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date: 21 November 2017

(p. 833) Index

(p. 833) Index

A
AAE. See African American English (AAE)
AAVE. See African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
Abbreviations, sign-writing contact, 385–87
Aboriginal languages, endangerment, 778. See also Indigenous languages
Accent and Identity on the Scottish-English Border (AISEB), 216
Accents, social stratification and, 162
Access, linguistic anthropology, 41
Action
display of, seen-but-unnoticed, 92
principle of reflexivity, 99
Action-related qualities of discourse, 75
Action research model, social activism, 817
Active-passive alternation, morphosyntactic variation, 446
Activism. See Social activism, social linguistics and
Actor-centered model, 58–59, 61
Adam, R., 389
Adegbija E., 548
Adger, David, 445
combinatorial variability, 454–56
Competing Grammars model, 452
early variable rule framework, 446
generative approach to morphosyntactic variation, 452–54
introspection, 448
social/external factors, morphosyntactic variation, 459n13
Adjacency pairs, Conversation Analysis (CA), 95–96
Advocacy research, language awareness, 755
Africa, English in language policy and ideology, 5, 545–61
Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, 546
colonial and postcolonial language policies, 546–48, 551
Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, 546
French, offer to Africans, 547
colonizer’s model of the world approach, 551–58
and globalization, 553–55
and internationalization, 552–53
and neocolonialism, 552–53
conspiracy theory, 548–50
French, offer to Africans, 547
grassroots theory, 548
linguistic imperialism, defined, 549
Singapore, spread of English in, 550, 556
spread and hegemony of English, theoretical approaches, 548–50
conspiracy theory, 548–50
grassroots theory, 550
vernacularization, 545–46, 554–55, 557–59
Why and How Africa Should Invest in African Languages and Multilingual Education (Quane and Glanz), 546
African American English (AAE), 682
copula variation, 445, 447–48
Labov, William, 445
morphosyntactic variation, copula variation, 445, 447–48
North Carolina, 756–57, 760
social activism, 823
African Americans. See also African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
Ann Arbor, Michigan, 817
Black ASL project. See Black ASL project
deaf communities, 282
deaf education, 282
Detroit, 13–14, 23–24
negative concord, 14
t/d deletion, 15
Kendall School (District of Columbia), 282
non-rhotic dialects, 266
perceived speaker race, sociolinguistic stereotypes, 141–42
quotations (Springville, Texas), 272
rap music, 41
sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation, 515
social activism and speech patterns, 818
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
copula variation, 445, 447–48
dialect density measure (DDM), 271
lifespan change, 271
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)=
Detroit, 14
African slave trade, pidgins and creoles, 305
Africa, sign language contact, 391
Ager, D., 550
Agree, morphosyntactic variation, 453
Agriculture and linguistic diversity, 775
AISEB. See Accent and Identity on the Scottish-English Border (AISEB)
Alaska, language revitalization, 793
Albanians, language maintenance and shift, 330–31
Alba, R., 327
Alexander II (emperor of Russia), 655
Alexander III (emperor of Russia), 655
Alexander, Pierre, 547
“Alliance for the Future of Austria” poster, 82
Alternative hypothesis, quantitative analysis, 215
American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC), 722
exit questionnaire, 723–24, 731
American College of Physicians, 720
American Dialect Society Committee on Teaching, 822
American Dialect Society Conference (Baltimore, Maryland), 822
American Educational Research Council (AERA), 827
American Federation of Teachers (AFT), 827
American Generative Phonology, 426
Americanization, 529
Americanization movement, 529
American Medical Association
Strategic Teaching and Evaluation of Professionalism (STEP), 726–28
American Political Science Review, 652
American School for the Deaf (Hartford Connecticut), 282
American Sign Language (ASL), 21. See also Sign languages, methods for
Black ASL project. See Black ASL project
gay lifestyle, ASL signs, 515
grammatical variation, 517–18
historical context for attitudes about, 684–93
American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA), 686
and black Deaf community, 687
cochlear implants, 692–93
and educational policies, 689–91
hard-of-hearing, defined, 691
identity, impact of language attitudes on, 691–93
late deafened, defined, 691
mainstreaming, 691–92
oral deaf, defined, 691
social factors, 689–91
and structured reality, 685–89
studies, 687–89
lexical variation, 504
official recognition of, 684
Pidgin Signed English (PSL), 381
region, 510–11
sensitivity to audiological status of interviewer, 284–85
American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA), 686
Americans with Disabilities Act, 335
American Tongues (video and tv project), 823
ANAE. See Atlas of North American English (ANAE)
Anglicist Colonial Period (1835–1947), 590
Ann Arbor, African American students, 817
Annual Review of Anthropology, 37
Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth (GRI), 693
Ansalado, 309
“Anti-English,” East Pakistan and West Pakistan, 595
Anttila, A., 430
Appalachian English, North Carolina, 757
Apparent time construct, variationist sociolinguistics, 12
Applied Linguistics, 466
Aquinnah, language revitalization, 808
Arabic/English, codeswitching, 362
Arabic-heritage urban youth, bilingual/multilingual research, 117
Arabic speakers
France, language maintenance and shift, 325
Turkey, language maintenance and shift
community factors, 327–28
family factors, 326
societal factors, 332
Argentina
bilingualism, 622
immigration, bilingual education and, 616
Armenia, language management, 666–68
Armstrong, J., 740
Asia
language maintenance and shift, 331–32
sign language contact, 391
ASL. See American Sign Language (ASL)
ASLTA. See American Sign Language Teachers Association (ASLTA)
Atkinson, J. M., 701, 703, 714–15
Atlas of North American English (ANAE), 264, 267
phonology and sociolinguistics, 432
sociophonetics, 404
normalization, 411
Plotnik program, 410
points of measurement, selection of, 407–8
tokens, selection of for analysis, 404–6
Attitudes
American Sign Language (ASL), toward. See American Sign Language (ASL)
intelligibility, relationship, 196
language. See Language policy, ideology, and attitudes
language attitudes. See Language attitudes, language revitalization and
Auger, D., 448
Auslan. See Australian Sign Language (Auslan)
Austin, J. L., 59, 465
Austin, P. K., 824
Australia
Dutch speakers, 331
language maintenance and shift, official language policy, 332
linguistic diversity, 778
sociolinguistic stereotypes, perceived speaker origin, 141
Sydney, correlations of four factors derived from principal components analysis of four vowel variables for speakers, 181
Australian learners of Japanese, second language acquisition, 344, 355–56
Australian Sign Language (Auslan), 21
age, 512
fingerspelling, 512
grammatical variation, 517–18
lexical variation, 504
phonological variation and change, 508, 508–9
region, 509–10
sign-writing contact, 387
Austria
Carinthia election campaign, 82–83
National Socialism, 83–84
Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), 82–83
Autosegmental Phonology, 430
Awheto, Stephanie, 746–47
Azerbaijan, language management, 668–69
B
Bailey, G., 272
Baker, A. E., 383
Baker, Lo, 814
Bakhtin, M. M., 158, 707
Bakker, P., 309, 311
Baldwin, Daryl, 804
Baloochi, 595
Ban and Sam, sociophonetics, 408
Bangladesh, 595–96. See also India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, language policies and politics
Ban Khor Sign Language, 389, 394
Baptista, M., 821
Bar-Hillel, Y., 464
Barnfield, K., 263–64
Barrick, R., 744
Barthes, R., 249
Bartlett, F. C., 464
Basquecization activities, Spain
Bathula, H., 323
Batibo, H. M., 819
Baugh, J., 818, 827
Bayesianism, 235
Bayley, R., 343, 817–18
Beijing yuppies, 25
Belarus, language management, 671–73
Belfast residents, speech differences, 59, 448
Be like. See Variation and change
Belorussians, Russian Empire, 656
Bender, E., 447–48, 456
Bengali language, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, 593–94
Bequia
longitudinal studies, 275n7
variation in the community and the individual. See Community, individual and
Berardo, M., 807
Berk-Seligson, S., 716
Berlin Conference of 1884–1885, 546
Bernstein, B., 74
Berry, J., 534–35
Bersola-Nguyen, I. A., 115
Beveridge, W. H., 54
Bhattarai, Baburam, 604
Bhutan
Chöke, 600
Classical Tibetan, 600
Dzongkha, 600–601
education, 600–601
Gross National Happiness, 601
language policies and politics, 600–602
Hindi, 600–602
language policies and politics, 600–602
Lhotshampas, management of, 602
“one nation, one people,” 601
sociolinguistic future, 602
Tasha-Sili community, 602
Bi- and multilingual communities, linguistic anthropology, 41
Bilingual education and immigration, Latin America, 616–19
Bilingualism
Canada, 532–37
and language contact
codeswitching, 360–78
language maintenance and shift, 321–39
pidgins and creoles, 301–20
second language acquisition, 340–59
sign language contact, 379–400
Latin America, 622–23
Russia, 671–73
signed language interpreting, 741–43
societal bilingualism, 322
Bilingual/multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization, 113–18
families, immigrant languages, 115
and identity construction, 115–18
indigenous language revitalization, 115
language ideology, shift, persistence and revitalization, 114–15
language shift and construction of selves, 114–15
Bilingual speech production. See Codeswitching
Bilingual translation, language and power school of legal anthropology, 716
Bimodal bilinguals, sign language contact, 383
Binary variables, methods for, 219–25
chi-square distribution, 219
cross-tabulations, interpreting, 219–20
Fisher’s exact test, 219–20
Manhattan department store employee study, 219–20, 221–22, 427
mixed-effects regression, 223–25
Polish English (ing) in London fixed-effects and mixed-effects logistic regression, 225
random intercepts, 223–24
random slopes, 224–25
simple logistic regression, 220–23
betas, coefficients, or estimates, 221, 221
nesting, 222–23
New York City department store (r) cross-tabulation, chi-square, and Fisher exact test, 220
New York City department store (r) fixed-effects logistic regression, 221
regression, 222–23
