316
union as intertwined goal with, 390–91
India
and British conduct, self-evaluation of, 440
British empire in, as informal empire, 467
and China trade, 26
and defense of as focus of British policy, 18
Dutch losses in, 324
French losses in Seven Years’ War, 312
importance to British ambitions, 26
Revolutionary War and, 25, 26, 363
vulnerability of British interests in, 322
Indian Department, establishment of, 403
Indians, North American
abuse of, British inability to stop, 86, 237
as adaptable, resilient people, 236, 245
after Revolutionary War
survival and adaptation, 235
white hatred of, 244–45
as allies, in Seven Years’ War, 86
association with British tyranny, 5, 244, 245
backcountry Indian-white violence, 30–31, 37, 238
reasons for, 32, 42–43, 238
white anger about, 38–39
backcountry peaceful coexistence, 33–35
British policy on
changes in, after Seven Years’ War, 36–38
distrust of Indians and, 37
British postwar alliances and trade with, 472
casting of as outsiders to U.S. history, 235
clothing styles, influence on colonists, 71
and Euro-American goods, reliance on, 33
and fur trade, 71
germ warfare against, 37
historians’ approach to, 468
interdependence with white society, 235, 236–37
and land
dispossession, tactics of, 5
Jefferson’s removal policies, 607
post-War increase of pressure on, 245
struggle to retain, 5, 34, 35, 42, 237, 238, 240, 241, 245–46, 474
military tactics of, ineffectiveness against European-style armies, 164
modern, ongoing push for recognition by, 246
and post-Revolution print culture, 529
relations with whites, souring of, 5
before Revolutionary War, 236–37
Eastern Woodlands peoples, population, 236
relative autonomy of, 236
young, radical leaders, emergence of, 236
trade, agents for, 470–71
U.S. government inability to protect, weak federal government and, 99
wars with, colonial pamphlets on, 419
Indians in Revolutionary War, 234–46
anti-American alliances, 243–44
as British allies
and postwar hatred of Indians, 244, 245
usefulness of, 184–85, 187, 241
choice of sides, 239–40
as hard choice, 235, 239
traditional view of, 235
impact of War on, 217, 235, 245
Indian homelands, intrusion of conflict into, 241–44
and Iroquois Confederacy, fracturing of, 235, 240, 245
neutrality
as goal of many tribes, 239, 240
as untenable position, 235, 241
as soldiers in white armies, 235, 239
Western Indians, 243
women’s wartime experiences, 279–81
Indians nations, British proposed diplomatic recognition of, 474
(p. 652) Industrial Revolution
and African Americans, impact on, 579
age of manufactures preceding, 66
and artisans, impact on, 482, 579, 580, 584–85
benefits of, as limited to white males, 583
limited early success of, 583
and women, impact on, 579
and women’s employment, 582, 590–91
inflation, wartime
as disaster for farmers, 222–23
as hardship on women, 276, 283
and paper money, loss of value, 222, 330, 333–34, 373
unrest caused by, 205–6, 228–29
influenza viruses, soldiers returning home with, 218
instruction of representatives
in colonial direct democracy, 122, 131
right of in federal constitution, 133–34
right of in state constitutions, 132, 134
Stamp Act resistance through, 123–24
intellectual elite, division from political elite, 528
interest rates, postwar increase in, 375
Intolerable Acts. See Coercive Acts of 1774
Ireland
British rule, Revolution’s strain on, 25
defense of as focus of British policy, 18
immigrants from, employment, 588, 590
linen industry in, 71
and Stamp Act, 19–20
Irish Declaratory Act of 1720, 366
Irish Patriots, 25, 366, 367
Irish politics, British dominance, efforts to reduce, 365–66, 367
Irish reformers, impact of War on, 365–66
