Abstract and Keywords
Two decades after the Seven Years' War, two European monarchical empires, France and Spain, reluctantly but substantially assisted the republican independence of thirteen European colonies. By aiding the United States, France and Spain encountered just the kinds of perils they hoped to avoid. Britain was led by George III, Spain by Charles III, and France by Louis XV; all three kings reigned over American possessions. From a diplomatic point of view, the United States, France, and Spain at least had each other. In contrast, Britain fought for America and empire from 1775 to 1783 without a major European ally. In the early stages of the American Revolution, while France and Spain were providing at least limited and secret aid to the American states, Britain was obtaining only the help it could pay for.
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