step-down procedures, 222
step-up procedures, 222
stepwise techniques, 222
Biocultural diversity, use of term, 774
Biodiversity hotspots, linguistic diversity in, 780–83
Eurasian languages, 783
European languages, 783
GIS (global information systems), 780
Global Mapping International, 780
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 780
list of hotspots, 781
number of languages spoken by fewer than 1000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 783
number of languages spoken by fewer than 10,000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 782
Red List of IUCN, 780
Biolinguistic diversity, use of term, 774
Black ASL project
changes in and sociolinguistic variation, 516
differences between black and white signing, 292
Houston community, 280–81, 295
and interviews, 285
National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA), 294
signing audiences, 294
sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation, 516
variables, 286–87
variation in, 282
What’s your sign for PIZZA? (DVD), 295, 823
Black Deaf community, attitudes toward signed languages, 687
Blackledge, A., 243–44
Blaut, J. M., 551
Blocking Effect, Competing Grammars model, 450
Blommaert, J., 529, 824
Blondeau, H., 264, 269–70, 272–73
Boas, Franz, 813–14
Bodies of knowledge, 158
Boeckx, C., 55–56
Boersma, P., 431
Bolinger, D., 812
Bolivia, indigenous language policy, 615
Bolshevik literary campaign (Soviet Union), 799
Bonilla-Silva, E., 159
Border, distance to and language maintenance and shift, 328
Borrowing
sign language contact, 384–87
gestures, borrowing of from ambient hearing community, 391–92
lexical borrowing across sign languages, 390–91
sign-writing contact, 384–87
Boundary phenomenon, sign languages, 290
Bounded rationality, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 476
Bourdieu, P., 158
Bowie, D., 268
Brazilian cities, first person plural pronoun, 273
Brazilian Portuguese, longitudinal study, 269–70
Brazilian Sign Language, region, 509
Breaching experiments, Conversation Analysis (CA), 92
Brecht, R., 531
Brenzinger, M., 819
British-Chinese children, codeswitching, 371
British Conquest of 1760, 533
British-English dialects, sociophonetics, 405
British India. See India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, language policies and politics
British/Indian participants in conversations, 242
British Raj
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, 589–90
Sri Lanka, 597
British Sign Language (BSL), 21
age, 512
fingerspelling, 512
language attitudes, 747
lexical variation, 504
PERHAPS, 506
phonological variation and change, 505–7
region, 510
sign-writing contact, 384
Britten, N., 105, 107
Brock-Utne, B., 559
Bronson, M. C., 119–20
Brown vs. Board of Education, 282
BSL. See British Sign Language (BSL)
Bucholtz, M., 111
Buchstaller, I., 263–65, 496
Buckie English paradigm, 452, 453, 454–57
Bush, George W., 709
Butowsky, R., 515
By-Census (2006), Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 574
BZÖ (Carinthia election campaign), 82–83
C
CA. See Conversation Analysis (CA); Conversation analysis (CA)
Caldas, S., 329
California
Japanese schools, language maintenance and shift, 329
Latina adolescent girls, gang affiliated, 116–17
Latin American groups, Southern California, 540
quotative be like, language stability vs. language change, 265
California, University of at Berkeley
Language Behavior Research Laboratory, 113
California, University of at Santa Barbara, 91
Cameron, D., 755, 757
Cameron, R., 468, 477–78
Campbell-Kibler, K., 143–44
Canada. See also Montréal; Toronto
bilinguals, 119
female high school students, longitudinal study, 269
indigenous language revitalization, 115
language policy, ideology, and attitudes, 532–34
British Conquest of 1760, 533
Common Curriculum Framework for Bilingual Programming in International Languages, 536
Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, 536
English-French bilingualism, 532–34
Heritage languages, 536
immigrants, 535
Multiculturalism Act (1988), 535
official languages, 534
Official Languages Act of 1969, 534
official multiculturalism, 534–37
and political goals, 536
schools, 536
Maritime Sign Language (MSL), 393
Récits du François (RFQ), 264–65
Canada Raising, 141
Canadian French immersion learners, 341–45, 348–49
Canadian shift, St. Johns, 267
Cane Walk, Guyana study, 22–23
Cantonese
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 574, 576, 577
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 564
Cantonese-English bilinguals, codeswitching, 372–73
Cantonese-Mandarin, codeswitching, 372–75
Capotorti, F., 637–38
Caribbean, Bequia. See Bequia
Caribbean creoles and pidgins 2012, 303
Caribbean creoles, language ideology, 114
Caribbean Spanish, null pronoun variations, 21
Carinthia election campaign, 82–83
Carnap, R., 464
Carr, E. S., 715
Carter, P., 271
Casasanto, Staum, 141–42
Case Western Reserve University, 723
“Castillianization,” Latin America, 615–16
Catalan language, 639
Categorization, quantitative analysis, 217–18
Catherine II (empress of Russia), 652
Caucasus, linguistic diversity, 786
Caught/cot merger
longitudinal study, 267
sociophonetics, 404–5
CCP. See Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
CCR. See Consonant cluster reduction (CCR)
CDA. See Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)
Cedergren, H., 262, 447
CEFRL. See Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL)
Center for Applied Statistics (CAL), 816
Central Working Committee for the Promotion of Putonghua (The People’s Republic of China), 566
Chambers, J. K., 1
Change, variation and. See Variation and change
Charity Hudley, A. H., 819, 821–22
Charmey, Switzerland, studies on linguistic change, 12
Charter of Fundamental Rights, Europe, 645n6
Chaudenson, R., 305
Chavez, Cesar, 812
Chen Shuibian, 580
Cherokee language, 767
Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma, 808
Cheshire, J., 446
Chew, P. C.-L., 550
Chicago
Latino youth, language maintenance and shift, 329–30
Northern Cities Shift, 264, 267
Spanish speakers, 334
Chief Wild Horse, 808
China
Beijing yuppies, 25
language policy and ideology. See Greater China, language policy and ideology
“Chinaising,” Taiwan, 579
Chinese adult learners of English, second language acquisition, 343
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 565, 566, 570–71, 573
Chinese dialects, 202, 210
Chinese/English, codeswitching, 362–64
Chinese medium of instruction (CMI)
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 575
Chinese MOI policy
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 575, 576
Taiwan, 578
Chinese Script Reform Association, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 566
Chi-square distribution, 219
Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT), 596
Chöke, Bhutan, 600
Chomsky, N., 62
autonomous linguistics, 526
bias, 62
Derivation by Phase, 459n10
on “ordinary talk,” 91
on technical adjustment, 55–56
CHT. See Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT)
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title VII, 813
Clark, R., 479
Classical Tibetan, Bhutan, 600
Clopper, C. G., 133–34, 140
Closely related language varieties, measuring intelligibility of, 4, 195–213
Chinese dialects, 202, 210
content questions, 202–3
Danish/Swedish language, 199, 203–4, 208, 210
functional testing, 202–8
content questions, 202–3
observations, 207
performance task, 207–8
reaction times, 206–7
recorded text testing (RTT), 206
SPIN (Speech Perception in Noise), 205–6
translations, 203–6
general methodological considerations, 197–200
Latin square design with the languages A–D, stimuli 1–4 and test versions I–IV, 199
reference condition, building into experiment, 200
speakers, 198–99
subjects, 199–200
task, 200
test material, 197–98
intelligibility and attitudes, relationship, 196
Latin square design, 198, 199
methods, 201–9
comparing, 209–10
functional testing, 202–8
opinion testing, 201–2
role of linguistic factors, testing to determine, 208
morphosyntax, 209
neighborhood density of words, 198
Netherlands/Belgium, 204
observations, 207
opinion testing, 201–2
with speech samples, 202
without speech samples, 201–2
performance task, 207–8
reaction times, 206–7
recorded text testing (RTT), 206
semicommunication, 195
and social stigmas, 196
speakers, 198–99
speech fragments, 198
SPIN (Speech Perception in Noise), 205–6
systematically manipulated speech, 196–97
task, 200
test material, 197–98
translations, 197–98, 203–6
CMI. See Chinese medium of instruction (CMI)
Cobbett, W., 49
Cochlear implants, 692–93
Code-blending, sign-speech contract, 382–84
Code-mixing, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 576
Codeswitching, 5, 360–78, 528
bilingual speech production, 361–65
Chinese/English, 362–64
combining, community norms, 364–65
Dutch-Sranan, 364
English-Arabic bilingual, 362
examples, 361–62
French/English pronoun object, conflict in, 363
inter-clausal, 363
inter-sentential, 363
intra-clausal, 363
Italian, interference, 362
morphological, 363
most frequently occurring types, example of, 362–63
typology of, 364–65
British-Chinese children, 371
Cantonese-English bilinguals, 372–73
Cantonese-Mandarin, 372–75
Chinese/English, 362–64
combining, community norms, 364–65
competence, 368
Conversation Analysis (CA), 369–70
defining, 360, 364–65
Dutch-Sranan, 364
English-Arabic bilingual, 362
ethno-poetics, 371
examples, 361–62
French/English pronoun object, conflict in, 363
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 576
inter-clausal, 363
internal factors, 367
inter-sentential, 363
intra-clausal, 363
Italian, interference, 362
Markedness model, 367–68
Matrix Language Frame Model, 368
metaphorical codeswitching, 366
methodological issues, 361–65
monolingual ideology, 371
morphological, 363
motivations for codeswitching by bilinguals, 366–68
one language at a time (OLAT), 366, 371
one language only (OLON), 366, 371
patterns and structures, 368–71
performance, 368
signed language interpreting, 742
sign language contact, 389–90
Ban Khor Sign Language, 389
experimental language switching tasks, 389–90
lexical borrowing across sign languages, 390–91
linguistic interference, 390
Thai Sign Language, 389
sign-writing contact, 385
situational codeswitching, 366–67
Swahili, 367
terminological issues, 361–65
and translanguaging, 371–76
typology of, 364–65
Codification, language revitalization, 798
COE. See Council of Europe (COE)
Coetzee, A., 431, 434
CofP. See Community of practice
Cokely, D.