Irish settlers, in backcountry, 34
Irish Test Act of 1704, 366
Iroquois nations
alliance with British, 279
in backcountry, 33
and land, 34, 35, 42, 237, 245
retreat of, 280
in Revolutionary War, 223, 235, 240, 241, 242, 245
and Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 42
U.S. attacks on, 280–81
and wartime destruction, 218
women, role of, 279, 280 See also Mingo
Irving, Washington, 305, 524
Isaac, Rhys, 419
itinerant preachers
and evangelical community, creation of, 413
gender identity of, 415
Itinerarium (Hamilton), 48
on American gentry, lack of refinement in, 50, 55
on American self-interested ambition, 50, 53–54
on doctors in colonial America, 50–51
as evidence of Americans’ early cultural separation from Britain, 48, 61
on Hamilton’s fear of common men, 55–57
origin of, 48
as record of colonial manners, 48
on refined public establishments, lack of, 55, 60
on social status in America
common man’s lack of respect for, 55–57, 59
and confidence men, free rein of, 58
fluid, unstable nature of, 51–53, 54–55, 57–58
lack of a refined class, 55, 57–58
reputation and public opinion as basis of, 59
self-defined nature of, 58–59
as wealth-based, 53–54, 57–58, 59
Jackson, Andrew, 473, 474, 607
Jacobs, Eli, 170
Jaffee, David, 509
Jamaica
British retention of, 4, 322, 431
as coffee source, 69
economic importance of, 4
slave revolts in, 209–10
James, Abel, 78
Jasanoff, Maya, 3, 307n11
Jay, John
as diplomat, 323, 392, 603
at first Continental Congress, 96
on independence, 140
on law of nations, importance of adherence to, 599
on right of litigation, 551
as secretary of foreign affairs, 598
on slavery, 433, 437
Jay Treaty (1795), 470, 489, 582, 603–4, 607
Jebb, John, 365
Jefferson, Thomas
and American artists, 504, 509
on antislavery movement, 473
correspondence, 459, 552
and Declaration of Independence, 454
and Democratic-Republicans
establishment of party, 487, 490
ideology of, 484
as diplomat, 596
and Federalists, efforts to eliminate, 496
on French Revolution, 488, 489, 490, 603
as governor of Virginia, 512
on Hamilton’s economic plans, 487, 601
and Kentucky resolves, 553–54
land investments, 42, 382
and national bank, opposition to, 345
on natural law as basis of national policy, 597, 601–2
Notes on the State of Virginia, 439
as president
artisans’ support of candidacy, 579
and Barbary pirates, 607
election of, 606
and frontier settlement, policy on, 606–7
Indian policy, 607
platform, 606
and sedition laws, 523
significance of election, 496
and U.S. diplomacy, 606, 607–8
at Second Continental Congress, 98
as secretary of state
resignation of, 603
and U.S. diplomacy, 597–98, 602
sexual practices, 573
on slave rebellions, fear of, 259
on slavery, 6, 437, 438, 439, 454
slaves, flight behind British lines, 260
as subject of newspaper poetry, 527
Summary View of the Rights of British America, 97, 453–54
and U.S. currency, creation of, 338–39
(p. 653) and Virginia capitol design, 512
and Washington, D.C., design of, 513–14
and Western lands, planning for, 595
Jeffersonian Republican Society of Pendleton County, South Carolina, 601
Jellison, Richard, 331
Jenks, John, 171
Jeremiah, Thomas, 208, 254
Johnson, Guy, 240
Johnson, Samuel, 4, 439
Johnson, Sir William, 33–34, 41, 42, 236, 237, 240
Johnstone, Elizabeth, 275–76
Jones, Absalom, 586
Jones, John, 566
Jones, Walter, 107
journeymen
and industrialization, impact of, 584–85, 588
replacement with wage workers, 582, 584
social status, decline of, 584–85
Joyce, Hannah, 564
judicial review, constitutional establishment of, 397
Judiciary Act of 1789, 397, 599–600
juries
American
powers of under early republican law, 544–48
