Abstract and Keywords
In February 1778, France and the United States formed a military alliance and signed a Treaty of Amity and Commerce. Five years later, Britain sued for peace and surrendered its claims to North America south of Canada. These two diplomatic coups led to the formation of the American republic. Even before the 1783 treaty, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and other statesmen were already hatching plans on how to secure the republic's vast territorial gains. Jefferson and many of his political supporters turned away from traditional European statecraft and embraced a “naturalist” approach that would become the prevailing language of American foreign relations and an important element of American national identity. However, Jefferson's natural rights statecraft was consistently challenged by the realities of international politics, which explains why American statesmen continued to invoke Vattel's Law of Nations doctrine and to urge, into the 1820s, the United States to respect and abide by international law.
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