Interpretation: A Sociolinguistic Model, 737
Collins, S., 744
Colombia, Programa Nacional de Bilingüisimo, 624–25
Colonialism and linguistic diversity, 775
Colonizer’s model of the world approach, African ideologies, 551–58
Chinese languages, 556
diffusionism, 551–52
and globalization, 553–55
indigenous African Languages, language economics and, 555–58
inside leads, 552
and internationalization, 552–53
morphed internationalization, 553–55
and neocolonialism, 552–53
Nepal, Sino-Tibetan languages, 557
outside leads, 552
private subversion of the public good, 553
Rwanda, 554–55
Singapore, 556
South Africa, indigenous languages, 556
“vernacular education cleansing,” 555
“Colorblind,” 159
Combinatorial variability, morphosyntactic variation, 454–56
Buckie paradigm, 455
Committee for Chinese Script Reform, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 566
Committee on Script Reform, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 567
Common Curriculum Framework for Bilingual Programming in International Languages (Canada), 536
Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages (Canada), 536
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), 624
Common Language Law, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 568, 571
Common Market, Latin America, 623
Communicative competence, 113
Communist Party of Nepal, 604
Community
and codeswitching, 364–65
individual and. See Community, individual and
language awareness, community perspective. See Language awareness, community perspective
language maintenance and shift. See Community factors, language maintenance and shift
pidgins and creoles, 311–12, 314
Community factors, language maintenance and shift, 327–31
Albanians, Greece, 330–31
Arabic speakers, Turkey, 327–28
border, distance to, 328
Dutch speakers, Australia, 331
French speakers, 329
Guatemalans, Vancouver (Canada), 330
Japanese schools, California, 329
Latino immigrants, 328
Latino youth, Chicago, 329–30
local community views, 330–31
monolingual speakers, contact with, 328
peer influence, 330
religious after-school programs, 331
schools, 328–29
Spanish speakers, Miami, 327
Tynsdale, United Kingdom, 330
Yiddish-speaking Hasidic Jews, New York, 328, 331
Community, individual and, 175–94
Bequia, variation in the community and the individual, 4, 182–90
absence of be, 184–87
be existentials, 189–90
existentials, 187–90
factors contributing to standard agreement with postverbal subjects in be existentials in Bequia, 190
have/get existentials, 190
location of Bequia and research sites, 183
overall distribution of existentials in Bequia, by village and speaker type (stay-at-home vs. urban sojourner), 189
percentage of be absence for Hamilton speakers: urban sojourner (dashed) vs. average of stay-at-home peers (solid), 187
percentage of be absence for Mount Pleasant speakers: Urban sojourner (dashed) vs. average of stay-at-home peers (solid), 188
percentage of be absence for Paget Farm speakers: urban sojourner (dashed) vs. average of stay-at-home peers, 187
rates of be absence by individual speaker in Bequia, 186
variable-rule analysis of the linguistic constraints on be absence, 185
discussion, 190–91
factors contributing to verbal agreement with postverbal subjects in have/get existentials in Bequia, 191
linguistic grouping, 179–82
groups and individuals, comparisons, 180
Sydney, Australia, correlations of four factors derived from principal components analysis of four vowel variables for speakers, 181
(t/d)-deletion by individual speaker, 182
social grouping, 176–79
Community of practice approach, 244–45, 247–48
Competence, codeswitching, 368
Competing Grammars model, 449–52, 457–58
Blocking Effect, 450
competing grammars, 450–51
Constant Rate Effect, 449, 459n7
Left Dislocation, 449
Verb Second, 449
criticisms of the model, 451–52
fourteenth century Midlands, 450–51
Left Dislocation, 449
morphosyntactic variation, 445
Old English period, 450–51
Penn-Helsinki Corpus of Middle English, 450
Scandinavian speakers in England, 450
Verb Second, 449, 450
Complex language policies, Western Europe, 643–44
Computational modeling and language, 156
Comte, A., 49–51, 60
Condorcet, Marquis de, 49
Conley, J., 713–14
Consonant cluster reduction (CCR), 14–15
Consonants, sociophonetics, 411–13
articulatory methods, 413
liquids, 412–13
rhrotics, 413
Conspiracy theory, 548–50
Constant Rate Effect, 459n7
Competing Grammars model, 449
Constraints, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 468–72
Contact languages, distinguishing between for pidgins and creoles, 304–5
Contact signing, signed language interpreting, 742–43, 749n1
Content questions, closely related language varieties, 202–3
Context
Conversation Analysis (CA), 102–5
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 79–84
“Alliance for the Future of Austria” poster, 82
linguistics of allusion, 81
topos of continuity, 82–83
defining, multilingual contexts, 244
Contextualization, linguistic anthropology, 706
Continuous variables, methods for
multiple predictors, tests with, 231–32
linear regression, 232
mixed-effect regression, 232
multivariate outcomes, tests for, 232–34
Euclidean distance, 232–33
North American English LOT/THOUGHT distance by region and speaker, 234
variance, multivariate analysis of, 233
simple two-sample tests, 230–31
t-test, 230
variance, 230
Wilcoxon signed-rank test, 231
Wilcoxon test, 230–31
Conversation Analysis (CA), 3, 91–110, 369–70, 703–6
adjacency pairs, 95–96
aims of CA, 94
attitude to context and identity, 102–5
bottom up analysis, 95
breaching experiments, 92
context, 102–5
context renewing interactions, 94
context shaped interactions, 94
data driven analysis, 95
ecological validity, research method, 107
epistemology, 107
ethnomethodology, 91–93
documentary method of interpretation, 93
indexicality, 93
normative accountability, 93
reciprocity of perspectives, 93
reflexivity, 93
external validity, research method, 106–7
identity, 102–5
and inconsistency, 711
indexicality, 93
institutional and professional discourse, 105
language and power school of legal anthropology, 713–15
language, law, and power debate, 708–12
and inconsistency, 711
natural conversation, ontological supremacy and analytic priority of, 711–12
news interview (George W. Bush/Dan Rather), 709
orientation of participant, 711
power-driven approaches, 709, 715
talked into being institution of law as, 710
law, language and, 702–6, 703–6, 717
natural conversation, ontological supremacy and analytic priority of, 711–12
news interview (George W. Bush/Dan Rather), 709
objection-mediated question/answer system, 705
objection sequences, 705
one-party-at-a-time rule, 705
“ordinary talk,” 91
orientation of participant, 711
power-driven approaches, 709, 715
preference organization, 96–97
principles of CA, 94–95
procedures, 102
professional discourse, 105–6
quantification, research method, 107
rape cases, 709–11
rational design in interactions, 94
repair, 99–100
research method, CA as, 106–8
applied CA study, 108
ecological validity, 107
epistemology, 107
external validity, 106–7
quantification, 107
reliability, 106
signed language interpreting, sociolinguistic studies of, 738
socially distributed cognition, 101–2
speech exchange system, 705–6
talked into being institution of law as, 703–5, 710
witness’s verbal contribution, 704–5, 712–13
talk-in-interaction, 94
transition relevance place (TRP), 98
turn construction units (TCUs), 98–99
turn taking, 97–99
types of Interactional Organization, 95–100
adjacency pairs, 95–96
preference organization, 96–97
repair, 99–100
turn taking, 97–99
witness’s verbal contribution, 704–5, 712–13, 715
Cook-Gumperz, J., 111, 159
Cook, Vivian, 372
Cooper, R. I., 55
Cooperrider, David, 723
Copenhagen and Naestved, Danish short (a), 268
Copular verb paradigm for Buckie English, 453
Corporation for National and Community Service, 820
Corpus linguistics, 157
Costa, David, 804
Cot/caught merger. See Caught/cot merger
Coulthard, R. M., 69
Council for the Development of French in Louisiana, 308
Council of Europe (COE), 666–68, 670
Courts, language and power school of legal anthropology, 714–16
inferential environment of court, 718n5
Creoles. See Pidgins and creoles
Criminal trial, opening statement, 707
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 3, 67–90, 159, 531
action-related qualities of, 75
“Alliance for the Future of Austria” poster, 82
authentic communication, 76
context, concepts of, 79–84
“Alliance for the Future of Austria” poster, 82
linguistics of allusion, 81
topos of continuity, 82–83
cultural stereotypes, 78
descriptive and critical approaches, 75
discourse, concepts of, 76–79
discourse fragments, 78
Discourse Historical Approach (DHA), 79, 82, 85–86
Fields of Action, 79
general characteristics of, 75–76
Lancaster approach, 67
language and power school of legal anthropology, 713, 715
law, language and, 702, 708
language, law, and power debate, 709
linguistics of allusion, 81
natural communication, 76
and “neutral” science, 75–76
research interests and practice, 84–86
critique, 86
discourse-related problems, 84–85
hypotheses, formation of, 86
methodologies, 85
results, utilization and application of, 86
social order, 85
social wrongs, 85
social order, 85
social wrongs, 85
and sociolinguistics, 68–74
culture and language, correlation, 69
family resemblance, relationship of, 72
geometrical representation of the relationship between discourse analysis, sociolinguistics, and pragmatics, 70, 72
geometrical representation of the relationship of family resemblance, 72
insider perspective, 73
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 69
language barriers, 74
topos of continuity, 82–83
Viennese approach, 67, 73, 80
Cross-fertilization, 236
Cukor-Avila, P., 272
“Cultivating Socially Minded Linguists: Service Learning and Engaged Scholarship in Linguistics and Education,” 822
Culturally Responsive Evaluation, language revitalization, 808
Cultural Orientation Resource Center, 816
Cultural Revolution, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 567, 570–71
Cultural stereotypes, 78
Culture, interdisciplinary approaches, 157–60
Currie Hall, K., 438
Currie, H. C., 68–69
D
Dahan, D., 146–47
Dalai Lama, 602
Danish short (a), longitudinal study, 268
Danish/Swedish language, 199, 203–4, 208, 210
D’Arcy, A., 265, 496, 497
DARE. See Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE)
Darwin, Charles, 49–50, 63n2, 684
Data analysis within language ideology framework, 248–49
Data collection, multilingual contexts, 247–48
Dauenhauer, N. M. and R., 793