responsibilities of under professionalized legal culture, 548–49, 551
and small communities, webs of connections within, 547
powers under English law, 545
jury trial, right to
colonists’ insistence on, 89
vice admirality courts and, 86, 88
Kaskaskia, Illinois country, 34
Kate (enslaved woman), 284
Kazanjian, David, 303
Kentucky Resolves (1798), 552–55
Kerber, Linda, 274, 308n26, 620
Kersaint, Armand-Guy, 616
Keteltas, Abraham, 420
Key of Libberty, The (Manning), 552
Kickapoo, 243
Killbuck (Delaware chief), 242–43, 245
Kim, Sung Bok, 113
King, Boston, 263, 296, 302–4, 305, 532
King, Elizabeth, 78
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, 321
King George (Rhode Island Indian), 52
King William’s War, funding of, 329
Kirkland, Samuel, 240
Knowles Riot (Boston, 1747), 105
Knox, Henry, 340, 492
Knox, William, 24–25
Konwatsitsiaienni (Molly Brant), 42, 279
labor law, in early republic, 585
labor supply, wartime dwindling of, 221
labor unions, government opposition to, 585
Labrador tea, 78
Ladies Associations, 282–83
Lafayette, Marquis de
and African American soldiers, 256
and French Declaration of Rights, 456
Lamb, John, 128
land
and Indians
dispossession, tactics of, 5
Jefferson’s removal policies, 607
post-War increase of pressure on, 245
struggle to retain, 5, 34, 35, 42, 237, 238, 240, 241, 245–46, 474
as integral to concept of freedom, 43
possession of, as central issue in Revolution, 4–5 See also backcountry lands, settlement of; Western lands
land banks, 330, 339, 375
Land Office, establishment of, 403
land ownership
postwar calls for regulation of, 378
and social leveling in America, 49
Landsdowne Portrait of Washington (Stuart), 508
land speculation
popular opposition to, 378
proposed reforms limiting, 379
Larcom, Juno, 276
lashing
Biblical limits on, 167
as punishment in British Army, 167
as punishment in Continental Army, 167–68
Lathrop, John, 420
Latimer, Hugh, 419
Latrobe, Benjamin Henry, 505–6
Laurens, Henry, 57, 437
Laurens, John, 256, 336
law, republican
common law constitutionalism and, 543–45
conception of in Revolution, 540
early popular local system, 540, 541–43, 547–48
as challenge to state and professional monopoly on law, 543–44
conception of liberty in, 543
juries as makers of law in, 544–48
restoration of peace as goal of, 547–48
later professionalized, precedent-based system, 540–41, 548–50
and citizens’ power, reduction of to abstraction, 551, 554–56
eradication of first system by, 548
introduction of, 552–55
jury responsibilities under, 548–49, 551
right of nullification under, 550–56
law in colonies
common law basis of, 542
expression of, in language of English liberties, 542
reality of, as polycentric, local practice, 541–43
theory of, as centralized, imperial system, 541–42 See also law, republican, early popular local system
law of nations
British violations of, 602
definition of, 599
federal court support for, 600
French Republic’s violations of, 601–2
Jeffersonians’ views on, 601
key principles of, 597
and U.S. diplomacy, 597, 599, 602, 607–8
Law of Nations, The (Le Droit du Gens; Vattel), 599, 607
League of Armed Neutrality, 321
Lee, Arthur, 252, 316–17, 318, 323
Lee, Charles, 114, 164, 166, 181–82
(p. 654) Lee, Richard Henry
on British theft of slaves, 260
at First Continental Congress, 96
on foreign alliances, 150, 152
at Second Continental Congress, 98, 147, 150
legal documents, printing and publication of, 533
legal scholars, approaches to analysis of rights, 450
legislative powers, checks on, under professionalized republican law, 551
L’Enfant, Pierre Charles, 513, 583
Letta (African American woman), 283
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (Dickinson), 92, 453
