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date: 18 November 2017

(p. xxiii) List of Figures

(p. xxiii) List of Figures

  1. Figure 1.1. The social stratification of (r) in New York City 14

  2. Figure 4.1. A geometrical representation of the relationship between discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics. 70

  3. Figure 4.2. A geometrical representation of the relationship between discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics, extrapolated from Dittmar. 70

  4. Figure 4.3. A geometrical representation of the relationship between discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics, following Trudgill. 72

  5. Figure 4.4. A geometrical representation of the relationship of family resemblance 72

  6. Figure 4.5.“Alliance for the Future of Austria” poster 82

  7. Figure 7.1. Free classification task, with 48 stimulus items. 135

  8. Figure 7.2. Upper Peninsula listeners show no difference in perceptual boundaries for ambiguous /a/-/æ/ tokens. 136

  9. Figure 7.3. Short-term repetition priming by dialect group. Long-term repetition priming by dialect group. 139

  10. Figure 9.1. Correlations of four factors derived from principal components analysis of four vowel variables for speakers in Sydney, Australia 181

  11. Figure 9.2. Linguistic factors contributing to (t/d)-deletion by individual speaker 182

  12. Figure 9.3. Location of Bequia in the Eastern Caribbean and research sites on Bequia. 183

  13. Figure 9.4. Rates of be absence by individual speaker in Bequia. 186

  14. Figure 9.5. Percentage of be absence for Paget Farm speakers: Urban sojourner vs. average of stay-at-home peers 187

  15. Figure 9.6. Percentage of be absence for Hamilton speakers: Urban sojourner vs. average of stay-at-home peers 187

  16. Figure 9.7. Percentage of be absence for Mount Pleasant speakers: Urban sojourner vs. average of stay-at-home peers 188

  17. Figure 11.1. The two Austin speakers with the highest and the lowest Pillai scores for vowel class, respectively, and their vowel tokens in the F1 x F2 space 233 (p. xxiv)

  18. Figure 11.2. North American English LOT/THOUGHT distance by speaker and region 234

  19. Figure 15.1a. Geographic distribution of creoles and pidgins 302

  20. Figure 15.1b. Caribbean creoles and pidgins 303

  21. Figure 15.2. Schematization of social factors and the ecology of creole formation 316

  22. Figure 19.1. American Sign Language lexical item WATER 385

  23. Figure 19.2. British Sign Language and Auslan lexical item FATHER 386

  24. Figure 19.3. Irish Sign Language lexical item GARDEN 387

  25. Figure 24.1. Overall distribution of quotative verbs across apparent time, c.2002 489

  26. Figure 24.2. Scatter plot showing the distribution of be like across apparent time, c.2002. 491

  27. Figure 24.3. Quoted thought across time in New Zealand English 495

  28. Figure 24.4. Constraint effects on be like in four Outer Circle varieties 499

  29. Figure 25.1. Two-handed and one-handed variants of the ASL sign cow 505

  30. Figure 25.2. Historical change in the BSL sign PERHAPS 506

  31. Figure 25.3. Phonological variation in the ASL sign deaf 506

  32. Figure 25.4. Three Auslan/NZSL forehead location signs and one lowered variant 508

  33. Figure 25.5. Color signs in the northern (top) and southern (bottom) dialects of Auslan 510

  34. Figure 25.6. Lexical variation due to age in ASL 513

  35. Figure 25.7. Variation due to age in NZSL eight 514

  36. Figure 25.8. Examples of lexical variation in ISL due to gender 515

  37. Figure 25.9. Example of lexical variation due to ethnicity in ASL 516

  38. Figure 25.10. Examples of Maori signs in NZSL 517

  39. Figure 29.1. Contemporary South Asia 588

  40. Figure 29.2. The growth of the Mughal Empire in India 589

  41. Figure 30.1. Ideological orientations in language and cultural policy 611

  42. Figure 35.1. Student narrative publications 2004–2010 726

  43. Figure 35.2. Impact of student professionalism narratives at Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) 728

  44. Figure 35.3. Photo of defaced poster published in Mindfulness and Medicine 730

  45. Figure 35.4. Overall satisfaction with quality of education. 731

  46. Figure 35.5. Responsiveness of administration to student concerns. 731

  47. Figure 35.6. Percentage change in number of applications to all US medical schools and to IUSM from Indiana residents and nonresidents 732

  48. Figure 38.1 Twenty countries with highest number of languages 776

  49. Figure 38.2. Languages with 100 million or more speakers as a proportion of world population 777 (p. xxv)

  50. Figure 38.3 Number of languages spoken by fewer than 10,000 speakers in high biodiversity regions 782

  51. Figure 38.4 Number of languages spoken by fewer than 1,000 speakers in high biodiversity regions 783 (p. xxvii)