Davies, A., 557
Davis, J., 742
Day, Gordon, 808
DDM. See Dialect density measure (DDM)
Deaf. See also Deaf communities; Deaf education
sign language. See Entries beginning Sign language or Signed language
use of uppercase, 694n1
Deaf Blind community, signed language interpreting, 739
Deaf Blind interpretation
Tactile ASL, 749nn5 and 6
variation, 744
Deaf communities
African Americans, 282
American deaf community
attitude toward ASL. See Signed languages, ideologies, policies, and attitudes toward
sign language interpreting, 742–43
social activism, 819
Deaf education
African Americans, 282
and community lack of truest, 284
history of, 282–83
manually coded English (MCEs), 283
Deaflympics Games, 392
Deaf President Now (DPN), 689–91, 695n2
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNESCO), 796
Decolonization of society, Latin America, 615
DeDecker, P., 268–69
de Klerk, G., 824
“Deficit studies,” social activism, 816
De Houwer, A., 324–25
Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), Taiwan, 580
Democratization, Taiwan, 580
Deng Xiaoping, 571
Derivation by Phase (Chomsky), 459n10
De-russification, Russian Empire, 671–72
DeSantis, S., 504
de Saussure, Ferdinand, 52–53, 769
Detroit
African American English (AAE), 13–14, 23–24
t/d deletion, 15
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)
negative concord, 14
sociolinguistic stereotypes, perceived speaker origin, 141
Deviant case analysis, 718n2
The Devil’s Advocate (film), 716–17
De Vries, J. W., 207–8
Dewaele, J-M., 345, 349, 350–52, 354–55
DGS, sign-writing contact, 388
DHA. See Discourse Historical Approach (DHA)
Dialectal variation, psycholinguistic approaches, 133–40
auditory free classification, 134
forced-choice perceptual categorization, 133–34
Indiana/Michigan study, 133–35
long-term repetition priming by dialect group (bottom panel), 138
perceptual categorization of dialects, 133
perceptual learning, 139–40
priming, 137
short-term repetition priming by dialect group (top panel), 138
Dialect contact, longitudinal study, 266
Dialect density measure (DDM), 271
Dichotomization, quantitative analysis, 217–18
Dictionary of American Regional English (DARE), 264
Dictionary of American Sign Language, 291–92
Dictionary of National Pronunciation
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 565
Diffusionism, 551–52
Diglossia, language revitalization, 793–94
Dines, E., 467
Di Paolo, M., 416
Disciplinary boundary crossing, 111
Disciplinary perspectives
Conversation Analysis (CA), 91–110
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 67–90
interdisciplinary approaches, 153–71
language socialization, sociolinguistics and, 67–90
linguistic anthropology, 31–47
psycholinguistic approaches, 133–52
sociology, study of language and, 48–66
variationist sociolinguistics, 11–30
Discourse Analysis, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 479
Discourse fragments, 78
Discourse Historical Approach (DHA), 79, 82, 85–86
Distributed Morphology, 446, 459n8
morphosyntactic variation, 456
Dittmar, N., 69
Dobernig, Harald, 82
Dobrin, L., 824
Docherty, G. J., 412, 435
Documentary method of interpretation, 93
“Doers and makers.” See Sociology, studies of language and
Doetjes, G., 210
Doga people, linguistic diversity, 786–87
“Doing interdisciplinarity” concept, 153–54
Dominican community, New York City, 538
Dörfler, Gerhard, 82
Do You Speak American? (video and tv project), 823
DPP. See Democratic Progressive Party (DPP)
Dual education schools, Latin America, 618
Duisburg Group, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 67
concepts of context, 81
concepts of discourse, 78–79
and sociolinguistics, 74
Duranti, A., 163
Durkheim, E., 51–52, 54, 56
Dutch and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT), 383
Dutch fricatives by radio announcers, 263
Dutch reflexives, longitudinal study, 266
Dutch speakers, Australia, 331
Dutch-Sranan, codeswitching, 364
Dyad effects, second language acquisition, 350–51
Dzongkha, Bhutan, 600–601
E
Eades, D., 716
Early variable rule framework, morphosyntactic variation, 446
Eastern Europe. See Hungarian minority population, Eastern Europe
East India Company (EIC), 589, 590
East Pakistan and West Pakistan
“anti-English,” 595
Baloochi, 595
Bengali language, 593–94
Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT), 596
CHT Peace Accord, 596
Hindu, 596
Kaptai Hydro-Electric Dam, 596
language management, 594
language policies and politics, 593–96
Muslim population, 596
Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), 594
population of Pakistan, 594
Punjabis, 594
Pushtunistan, 594
Urdu, 593
EBE. See Elite bilingual education (EBE)
Ebonics, 821, 823, 827
Eckert, P., 244–45
Detroit, study on African American English (AAE), 13–14, 23–24
Philadelphia neighborhood study, 22
quantitative analysis of, 26
third wave of sociolinguistic research, 25, 44n10, 245, 258n1
Ecological diversity. See Linguistic and ecological diversity
Ecological niche theory, 784–88
Ecological validity, research method, 107
Ecology of language approach, multilingual contexts, 244
Ecuador, indigenous language policy and education, 615
Educational policies, signed languages, 689–91
Education Commission Report No. 4
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 574–75
Edwards, Vivian, 557
EIC. See South Asia, language policies and politics
ELAN. See EUDICO Linguistic Annotator (ELAN)
Electronic communications, borrowings from, 387
ELF. See English as a lingua franca (ELF)
Elite bilingual education (EBE), Latin America, 618–20
Elizabeth (queen of England), broadcasts of, 267, 271
Elliott, N., 267–68
Embick, D., 452
EMI. See English medium instructions (EMI)
Emmorey, K., 290
Empowering research, language awareness, 755–56
Encrevé, P., 262
Endangerment, language. See Language endangerment, current state of linguistic diversity and
Engels, Friedrich, 49
England, dialectical speech, 263–64
English and linguistic diversity, 779
English-Arabic bilingual, codeswitching, 362
English as a lingua franca (ELF), 635
English/Chinese, codeswitching, 362–64
English-dominant countries, language policy. See Language policy, ideology, and attitudes
English in language policy and ideologies In Africa. See Africa, English in language policy and ideology
English medium instructions (EMI)
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 574
English monolingualism and standard language ideology, 528–30
Americanization movement, 529
Likert scale, 530
Matched Guise, 530
Semantic Differentials techniques, 530
standard language ideology, 530
English only
Latin America, 623–24
norm, 532
Envelope of variation
pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 468–72
sign languages, 287–88
Epistemology, Conversation Analysis (CA), 107
ERPs. See Event-related potentials (ERPs)
Ervin-Tripp, S., 113
Eskilstuna (Sweden), morphophonological features, 262
Espinosa, Cutillas, 431
Estonia, language management, 669–71
ET. See Exemplar Theory (ET)
Ethical research, language awareness, 755
Ethnicity
Sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation, 515–17
example of lexical variation due to ethnicity in ASL, 516
Maori signs in NZSL, 516, 517
NZSL, 516, 517
United Kingdom, 516
sociology, studies of language and, 61
Ethnography of speaking, 62
Ethnomethodology, Conversation Analysis (CA), 91–93
documentary method of interpretation, 93
indexicality, 93
normative accountability, 93
reciprocity of perspectives, 93
reflexivity, 93
Ethno-poetics, 371
Ethnosphere, use of term, 774
EU. See European Union (EU)
Euclidean distance, multivariate outcomes, 232–33
EUDICO Linguistic Annotator (ELAN), 291, 436
Eurasian languages, linguistic and ecological diversity, 783, 786
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, 638–39
European Charter of Fundamental Rights, 639
European Commission, 632, 633
European languages, linguistic and ecological diversity, 783
European Parliament, 633, 639
European Union (EU)
languages of, 630, 633
“languages of procedure,” 632
“official languages,” 645n7
“state languages,” 632
research and development programs, 645n8
Event-related potentials (ERPs), 148–50
Exceptionalism, pidgins and creoles, 310
against exceptionalism, 312–17
and exclusive grouping, 323
schematization of social factors and the ecology of creole formation, 316
Exemplar models
interdisciplinary approaches, 155
phonology and sociolinguistics, 432–33
Exemplar Theory (ET), 425
phonology and sociolinguistics, 433–34
Exogenous factors, second language acquisition, 350–51
Exotification, 813–14
“Expats,” distinguished from “migrants,” 641
External validity, research method, 106–7
Extinction, language. See Language endangerment, current state of linguistic diversity and
“Eyebrow flash,” 718n3
Eye-tracking measures, psycholinguistic approaches, 146–48
F
Faber, A., 416
Fabricus, A. H., 404
Facebook, 823
Fairclough, N., 67
concepts of context, 80
concepts of discourse, 77
on power, 159
and sociolinguistics, 73–74
Family
language maintenance and shift, role in, 324–27
Arabic speakers, France, 325
Arabic speakers, Turkey, 326
attitudes, parental, 327
gendered aspects to family language, 325–26
Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale, 324
grandparents, multigenerational households with, 325
minority language use patterns among children, 325
Puerto Rican families, New York, 326
Spanish speakers, El Paso (Texas), 327
Spanish speakers, Toronto, 327
Wales, gender patterns, 326–27
sociolinguistics and family resemblance, 72
Faraclas, N., 314
Fardon, R., 553
Fasold, R., 447
Feagin, C., 814
Feature interpretation, morphosyntactic variation, 445
Fellin, L., 115
Ferguson, Charles, 33
Ferry-furry continuum, perception studies, 416
Fiedler, S., 636
Fields of Action, 79
Filipino interpreters, codeswitching, 742
Films (American), 1932 to 1980, longitudinal study, 267–68
Financial resources, language revitalization, 797–98
Fine in the World: Lumbee Language in Time and Place (Wolfram et al), 762
“Fine-tuning the Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools”
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 576
Fingerspelling
age, 512
and gender, 514–15
signed language interpreting, 742
sign-writing contact, 384–85
and sociolinguistic variation, 504
Finland, 1721–1830, 652
First National Conference, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 568
First Scheme of Simplified Chinese Characters, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 566–67
First wave of sociolinguistic research, 245
Firth, J. R., 464
Fisher, Ronald, 235
Fisher’s exact test, 219–20
Fishman, Joshua A.