Letters from an American Farmer (Crévecoeur), 295–96, 300–302, 306n1
Letter to the Sheriffs of Bristol (Burke), 361
Lexington, battle of
and Continental Army, formation of, 163
patriot guerrilla tactics in, 181
as spur to patriot initiatives, 108, 110, 128
as turning point in Revolution, 5–6, 97–98, 147, 148, 198
libel laws, and print culture, 523
Liberator (abolitionist newspaper), 211
liberty. See freedom
Liberty Boys, 580
“Liberty Further Extended” (Haynes), 458
Liberty Men, 493
Liberty’s Daughters, 78, 274, 275
Liberty’s Daughters (Norton), 274
Liberty Tree (Charleston, South Carolina), 129
libraries
and novels, popularity of, 525
post-Revolution proliferation of, 528–29
light infantry, British use of, 182
Lightwood, Eleanor, 569
Lilburne, John, 545
Lincoln, Abraham, on natural rights in Declaration of Independence, 458
linen industry in Ireland, 71
Linwoods, The (Sedgwick), 293
literacy
in North vs. South, 522
U.S. rates, 522
litigation, right of, under professionalized republican law, 551–52
Little Abraham (Mohawk chief), 240
Little Carpenter (Attakullakulla; Cherokee chief), 240
Little Turtle (Miami chief), 600
Liverpool (British man-of-war), 147
Livingston, Philip, 148
Livingston, Robert R., 152, 598
local governments
postwar crackdown on popular control, 230–31
variations in across colonies, 104–5
wartime popular control of, 228–30
Locke, John, 447, 449, 454, 455, 457
Lofft, Capel, 365
Logan (Mingo warrior), 30–31, 42–43, 238
London
impact of Revolutionary War on, 206
parallels with Philadelphia, 196, 206–7
post-war economic growth, 207
Long Island
battle of, 182
British atrocities on, 275–76
Lord Dunmore’s War, 31, 43, 238
Loughran, Trish, 530
Louisbourg, British capture of, 21
Louisiana, French loss of, 312
Louis XIV (king of France), 321
Louis XV (king of France), 311, 314
Louis XVI (king of France), 151, 152, 317, 320, 488, 602, 622
L’Ouverture, Toussaint, 605
Lowell Female Reform Association, 626
loyalists
African American
motives of, 302–4
postwar removal to Nova Scotia, 263–64, 270n47, 303, 440
postwar removal to Sierra Leone, 264
American authors with ties to, 306
arming, effectiveness of, 184–85, 187
British culture, attachment to, 305
British failure to support, 183
broad spectrum of individuals included in, 295
compensation for, 363, 470, 472
concentrations of, 113
confiscation of property, 228, 334
decentering of American national narrative and, 294
definition of, 295
need to expand, 304–5
departure of, with slaves, 263
emigration to Canada, 25
expulsions from communities, 219, 227–28
fear of anarchy as motivation for, 115
hiding of beliefs by, 291–92
historians’ newfound interest in, 293–94, 307n11
intimidation tactics used against, 110, 111–12, 113, 273
motives of, 291
African American loyalists, 302–4
broad range of, 295, 304
as largely non-political, 295–96, 297–304
nationalist narratives’ marginalization of, 292, 294
as normal Americans, 291
number of, 291–92
as percentage of population, 113
recent scholarly interest in, 307n11
remaining in U.S.
as majority, 296, 307n20
underestimation of number of, 292
research needed on, 305–6
on Revolution, as civil war, 292–93
Revolution from point of view of, 291–306
and slavery
British gifts of slaves to loyalists, 430
British protection of loyalist slaves, 430
departure of, with slaves, 263
values shared with patriots, 295–96, 304–5
women, abuses suffered by, 273, 275
works by, availability of, 306n1
Loyal Nine, 127
Lyttelton, William, 23, 37
Mackintosh, Ebenezer, 127, 580
Madison, Dolly, 492
Madison, James
and Bill of Rights, 133
on Connecticut compromise, 396
