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date: 21 November 2017

(p. xxi) List of Tables

(p. xxi) List of Tables

  1. Table 1.1. (r) Indices by social class and style in New York City 13

  2. Table 1.2. Negative concord in Detroit African American Vernacular English (AAVE) by gender and social class 14

  3. Table 1.3. -t/d deletion in Detroit African American English (percentages) 15

  4. Table 1.4. Constraints on variable subject personal pronoun expression in Spanish 17

  5. Table 1.5. Subject personal pronoun variation in Mexican-descent children 19

  6. Table 1.6. Hierarchies of constraints within the person variable: newcomers 20

  7. Table 1.7. Indexical markers: endpoints on the continua of norteña and sureña identity 20

  8. Table 7.1. Illustration of Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit associations between (ING) and intelligence 145

  9. Table 9.1. Comparisons of groups and individuals 180

  10. Table 9.2. Variable rule analysis of the linguistic constraints on be absence in three villages on Bequia 185

  11. Table 9.3. Overall distribution of existentials in Bequia, by village and speaker type (stay-at-home vs. urban sojourner) 189

  12. Table 9.4. Factors contributing to standard agreement with postverbal subjects in be existentials in Bequia 190

  13. Table 9.5. Factors contributing to verbal agreement with postverbal subjects in have/get existentials in Bequia 191

  14. Table 10.1. Example of a Latin square design with the languages A–D, stimuli 1–4, and test versions I–IV 199

  15. Table 11.1. New York City department store (r) cross-tabulation, chi-square, and Fisher exact test 220

  16. Table 11.2. New York City department store (r) fixed-effects logistic regression 221

  17. Table 11.3. Polish English (ing) in London fixed-effects and mixed-effects logistic regression models for (ing) among Polish-English bilinguals 225

  18. Table 11.4. Gretna (r) unordered multinomial logistic regression 227 (p. xxii)

  19. Table 11.5. Waldorf /ay/-monophthongization ordered multinomial logistic regression 229

  20. Table 11.6. Austin LOT/THOUGHT F2 heteroscedastic mixed-effects regression 232

  21. Table 14.1. Summary of variables in different sign languages 288

  22. Table 16.1. Fishman’s (1991) Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale 324

  23. Table 16.2. Common minority language use patterns among children 325

  24. Table 21.1. Language-specific vs. articles analyzing more than one language in three major journals 428

  25. Table 21.2. Languages examined in three major journals 429

  26. Table 22.1. Copular verb paradigm for Buckie English 453

  27. Table 22.2. The Buckie paradigm 455

  28. Table 23.1. Variable-rule analysis of factors contributing to choice of se-marked bajar-subir 455

  29. Table 23.2. VARBRUL weights for switch reference San Juan vs. Madrid 478

  30. Table 23.3. Null and pronominal triggers cross-tabulated with switch reference in San Juan and Madrid 478

  31. Table 24.1. Significance tests for adjacent age groups 491

  32. Table 24.2. Developmental trajectory for be like 493

  33. Table 24.3. Overall distributions of quotative verbs in five Outer Circle International Corpus of English (ICE) corpora 497

  34. Table 26.1. Canada’s official languages 534

  35. Table 30.1. Indigenous peoples, population and languages in Latin America 614

  36. Table 32.1. Successor states: history of incorporation into the Russian Empire and the USSR 653

  37. Table 32.2. Student distribution by language of instruction in (day) secondary schools in Soviet republics and successor states 660

  38. Table 32.3. Language maintenance and russification among titulars in the Soviet republics and successor states 662

  39. Table 38.1. Number of languages by continent having fewer than 10,000 and 1,000 speakers 780 (p. xxiii)