on colonial status, 547
grassroots theory, 548
language maintenance, 322
community factors, 328
family factors, 324
Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale, 324
intergenerational language transmission, 324, 335–36
societal factors, 331
Post-Imperial English, 550
Reversing Language Shift (RLS), 793–94
and sociology of language, 1
Fleetwood, E., 744
Flemish-speaking university learners of French, second language acquisition, 345, 349, 351
Floating Constraint, 430
Flores Ferrán, N., 477–78
Ford Foundation, 816
Forestal, L., 747
Former immersion learners, second language acquisition, 342
Foucault, Michel, 76, 158
Foulkes, P., 412, 433–35, 484
Fourteenth century Midlands, Competing Grammars model, 450–51
Fourth wave of sociolinguistic research, 42
FPÖ. See Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ)
Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute, 271
“Free” individuals, 56–57
French
Africans, offer to, 547
community factors, language maintenance and shift, 329
Flemish-speaking university learners of, second language acquisition, 345, 349, 351
and linguistic diversity, 779
second language acquisition
classic grammatical variables, 342
Flemish-speaking university learners, 345, 349, 351
language change, 352
linguistic factors, 347
pronouns of address, 351
French Antilles, pidgins and creoles, 307–8
French/English pronoun object, conflict in, 363
French Sign Language, phonological variation and change, 505
Frequentist paradigm, 235
Friday effects, 235–36
Friday, William C., 767
Frishberg, N., 505
Fujimara, O., 412–13
Functional Phonology, 429
Furniss, G., 553
Fusion, morphosyntactic variation, 456
Future, sociolinguistics, 38–43
G
Gachuat, I., 275n1
Gafaranga, J., 105, 107
Gallaudet Research Institute (GRI)
Annual Survey of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children and Youth, 693
Gallaudet University, 280, 742
Gal, S., 243
Game Theory, 479
Gandhi, M., 591
Gang-of-Four, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 571
Gangs, Latina adolescent girls, 116–17
Garcia, O., 820
Garde’s Principle, 432
Gardner, H., 107
Gardner, R. C., 144
Garfinkel, H., 92, 464, 703
Gay lifestyle, ASL signs, 515
Gee, J., 158, 256
Geek, 24
Geertz, C., 158
Gender differences
Detroit African American Vernacular English (AAVE), 14
and identity, 104–5, 159–60
(ing) variable, 12
Japanese first-person pronouns, 36
language maintenance and shift, 325–26
native speech patterns, L2 acquisition of, 347–48
quantitative analysis, 214–15, 217
sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation, 514–15
fingerspelling, 514–15
Irish Sign Language (ISL), 514, 515
stereotypes, language processing and, 142
General List of Simplified Characters, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 567
Geographic distribution of creoles and pidgins, 302
Georgia, language management, 669–71
German
second language acquisition, 344
“spirit” and “soul,” 50
Germany
anti-German legislation, World Wars, 331
Irish learners in, 341, 344
World War I, 62
Giles, H., 284–85
Giri, R., 557
GIS (global information systems), 780
Giving back to community
local nature, 295
sign languages, methods for, 294–95
“Global education schools,” 618
Globalization
colonizer’s model of the world approach, African ideologies, 553–55
language policy, ideology, and attitudes, 540
and Latin America, language policy and ideology, 621–25
bilingualism, 622–23
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), 624
Common Market, 623
and English only, 623–24
European languages, prestigious, 621–22
French, dominance of, 624
Mercosur, 623
plurilingualism, limited, 623–24
Programa Nacional de Bilingüisimo, 624–25
Spanish-English bilingualism in primary education, 624–25
Spanish Portuguese bilingualism, 622
Global Mapping International, 780
Gloy, K., 79, 81
Go and goat, sociophonetics, 406–7
Goffman, E.
Conversation Analysis (CA), 703
on “expressive” communication, 476
language and law, 717
linguistic anthropology, 707
on pragmatics, 464
GoldVarb, 458n3
Goodwin, C., 717
Gopinath, C., 556
Gorenflo, L. J., 780, 782, 785
Gorkha Empire, Nepal, 603
Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale, 324
Grammar 1, 2 and 3, phonology and sociolinguistics, 431
Grammar competition. See Competing Grammars model
Grammar, sign language contact, 381
Grammatical variation, sign language. See Sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation
Grandparents, multigenerational households with, 325
Grassroots theory, 548
Greater China, language policy and ideology, 5, 563–86
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 5, 573–77
demographic and language information, 573–74
1997, language policy prior to, 574–75
1997, language policy since, 575–77
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 563–73
demographic and language information, 563–64
historical background, 564–65
late nineteenth century to 1949, language policy, 564–65
minority language policy, 570–73
1949, language policy since, 566–70
Symposium on the Standardization of Modern Chinese, 566
Taiwan, 5, 577–81
demographic and language information, 577–78
historical Background, 578
language policy since 1945, 578
1945, language policy prior to, 578
1945, language policy since, 578–81
Xiandai Hanyu Guifanhua Xueshu Huiyi Symposium on the Standardizaton of Modern Chinese, 566
Great Leap Forward, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 570
Greece, language maintenance and shift, 330–31
Gregersen, F., 268
Gretna, Scotland, tokens of post-vocalic r, 226–28
unordered multinomial logistic regression (external effects only), 227
GRI. See Gallaudet Research Institute (GRI)
Grice, H. P., 93, 465, 478
Grosjean, E., 360
Gross National Happiness, Bhutan, 601
Grounded Phonology, 429
Guatemalans, Vancouver (Canada)
community factors, language maintenance and shift, 330
Gumperz, John J.
boundary crossing, 111–12
codeswitching, 366
discourse process, interpreting, 738
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 1, 706–8
linguistic anthropology, 33
multilingual communities, research on language, 242
sign languages, study of generally, 2
on symbolic, discursive practices of society, 159
Guoyu Luomazi, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 565
Guoyu, Taiwan, 577
Guoyu Promotion Institute, 579
“Speaking Guoyu Movement,” 579
Taiwan Provincial Committee for the Promotion of Guoyu, 579
Guyana, Cane Walk, 22–23
Guy, G., 429, 434, 467
H
Haas, C., 744
Habermas, Jürgen, 59
Haider, Jörg, 82–84
Haiti, pidgins and creoles, 308
Hakka, Taiwan, 581
Hall, K., 111
Hall, Stuart, 157
Han Chinese
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 563, 570, 572
Taiwan, 577
Hard-of-hearing, defined, 691
Harkers Island, 754
Harrington, J., 267
Harris, Z. S., 68–69, 464, 479
Haugen, E., 195
Hausa Sign Language (HSL), 391
Haverkate, H., 469
Hawaiian Creole English, 308
Hawaiian, language revitalization, 804
Hayes, B., 431, 434
Hay, J., 141, 435
Hazen, Kirk, 823
He, Agnes, 377n1
Health systems, access to, 162
Heath, S. B., 243
Hebrew Language Academy, 806
Hebrew, language revitalization, 806–7
Henry, Alison, 448, 452
Herderian conception of world, 243
Heritage, J., 703–4
adjacency pairs, 95
context, 103
ethnomethodology, 92
institutional aim, 105
preference organization, 97
talk-in-interaction, 94
Heritage languages
Canada, 536
language revitalization, 808–9
United States, 531–32
Western Europe, 641–62
Hermann, E., 275n1
Herzog’s Corollary, 432
Heteogeneity, variation and change, 484–85
High Rising Terminal, 414
Hill, J., 687
Hindi
Bhutan, 600–602
India, 592–93
Hindu, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, 596
Hindustani, India, 591
Hinton, L., 824
Hip-hop
Japan, 41
Latino, 24, 25, 44n10
Hirsch, S., 714
Hjelmslev, L., 53–54, 58
HKSAR. See Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR)
HL. See Heritage languages
Hobbes, T., 53
Højrup, T., 23
Hollett, P., 267
Holm, J., 301–2
Holo, Taiwan, 577
Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination, 576
Hong Kong, concession to British Empire (1842), 564
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 5
By-Census (2006), 574
Cantonese, 574, 576, 577
Chinese medium of instruction (CMI), 575
Chinese MOI policy, 575, 576, 582
code-mixing, 576
codeswitching, 576
demographic and language information, 573–74
Education Commission Report No. 4, 574–75
English medium instructions (EMI), 574
“Fine-tuning the Medium of Instruction for Secondary Schools,” 576
Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examination, 576
Modern Standard Chinese, 573
Native English Teachers Scheme, 576
1997, language policy prior to, 574–75, 582
1997, language policy since, 575–77
Official Languages Ordinance, 573
population, 573
Putonghua (PTH), 576–77
Hongyin Tao, 377n1
Horn, L., 465
HSL. See Hausa Sign Language (HSL)
Huang, Y., 464–65
Hudson, R., 452
Hult, F., 244
Human rights, migrant integration policies, 640
Humboldt, W. von, 50, 58
Hume, D., 437; 53
Hungarian minority population, Eastern Europe, 4
multilingual contexts, qualitative research, 242, 257
bilingualism, transcript of data, 250–51
community of practice approach, 247–48
exchange students, 246
interethnic conflicts, 249
joke, interpretation of, 253–54
rejection of minority languages, 247
Rock Crystal Palace Dance Ensemble, 245–46
transcripts of data, 249–52
Hungarian vowel harmony, phonology and sociolinguistics, 434
Hymes, Dell
anthropological tradition of, 1
communicative competence, 113
ethnography of speaking, 62
on European languages, 548
linguistic anthropology, 33
multilingual communities, research on language, 242–43
sign languages, study of generally, 2
on social context, 63
Hypothesis testing, quantitative analysis, 215
I
IAT. See Implicit association test (IAT)
IBE. See Intercultural bilingual education (IBE)
ICE English, 497, 498
ICE Hong Kong, 498
ICE India, 497–98