on Constitution, 388–89, 390, 393–94, 396, 397
(p. 655) correspondence, 552
and Democratic-Republicans, establishment of, 487, 490
on French Revolution, 488
on Hamilton’s economic plans, 487
on judicial review, 554
land investments, 382
notes, at Constitutional Convention, 370, 388
on sedition laws, 523
on slave rebellions, plotting of, 254
on Union, necessity of, 7
and Virginia Resolves, 553–54
magazines, 527–29
British models for, 528
of clubs and associations, 528–29
definition of, as imprecise, 527
in early national period, emphasis on virtue and rationality, 567
financial woes as characteristic of, 527
postal service’s subsidized delivery of, 526
Magna Carta (1215), 447
Maier, Pauline, 131, 457–58
Maine, wartime destruction in, 217
Manigaults, and ordinariness of American elite, 57
Manning, William, 552
Mansfield, Lord, 261, 435
manufacturing in America
growth of, and political independence, 67
home-based production, 70
local small-business production, 70–71
materials needed to wage war, inability to produce, 315–16 See also textiles, home production of
manumission
efforts to encourage, 435
ongoing dependent relationship following, 436–37
postwar increase in, 436
manuscript exchange, 18th-century culture of, 297, 308n22, 521
maritime power of U.S., British efforts to limit, 26
markets, public, women employed in, 588
Marrant, John, 303, 532
marriage, in revolutionary era
loosening of sexual restraints and, 562, 563–64, 566
self-divorce practices, 564–65, 570
Marshall, John, 292, 555
Marshall, Margaret, 565–66
Marshall, Peter, 467, 475
Martin, Joseph Plumb, 169, 170, 173
Mary (enslaved woman), 284
Maryland
constitution, writing of, 115
and postwar debt, 340
ratification of Constitution, 402
State House, 511–12
Maryland colony
direct democracy in, 131
fiscal and monetary policy, 330–31
Mashpees, in Revolutionary War, 239
Mason, George
at Constitutional Convention, 396, 398, 401, 402
as land speculator, 42
and Virginia Declaration of Rights, 454, 457, 459
Massachusetts
capitol, design and location, 512–13
constitution
ratification of, 402
and right to instruct representatives, 132
on slavery, 257
writing of, 115–16
lawsuits to end slavery, 435
postwar black leaders in, 266
slave petitions for freedom, 429
slavery, abolition of, 258, 435, 455
state house, design of, 504
Massachusetts colony
development of democracy in, 7
extra-legal bodies, creation of, 123–24
fiscal and monetary policies, 329
government, patriots’ shutdown of, 124–26, 145
legislature
circular letter against Townshend Acts, 75–76, 90–91, 92, 128
dissolving of, 91
extra-legal reconvening of, 97
local government in, 104–5
provincial congress (1774), 91, 92, 107, 126
and slave importation bans, 253
slave petitions to end slavery, 253
tradition of direct democracy in, 121–23 See also Boston
Massachusetts Government Act, 107, 109–10
defiance of, 124–26, 145
Massachusetts Magazine (periodical), 530
Massachusetts Regulation of 1786. See Shays’ Rebellion
Massachusetts Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 532
Mathews, Robert (Prophet Matthias), 415
Matlack, Timothy, 296
McConville, Brendan, 144
McCulloh, Henry, 142–43
McDougall, Alexander, 128
McGillivray, Alexander, 470, 471, 472, 598
McGillivray, Lachlan, 470
McIntire, Samuel, 503–6, 513
McMillan, James, 431–32
Mead, William, 545
Mechanics in Union, 128, 131
Medical Repository (magazine), 527
medical treatment for soldiers, crude state of, 218
Meherrin (Virginia) Baptist Church, 410
Memoirs of the Life of Boston King, a Black Preacher (King), 302–4, 532
Menominees, in Revolutionary War, 243
mercantilism, and home weaving of textiles, 70
Mercer, John, 399
merchant marine, U.S.
growth of, 471
ties to British manufacturing and finance, 471
merchants
British, prewar debts owed to, 363, 470
British-American ties between, 470
Continental dollars, refusal to accept, 222
nonimportation agreements and, 126–27, 143–44
Merchants and Traders of Boston, 127
Meschianza, 282
(p. 656) Methodist Church
African American membership, 411
and women, role of, 417–18
Methodist Magazine, The, 302
Methodists
and itinerant preaching, 415
numerical prominence, 409
Metìs, 237
Miami Indians
land, efforts to retain, 246
U.S. war with, 600
Middleton, Simon, 451
Mifflin, John, 565, 573
Milcah Martha Moore’s Book (Blecki and Wulf, eds.), 296–99, 307n18
military alliances
danger for weak nations without, 316
with France, 152
debate on necessity and timing of, 150–52
efforts to secure, 151, 316–17
independence as prerequisite for, 316
necessity of, 315–16
Great Britain’s lack of European allies, 17, 312, 319, 355
post-Revolution efforts to resolve, 25
reasons for, 321
and Revolutionary War, 17, 320–21, 322
Seven Years’ War and, 18–19
international political arena, American inexperience in, 8, 324
with Spain
debate on, 150
necessity of, 315–16
militia(s)
artisans’ service in, 580
direct democracy in, 125–26, 131
military tactics of, ineffectiveness against British regulars, 164
in patriots’ shutdown of Massachusetts government, 125–26
in Philadelphia, inflation-induced violence by, 206
in Revolutionary War
effectiveness of, 164–65
roles of, 162, 165
volunteers’ conditional support of, 111
militia officers, Continental Army officers’ views on, 167
militia soldiers
demographics, 162, 165
length of service, 162
punishment of, 169
restrictions on, vs. regular soldiers, 166
riotous egalitarianism of, 60
substitutes for, 165
Miller, Henry, 565
Miller, Mary, 565
Mingo
in backcountry, 33
and Indian-white violence, 30–31, 238
and Royal Proclamation line, 42
violent resistance to settlers, 237
ministers, support of, barter economy and, 76–77
Minorca, and Revolutionary War
British bargaining with, 321
British focus on retention of, 359
Spanish efforts to recover, 318, 320, 324
Mint, U.S., 339, 345
Minuteman and Their World, The (Gross), 162
minutemen, 131
Mississippi Valley settlers, secessionist tendencies in, 598
Mitchell, Isabel, 282
Mohawk
land and, 35, 245–46
peaceful coexistence with white settlers, 33–34
in Revolutionary War, 240, 241–42
and Royal Proclamation line, 42
Molineux, William, 127–28
monarchy. See British monarchy
monetary policy
of colonial governments, specie shortages, 329
under Constitution, 342
control of, as goal of Constitutional Convention, 231 See also paper money
money of account. See barter system
Monmouth, battle of, 262
Monroe, James, 382, 490
Montagu, Charles, 41
Montcalm, Marquis de, 3
Montgomery, Mary, 569
Montgomery, Richard, 201
Monthly Anthology and Boston Review (magazine), 528
Moody, Lady Deborah, 418
Moore, Milcah Martha, 296–99, 305
Moorhead, Scipio, 501
Moral Library, The (periodical), 567
moral reform societies, women’s activism and, 626
Moravian Indians, 244
Moravian settlers, 34, 418
Morgan, George, 242
Morison, William, 52
Morris, Gouverneur
at Constitutional Convention, 397, 399
as diplomat, 600
and financial reform, 337, 338
sexual practices of, 566, 573
Morris, Robert
as chairman, Committee on Finance, 335–38
on democracy, 384
financial troubles of, 552
and ordinariness of American elite, 57
public anger toward, 205, 206
on rule by wealthy, 384
wealth accumulated during Revolutionary War, 205
Morristown, Continental Army’s winter quarters at, 226
Morrow, Samuel, 161
Morse, Mrs. Robert, 492
Morton, Sarah Wentworth, 530
mothers, unwed, policies on
in early republican period, 571–72
in revolutionary period, 563–64
Moultrie, Jonathan, 602
Moultrie, William, 168
Mount Airy plantation (Virginia), 501
Mount Vernon, slaves
efforts to capitalize on revolutionary disorder, 112–13, 258–59
flight behind British lines, 260, 285
Muhlenberg, Peter, 420
(p. 657) Murray, James, 408
Murray, Judith Sargent, 491, 530
Murrin, John, 407
Murry, Ann, 569
muscular Christianity, of evangelicals, 416
Museum of Fine Art (Boston), 79