Icelandic, language endangerment, 779
ICE Philippines, 499
ICE Singapore, 499
Identity
construction
bilingual/multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization, 115–18
second language acquisition, 354
Conversation Analysis (CA), 102–5
gender, 104–5, 159–60
indexical markers: endpoints on the continua of norteña and sureña identity, 26
interdisciplinary approaches, 157–60
language policies and, 537–39
Leeds, England, Punjabi community, 538
New York City, Dominican community, 538
Latinos, categories, 24, 25, 44n10
sexuality, 104–5
signed languages, impact of language attitudes on, 691–93
Ideology, language. See Language policy, ideology, and attitudes
ILSUM (Indiana University School of Medicine)
medical school culture, description. See Our stories, ourselves (IUSM culture)
Immersion learners, second language acquisition, 345–46, 355
Immigrants and immigration
bilingual education, Latin America, 616–19
Canada, 535
Hebrew, Jewish immigrants and, 806–7
language maintenance and shift, individual factors, 323
pidgins and creoles, 306
Western Europe. See Migrant integration policies, language in
Implicit association test (IAT), 144–46
associations between (ING) and intelligence, measurement of, 145
Impoverishment theory, variation and, 456–57
Incipient separatism, 163
Independence of outcomes, quantitative analysis, 217
Indexicality, 26, 60
Conversation Analysis (CA), 93
India. See also India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, language policies and politics
Andhra, 592
Anglicist Colonial Period (1835–1947), 590
Constitution (1950), 592
East India Company (EIC), 590
Hindi, 592–93
Hindustani, 591
Indian Rebellion (1857), 590
Minute on English education, 590
Mughal Empire
growth of, 589
transition from, 589–90
Muslims, 591
Orientalist Colonial Period (1774–1835), 590
partition, 590–91
population, 591
sociopolitical movements, 592–93
Tamil, 592
Three Language Formula, 592–93
Indiana
devoicing of final [z], language stability vs. language change, 264
Spanish speakers, 334
Indiana/Michigan study, dialectal variation, 133–35
Indiana University School of Medicine (ILSUM)
medical school culture, description. See Our stories, ourselves (IUSM culture)
Indian/British participants in conversations, 242
Indian by Birth: The Lumbee Dialect (documentary), 761, 767
Indian Country Today, 807
Indian Rebellion (1857), 590
India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, language policies and politics, 589–98, 604–5
British India, 590
Anglicist Colonial Period (1835–1947), 590
East India Company (EIC), 590
Indian Rebellion (1857), 590
Minute on English education, 590
Orientalist Colonial Period (1774–1835), 590
British Raj, 589–90
East Pakistan and West Pakistan, 593–96
“anti-English,” 595
Baloochi, 595
Bangladesh, 595–96
Bengali language, 593–94
Chittagong Hill Tract (CHT), 596
CHT Peace Accord, 596
Hindu, 596
Kaptai Hydro-Electric Dam, 596
language management, 594
Muslim population, 596
Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), 594
population of Pakistan, 594
Punjabis, 594
Pushtunistan, 594
Urdu, 593
India, 591–93
Mughal Empire, transition from, 589–90
Partition (1947), 590–91
Indigenization, Taiwan, 580
Indigenous languages
African Languages, language economics and, 555–58
education, Latin America, 620–21
revitalization, bilingual/multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization, 115
signed language interpreting, 746–47
Indo-European vowel system, 52–53
Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, 509
Industrial Revolution, linguistic diversity and, 775
Inferential Model
of communication, 475
pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 465
Inferential statistics, 214–15
(ING) variable, 143
associations between (ING) and intelligence, measurement of, 145
gender differences, 12
perception studies, 415
Initialized signs, sign-writing contact, 385–87
Inner Circle, variation and change, 496–99
Innovative quotatives, 5
Inside leads, African ideologies, 552
Intelligence, associations between (ing and, 145
Intelligibility and attitudes, relationship, 196
Interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 69
language and power school of legal anthropology, 715
linguistic anthropology, 706
Intercomprehension, 636–37
Interconnectedness of forms, phonology and sociolinguistics, 433
Intercultural bilingual education (IBE), Latin America, 613
“Intercultural education for all” label, Latin America, 613
“Interdisciplinarity,” use of term, 154
Interdisciplinary approaches, 4, 153–71
corpus linguistics, 157
“doing interdisciplinarity” concept, 153–54
exemplar models, 155
“interdisciplinarity,” use of term, 154
interdisciplinary inquiry, sites, 154–63
language, computation, and the mind, 154–57
language, identity, and culture, 157–60
social stratification, language and, 160–65
language, computation, and the mind, 154–57
corpus linguistics, 157
exemplar models, 155
modeling work, 156
probabilities, 154–55
psycholinguistics, 155
social network analysis (SNA), 156–57
language, identity, and culture, 157–60
macro-level approaches, 159
micro-level approaches, 159
modeling work, 156
probabilities, 154–55
psycholinguistics, 155
social network analysis (SNA), 156–57
social stratification, language and, 160–65
accents, 162
health systems, access to, 162
hierarchies of, 162–63
“linguistic insecurity,” 163
marginalized groups, 161–62
nonstandardized varieties of language, 161
“Received Pronunciation,” 161
social location, 162
standard language ideologies, 161
workplace discrimination, 162
Interdiscursivity, linguistic anthropology, 39
Intergenerational transmission of language. See Language maintenance and shift
Interlocator characteristics, second language acquisition, 350–51
International Corpus of English (ICE), 436
Internationalization
colonizer’s model of the world approach, African ideologies, 552–53
morphed internationalization, 553–55
International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2–3
International Signs, 381, 392–93
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 778, 780
International Year of African Languages, 796
Interpretation: A Sociolinguistic Model (Cokely), 737
Interpreting signed languages. See Signed language interpreting, sociolinguistic studies of
Intertextual-to-interdiscursive relations, linguistic anthropology, 39
Intervention, LS as, 121–22
Intonation, sociophonetics, 414
Introspection, morphosyntactic variation, 448
Inuit Circumpolar Council, 796
Inuit languages, revitalization, 801
Iowa, Spanish speakers, 334
Irish learners, Germany, 341, 344
Irish Sign Language (ISL), gender and, 514, 515
Irwin, P., 428
IS. See Interactional sociolinguistics (IS)
ISL. See Irish Sign Language (ISL)
Italian
codeswitching, interference, 362
second language acquisition, adverbs, 352
Italian Sign Language (LIS), 21, 291, 693–94
grammatical variation, 518
Italy, Nones dialect, 115
IUCN. See International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
J
Jäger, S. and M., 67, 74, 78
James, W., 57
Japan
hip-hop, 41
Taiwan, concession of, 564
Japanese
article categories, 119–20
Australian learners, second language acquisition, 344, 355–56
first-person pronouns, 36
schools, California, 329
Jewish Deaf Association, 516
Jie, D., 824
Johnson, D. E., 267
Johnson, K., 142
Johnson, R., 292
Johnstone, Barbara, 257–58, 823
Johnston, T., 387, 512
Joke, interpretation of by Hungarian minority population of Eastern Europe, 253–54
Jordan, I. King, 694n1
Jose, B., 264
Journal of Memory and Language, 236
Journal of Sociolinguistics, 2–3, 111
Just Words (Conley and O’Barr), 701
K
Kalaallisut, language revitalization, 807
Kalocsai, K., 246
Kamwangamalu, N. M., 555, 557
Kanneh, Mahamu D., State of Maryland v., 823
Kant, I., 56–61, 75
Kaptai Hydro-Electric Dam, 596
Kaurna, language revitalization, 803, 805
Kazakhstan, language management, 671–73
Keisling, Scott, 823
Kendall School (District of Columbia), 282
Kendon, A., 717
Keynes, John Maynard, 52
Kihm, Alain, 317
Kinginger, C., 354
King, R., 448
King, Rodney, 715
Kleinfeld, M. S., 515
KMT. See Kuomintang (KMT)
Koopmans, W., 451
Kramsch, C., 376
Krauss, M. E., 779
Kress, G., 77, 80–81
Kroch, A., 445, 814
Competing Grammars model, 450
Constant Rate Effect, 449
Distributed Morphology, 459n8
generative approaches to morphosyntactic variation, 452
Kulick, D., 114
Kuncha, R., 323
Kuomintang (KMT)
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 566
Taiwan, 565, 578–81
Kürschner, S., 208
Kyrgyzstan, language management, 671–73
L
Labov, William, 242
African American students, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 817
on be like, 487–88
change from above vs. change from below, 266–67
copula variation, 445
first wave of sociolinguistic research, 245, 816
frequency of (ING) variation, 143
and introspection, 448
language stability vs. language change, 265
Lower East Side (New York) residents, studies of, 3, 11–13, 22, 59
Manhattan department store employee study, 219–20, 221–22, 427
Martha’s Vineyard studies, 3, 11, 12, 22, 59, 258n1, 427
negative concord, 445
observer’s paradox, 284
perception studies, 415–16
Principle of Debt Incurred, 294, 756
Principle of Error Correction, 294, 756
Principle of Linguistic Gratuity, 294
quantitative analysis of, 26
second wave of sociolinguistic research, 817
sociophonetics
Plotnik program, 410
points of measurement, selection of, 409
speakers’ orientation or attitude, analysis of, 432
syntactic variation, 458n1
third wave of sociolinguistic research, 818
variation and change, 499
on variation and change, 485
quotatative be like, 487
variationist tradition of, 1
Lab Phonology, 429
LaBue, M., 745–46
Lai, M., 577
Laitin, D. D., 552–53
Lakoff, G., 158
Lamarre, P., 119
Lambert, W., 144
Langman, J., 245–49
Language and power school of legal anthropology, 702, 713–16
accusations, blame and responsibility, negotiation of, 715