museums, Peale’s Philadelphia gallery, 510–11
musket, smoothbore
as basis of British Army tactics, 163–64
as standard weapon of European armies, 164
Muzzey, David, 251
Nanny (enslaved woman), 283
Napoleonic Wars, and domestic production, increase in, 590
Narrative of the Lord’s Wonderful Dealings with John Marrant, A Black (Marrant), 532
Nash, Gary, 116, 194
National Gazette (newspaper), 487–88
National Woman Suffrage Association, 626
Native Americans. See Indians
natural law
as basis of national policy, in Jeffersonian ideology, 597, 601–2
colonists’ perception of colonial law as, 542
natural rights
vs. civil rights, 89, 98–99, 447–48
colonists’ claim of, 89, 98–99
colonists’ shift to emphasis on, 448, 449–56
as incitement to slaves, 252–54
and rights of African Americans, 448, 454, 456, 458–59, 461
and rights of women, 448, 461
conception of universal humanity underlying, 451–52
in Declaration of Independence, 448, 454–55
delayed significance of, 457–59
as Democratic-Republican basic principle, 493, 496
evolution of theory of, 449–52, 460–61
right of revolution as, 456–58
Nature’s Metropolis (Cronon), 195
navigation act, U.S., as issue at Constitutional Convention, 399
Navigation Acts, British
applicability to all British possessions, 19
provisions of, 68–69, 86
purpose of, 85
U.S. postwar exclusion from, 469
Neal, John, 529
needlework, 501–2
Negro in Our History, The (Woodson), 251
Negro in the American Revolution, The (Aptheker), 251–52
Negro in the American Revolution, The (Quarles), 252
Nell, William C., 250–51
Nelson, Horatio, 471
Nelson, William, 544
neoclassical style, American architecture and, 504, 506
Neolin (Delaware prophet), 37
Netawatwees (Newcomer; Delaware chief), 238
neutral citizens
and hobbling of American war efforts, 116
needed research on, 113
number of, 113
New Army, U.S., Washington as commander of, 489, 605
Newcomer (Netawatwees; Delaware chief), 238
New England
abolition of slavery, 473
British efforts to isolate, 202–3
British isolation in, impact on War, 183–84
patriot movement in, internal divisions as impediment to, 109–10
secession efforts (Hartford Convention), 473
women’s wartime experiences in, 275–77
New Hampshire Grants, 35
New Hampshire Register (almanac), 527
New Hampshire state
economic policies, popular protests against, 376
ratification of Constitution, 402
New Imperial History (Wilson. ed.), 468
New Jersey
“Act for regulating and shortening the Proceedings in the Courts of Law” (1784), 546
loyalist African American guerrilla band in, 262
wartime destruction in, 217
New Jersey (small state) plan, 395, 397–98
New Orleans, battle of (1815), 473
Newport, Rhode Island
as focus of research, 194–95
as French naval base, 202
postwar status of, 210
siege of, 188
newspapers
characteristic content of, 526–27
circulation and publication schedules, 526
in early national period, emphasis on virtue and rationality, 567
elopement ads in, 564–65
in North vs. South, characteristics of, 522
as political instruments, 487–88
and mutual benefits of controversy, 526
postal service’s subsidized delivery of, 526
post-Revolution growth of, 519, 526
and public participation in politics, 488
self-divorce announcements in, 564–65, 570
venereal disease cures advertised in, 562–63
New York Bible Society, 532
New York City
black artisans in, 586–87
British occupation
damage to city, 203
departure, 204, 263–64, 285
guerrilla war in periphery, 204
isolation within city, 203–4
refugees from, 219
committee of safety in, 130
economy and culture of, 196
impact of War on, 204, 207–8, 210–11
post-war economic growth, 207
as focus of British strategy, 183, 184, 203
as focus of research, 194–95
merchants, nonimportation agreements, 76, 87, 92–93
parallels with London, 196, 206–7
public sculpture, colonial era, 502–3
slave revolt of 1741, 105
Tyler on decadence of, 623
(p. 658) New York colony
assembly
protests against British tax policy, 87
suspension of, 90
backcountry, Indian-white relations in, 33–34
extra-legal bodies, formation of, 128
fiscal and monetary policy, 331
Green Mountain Boys revolt against, 35
New York Mechanics Committee, 580
New York Society for Promoting Arts, Agriculture, and Oeconomy, 580
New York state
constitution, on direct democracy, 132
divorce laws, 569
ratification of Constitution, 402
Nicholson, Francis, 512
Nickolls, Robert Boucher, 440
ninety-two, significance of number for Whig radicals, 76, 91–92
Noailles, Vicomte de, 508
Noll, Mark, 421
nonimportation agreements against British goods
artisans and, 580
and construction of extra-legal bodies, 93, 97
and direct democracy, 129
enforcement of, 106, 109, 127–28, 129, 153
impact on farmers, 110–11
merchants and, 126–27, 143–44
at national level, 129–30
against Stamp Act, 75, 87
against Townshend Act, 75–77, 92–93, 127
Non-Intercourse Act of 1809, 590
North, Lord Frederick
on American tax resistance, 91, 93, 97
and battle of Yorktown, response to, 360
on Boston Tea Party, 95
character of, 357
financial management, excellence of, 357
resignation of, 360, 361
and Revolutionary War, lack of leadership on, 358–59
North administration
concessions to Irish Patriots, 366
efficient support of Army under, 358
George III’s support of, 356–57
impact of War on, 356–60
leading figures in, 357–58
Parliamentary opposition, 360–61
Parliamentary support, 356–57, 360
Revolutionary War strategy, 177, 183, 188
change in after French intervention, 25, 187–88, 205, 208, 355–56, 361, 431
internal dissension regarding, 357–59
isolation of New England, 202–3
New York as focus of, 183, 184, 203
North’s lack of leadership on, 358–59
North Briton, The (pamphlet), 76
North Carolina
backcountry
Cherokee War and, 37
patriot struggle for support in, 108–9
Regulator movement in, 39–40, 108–9, 407–8
settlers in
anger at colonial government, 39–41
characteristics of, 36
wartime destruction in, 217
cession of western lands to federal government, 600
constitution, Regulators’ influence on, 40
prewar tensions as determinant of wartime loyalties, 114
ratification of Constitution, 402
Northern states, sectional interests
in framing of Constitution, 399
pursuit of, after Constitutional ratification, 403
North-Fox administration, 363–64, 367
Northwest Ordinance of 1787, 494
Norton, Mary Beth, 274
Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson), 439
Nova Scotia
postwar movement of free blacks to, 263–64, 270n47, 303, 440
and Stamp Act, 19 See also Halifax, Nova Scotia
novels, American, 520, 521, 525
nullification of law, right of
under popular form of republican law, 544–47
under precedent-based form of republican law, 550–56
Observations on the Commerce of the American States (Sheffield), 469
Observations on the Nature of Civil Liberty (Price), 364
O’Hara, Charles, 185, 261
Ohio country
collapse of imperial regulation in, 86
Indian expulsion from, 237–38, 403, 600
mixture of cultures, races and religions in, 34
in Revolutionary War, 242
wartime destruction in, 218
white settlement of, as contrary to law, 31
Ojibways, in Revolutionary War, 243
Olive Branch Petition, 98, 144, 148
Oliver, Andrew, 75, 87, 306n1
Oliver, Peter, 76, 291, 295, 297
Oneida
in backcountry, 33
in Revolutionary War, 240, 241
Stockbridge Indians and, 245
Onondagas, in Revolutionary War, 240, 280
Origin and Progress (Oliver), 306n1
Origin and Progress of the Tory Rebellion, The (Oliver), 291
Ormond, Henry, 506
Osborn, Sarah, 173, 283
Otis, Harrison Gray, 505
Otis, James, 90–91, 127, 252, 453, 454–55, 541
Ottawa Indians, in Revolutionary War, 243
Ottoman Empire, loss of lands to Russia, 317, 323
Oxford History of the British Empire (Marshall), 475
Page, John, 115, 134
Paine, Thomas
Common Sense, 98, 149, 484, 580
The Crisis, 301
influence on Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, 580
and natural law as basis for policy, 601
on republican law, 543
on Revolution, as remaking of the world, 7–8
Rights of Man, 492
on taxation without representation, 73
as voice of artisans, 580
(p. 659) Painter, Thomas, 170
painters, American
financial difficulties of, 508
rural market and, 509–10
struggle for patronage and recognition, 508–9, 514–15
painting, American
folk (primitive) painters, 509–10
history paintings, market for, 508–9
portraits
demand for, 500–501, 508, 509, 510