bilingual translation, 716
and Conversation Analysis (CA), 713–15
courts, 714–16
inferential environment, 718n5
and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 713, 715
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 715
law school, 716
restraining orders, 716
“Language-as-resource,” 531–32, 538
“Language-as-right,” 531
Language attitude, psycholinguistic approaches, 143–46
implicit association test (IAT), 144–46
associations between (ING) and intelligence, measurement of, 145
matched-guise experiments, 143–44
Language attitudes, language revitalization and, 797–801
Bolshevik literary campaign (Soviet Union), 799
codification, 798
financial resources, 797–98
Inuit languages, 801
lexicon, building, 800–801
literacy, 798–99
orthographic systems, 799–800
Quechua, 800
and terminology, 801
vitality, language, 797
Language attrition, sign language contact, 393–94
Language awareness, community perspective, 6, 754–72. See also Harkers Island; Ocracoke Island; Roanoke Island
advocacy research, 755
African American English (AAE), 756–57, 760
Appalachian English, 757
Cherokee language, 767
collaborative relationship, 764–68
credibility, establishment of, 766
community-researcher relationships, 755–56
dialect dictionary, compilation of, 761
education, public, 763
empowering research, 755–56
ethical research, 755
Hyde County Talk: The Language and Land of Hyde County (documentary), 761
Indian by Birth: The Lumbee Dialect (documentary), 761, 767
levels of knowledge, 758–60
African American English (AAE), 760
Ocracoke Preservation Society, 758
traditions, 760
vernacular language norms, 759
linguistic knowledge and the community, 756–57
African American English (AAE), 756–57
Appalachian English, 757
Lumbee Indians, 765, 766
dialect, 761, 767
Fine in the World: Lumbee Language in Time and Place (Wolfram et al), 762
museum exhibit, 762, 766
North Carolina Language and Life Project (NCLLP), 757, 761
The Ocracoke Brogue (documentary), 761
Ocracoke Preservation Society, 758
Ocracoke Speaks (CD), 762
outreach and engagement
dialect dictionary, compilation of, 761
education, public, 763
Lumbee dialect, 761
museum exhibit, 762, 766
video documentaries, 761
video projects, 762
Principle of Debt Incurred, 756
Principle of Error Correction, 756
Principle of Linguistic Gratuity, 756
The Queen Family; Appalachian Tradition and Back Porch Music (documentary), 761
Talkin’ Tar Heal: Voices of North Carolina (Wolfram & Reaser), 762–63
traditions, 760
venues of outreach and engagement, 761–64
dialect dictionary, compilation of, 761
education, public, 763
Lumbee dialect, 761
museum exhibit, 762, 766
video documentaries, 761
video projects, 762
vernacular language norms, 759
video documentaries, 761
video projects, 762
Voices of North Carolina (DVD), 760, 761, 767
Language contact. See Sign language contact
Language death, sign language contact, 393–94
Language discrimination, 813
Language domains and social networks, 804–5
Language endangerment, current state of linguistic diversity and
Aboriginal languages, 778
and agriculture, rise and spread of, 775
Australia, 778
and colonialism, rise of, 775
English, 779
fewer than 99 speakers, languages with, 776
French, 779
Icelandic, 779
and Industrial Revolution, 775
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 778
languages with 100 million or more speakers as a proportion of world population, 777
large languages, spread of, 775–76
native American languages in United States, 778
Quechua, 779
Red List of IUCN, 778
small languages, 779–80
Summer Institute of Linguistics, Ethnologue data, 774–75
UNESCO, 778
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 775
unwritten languages, 777
Language endangerment, language revitalization as response to, 6, 792–95
Alaska, 793
assessment, 793
diglossia, 793–94
maintenance, difference between revitalization and, 793
prior ideological clarification, 793
realistic revitalization program, 794–95
Reversing Language Shift (RLS), 793–94
Language ideology framework, multilingual contexts, 246–47
analyzing data within, 248–49
Language ideology, shift, persistence and revitalization, 114–15
Language in Society, 2
Language, interdisciplinary approaches, 157–60
Language, law, and power debate, 6, 708–13
Conversation Analysis (CA), 708–12
rape cases, 709–11
social structure and power, 708
Language Log Blog, 823
Language Magazine, 820
Language maintenance and shift, 5, 321–39
Arabic speakers
France, 325
Turkey, 326
attitudes, parental, 327
attitudes toward minority language, 323
bilingual first language acquisition, 322–23
community factors, 327–31
Albanians, Greece, 330–31
Arabic speakers, Turkey, 327–28
border, distance to, 328
Dutch speakers, Australia, 331
French speakers, 329
Guatemalans, Vancouver (Canada), 330
Japanese schools, California, 329
Latino immigrants, 328
Latino youth, Chicago, 329–30
local community views, 330–31
monolingual speakers, contact with, 328
peer influence, 330
religious after-school programs, 331
schools, 328–29
Spanish speakers, Miami, 327
Tynsdale, United Kingdom, 330
Yiddish-speaking Hasidic Jews, New York, 328, 331
family, role of, 324–27
Arabic speakers, France, 325
Arabic speakers, Turkey, 326
attitudes, parental, 327
gendered aspects to family language, 325–26
Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale, 324
grandparents, multigenerational households with, 325
minority language use patterns among children, 325
Puerto Rican families, New York, 326
Spanish speakers, El Paso (Texas), 327
Spanish speakers, Toronto, 327
Wales, gender patterns, 326–27
gendered aspects to family language, 325–26
Graded Intergeneration Disruption Scale, 324
grandparents, multigenerational households with, 325
heritage language, loss of, 323
immigrants, 323
individual factors, 322–23
attitudes toward minority language, 323
bilingual first language acquisition, 322–23
heritage language, loss of, 323
immigrants, 323
New Zealand, Teluga-speaking mothers and children, 323
minority language use patterns among children, 325
multiple languages, 321–22
New Zealand, Teluga-speaking mothers and children, 323
Puerto Rican families, New York, 326
revitalization, from shift to, 795–96
societal bilingualism, 322
societal factors affecting language shift, 331–32
Arabic speakers, Turkey, 332
Asia, U.S. economic growth compared, 331–32
Australia, official language policy, 332
World Wars, anti-German legislation, 331
Spanish in the United States (case study), 332–35
Spanish speakers
El Paso (Texas), 327
Toronto, 327
Wales, gender patterns, 326–27
Language Nest, 801–2
The Language of Law School (Mertz), 716
Language policy and planning (LPP), 5, 540
Language policy, ideology, and attitudes
Canada, 532–34
British Conquest of 1760, 533
Common Curriculum Framework for Bilingual Programming in International Languages, 536
Common Curriculum Framework for International Languages, 536
English-French bilingualism, 532–34
Heritage languages, 536
immigrants, 535
Multiculturalism Act (1988), 535
official languages, 534
Official Languages Act of 1969, 534
official multiculturalism, 534–37
and political goals, 536
schools, 536
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 531
English-dominant countries, 525–44
Canada, language attitudes and language policy in, 532–34
Canada, official languages, 534
Canadian official multiculturalism, 534–37
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 531
English monolingualism and standard language ideology, 528–30
“English Only” norm, 532
Heritage languages, 531–32
identity, language and language policies, 537–39
ideology, 528–30
“language-as-resource,” 531–32, 538
“language-as-right,” 531
language, meaning of, 526–28
official languages, 534
sedimentation of frequently used forms, 527
English monolingualism and standard language ideology, 528–30
Americanization movement, 529
Likert scale, 530
Matched Guise, 530
Semantic Differentials techniques, 530
standard language ideology, 530
“English Only” norm, 532
globalization, 540
heritage languages, 531–32
identity, language policies and, 537–39
Leeds, England, Punjabi community, 538
New York City, Dominican community, 538
“language-as-resource,” 531–32, 538
“language-as-right,” 531
language policy and planning, 5, 540
standardizing language, 525, 527
Language reform, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 567
Language revitalization, 792–881
Alaska, 793
Aquinnah, 808
assessment, 793
of language revitalization programs, 807–8
Culturally Responsive Evaluation, 808
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNESCO), 796
diglossia, 793–94
and documentation, 805
external linguist, role of, 805
future research, 808–9
Hebrew, as successful revitalization, 806–7
heritage languages, 808–9
Indian Country Today, 807
International Year of African Languages, 796
Inuit Circumpolar Council, 796
Kalaallisut, 807
Kaurna, 803, 805
language attitudes, 797–801
Bolshevik literary campaign (Soviet Union), 799
codification, 798
financial resources, 797–98
Inuit languages, 801
lexicon, building, 800–801
literacy, 798–99
orthographic systems, 799–800
Quechua, 800
and terminology, 801
vitality, language, 797
language domains and social networks, 804–5
language endangerment, as response to, 792–95
Alaska, 793
assessment, 793
diglossia, 793–94
maintenance, difference between revitalization and, 793
prior ideological clarification, 793
realistic revitalization program, 794–95
Reversing Language Shift (RLS), 793–94
language reclamation programs, 803–4
maintenance, difference between revitalization and, 793
Maori revitalization, 801–2
Mashpee Wampanoag Tribes, 808
Master-Apprentice program, 798, 801, 802
Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, 803–4
models for language revitalization, 801–4
Kaurna, 803, 805
language reclamation programs, 803–4
Maori revitalization, 801–2
Master-Apprentice program, 798, 801, 802
Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, 803–4
Myaamia Project, 803–4
nomadic schools, 802–3
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 802–3
Te Kohanga Reo, the Language Nest, 801–2
Myaamia Project, 803–4
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 796
nomadic schools, 802–3
Nordic Council, 796
prior ideological clarification, 793
realistic revitalization program, 794–95
Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), 802–3
Reversing Language Shift (RLS), 793–94
shift to revitalization, 795–96
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNESCO), 796
International Year of African Languages, 796
Inuit Circumpolar Council, 796
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 796
Nordic Council, 796
Swahili, 796
Unified State Exam (Russian Federation), 796
social networks, language domains and, 804–5
Swahili, 796
Te Kohanga Reo, the Language Nest, 801–2
Unified State Exam (Russian Federation), 796
Wampanoag, 808
Languages examined in three major journals, 429
Language shift. See Language maintenance and shift
Language socialization, sociolinguistics and, 3–4, 111–31
approach, LS as, 119–20
bilingual/multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization, 113–18
families, immigrant languages, 115
and identity construction, 115–18
indigenous language revitalization, 115
language ideology, shift, persistence and revitalization, 114–15
language shift and construction of selves, 114–15
classroom research, 119
early intersections, 112–13
first and second language learning, 112
intervention, LS as, 121–22
language transfer, 119–20
method LS as, 120–21
topic, LS as, 118–19
transdisciplinary sociolinguistics, 118–22
approach, LS as, 119–20
intervention, LS as, 121–22
method LS as, 120–21
topic, LS as, 118–19
Language-specific vs. articles analyzing more than one language in three major journals, 428
Language stability vs. language change, longitudinal studies, 262–65
California, quotative be like, 265
Dutch fricatives by radio announcers, 263
England, dialectical speech, 263–64
Eskilstuna (Sweden), morphophonological features, 262
Indiana, devoicing of final [z], 264
New Zealand, near-square merger, 263
Northern Cities Shift, Chicago, 264
Norwich study, 262
Ohio, North-Midland boundary, 264
Panamanian Spanish, 262
Récits du François (RFQ), 264–65
Smith Island, Maryland, fourth generation comparisons, 264
Swedish, standard, 262–63
Toronto, innovative quotatives, 265
Language transfer, 119–20
Language Variation and Change, 2
Lanstyák, I., 247–49
Late deafened, defined, 691
Latina adolescent girls, gang affiliated, 116–17
Latin America, Conquest of 1492, 613
Latin America, language policy and ideology in, 6, 609–28
Andean area, 612
bilingualism, 622–23
“Castillianization,” 615–16
and colonialism, 611
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), 624
Common Market, 623
and decolonization of society, 615
dual education schools, 618
education, indigenous language policy and, 612–16
Andean area, 612
“Castillianization,” 615–16
and decolonization of society, 615
indigenous peoples, population, and languages in Latin America, 614–15
intercultural bilingual education (IBE), 613
“intercultural education for all” label, 613, 615
issues, fundamental, 613
Mesoamerican plateau, 612–16
urban indigenous population, 612–13
elite bilingual education, 618–20
and English only, 623–24
European immigrant languages, 609
European languages, prestigious, 621–22
French, dominance of, 624
and globalization, 621–25
bilingualism, 622–23
Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL), 624
Common Market, 623
and English only, 623–24
European languages, prestigious, 621–22
French, dominance of, 624
Mercosur, 623
plurilingualism limited, 623–24
Programa Nacional de Bilingüisimo, 624–25
Spanish-English bilingualism in primary education, 624–25
Spanish Portuguese bilingualism, 622
heritage counties, 617
ideological orientations in language and cultural policy, 610, 611
immigration, bilingual education and, 616–19
dual education schools, 618
elite bilingual education, 618–20
“global education schools,” 618
plurilingualism, 619
private bilingual schools, 617–18
indigenous and elite bilingual education, conflicting orientations, 619–21
elite bilingual education, 619–20
indigenous education, 620–21
indigenous education, 620–21
indigenous language policy, education and, 612–16
Andean area, 612
“Castillianization,” 615–16
and decolonization of society, 615
indigenous peoples, population, and languages in Latin America, 614–15
intercultural bilingual education (IBE), 613
“intercultural education for all” label, 613, 615
issues, fundamental, 613
Mesoamerican plateau, 612
urban indigenous population, 612–13
indigenous peoples, population, and languages in Latin America, 614–15
intercultural bilingual education (IBE), 613
“intercultural education for all” label, 613, 615
Mercosur, 623
Mesoamerican plateau, 612–16
monoculturalism, 611
other mother tongues, suspicions regarding, 610
pluriculturalism, 611
plurilingual education, pluricultural states and, 626
plurilingualism, 611, 619, 623–24
Programa Nacional de Bilingüisimo, 624–25
societal multilingualism, 610
Spanish-English bilingualism in primary education, 624–25
Spanish Portuguese bilingualism, 622
urban indigenous population, 612–13
Latin American groups, Southern California, 540
Latinas, Narratives of Domestic Abuse (Trinch), 716
Latinos
families, bilingual/multilingual research, 116
identity categories, 24, 25
immigrants, language maintenance and shift, 328
youth, Chicago, 329–30
Latin square design, 198, 199
Latvia, language management, 669–71
Lavandera, B., 446, 467
Law, language and, 701–19
Conversation Analysis (CA), 702–6, 717
language, law, and power debate, 708–12
objection-mediated question/answer system, 705
objection sequences, 705
one-party-at-a-time rule, 705
speech exchange system, 705–6
talked into being institution of law as, 703–5, 710
witness’s verbal contribution, 704–5, 712–13, 715
criminal trial, opening statement, 707
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 702, 708
deviant case analysis, 718n2
“eyebrow flash,” 718n3
future research, direction for, 716–17
language and power school of legal anthropology, 702, 713–16
accusations, blame and responsibility, negotiation of, 715
bilingual translation, 716
and Conversation Analysis (CA), 713–15
courts, 714–16
and Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 713, 715
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 715
law school, 716
restraining orders, 716
language, law, and power debate, 708–13
Conversation Analysis (CA), 708–12
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 709
rape cases, 709–11
social structure and power, 708
linguistic anthropology, 706–8
contextualization, 706
criminal trial, opening statement, 707
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 706
real-time linguistic interaction, 706–7
“orators” (Ancient Rome), 701
power, language and law and, 708–13
storytellers (Medieval England), 701
theoretical disciplines, 703–8
Conversation Analysis (CA), 703–6
Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 708
theoretical disciplines, linguistic anthropology, 706–8
Law of the National Commonly Used Language and Script of the PRC, 568
Law on Regional Autonomy for Monetary Nationalism, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 571
Law school, language and power school of legal anthropology, 716
Leeds, England, Punjabi community, 538
Left Dislocation, Competing Grammars model, 449
Legal anthropology. See Language and power school of legal anthropology
Lenin, Vladimir, 657
Le Page, R. B., 159, 555
Leveling and convergence process, longitudinal study, 266
Levinson, S., 465
Lexical factors, phonology and sociolinguistics, 434
Lexical Phonology (LP), 425, 428, 429
Lexical sets, sociophonetics, 406–7
Lexical variation and change, sign language, 509
Lexicon, building, 800–801
Lhotshampas, management of, Bhutan, 602
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), 598
Libya, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 479
Li, D., 576
Liddell, S., 292
Life modes, 23
Lifespan change, 267–72
African American Vernacular English (AAVE), 271
Brazilian Portuguese, 269–70
Canada, female high school students, 269
Copenhagen and Naestved, Danish short (a), 268
Danish short (a), 268
Elizabeth (queen of England), broadcasts of, 267, 271
films (American), 1932 to 1980, 267–68
longitudinal studies, 267–72
Montréal French speakers, 269–70
North Carolina, Mexican immigrant student, 271
Philadelphia, female high school students, 268–69
retrograde change, 270
Spanish/Catalan speakers, 269
Utah church elders, vowels of, 268
Likert scale, 530
Lin, A. M. Y., 575
Linear regression, multiple predictors, 232
Linguistic and ecological diversity, 773–91
biocultural diversity, use of term, 6, 774
biodiversity hotspots, linguistic diversity in, 780–83
Eurasian languages, 783
European languages, 783
GIS (global information systems), 780
Global Mapping International, 780
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 780
list of hotspots, 781
number of languages spoken by fewer than 1000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 783
number of languages spoken by fewer than 10,000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 782
Red List of IUCN, 780
biolinguistic diversity, use of term, 774
Caucasus, 786
Doga people, 786–87
ecological niche theory, 784–88
ethnosphere, use of term, 774
Eurasia, 786
Eurasian languages, 783
European languages, 783
explanations and theories, 784–88
GIS (global information systems), 780
Global Mapping International, 780
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 780
language endangerment, current state of linguistic diversity and, 774–80
Aboriginal languages, 778
and agriculture, rise and spread of, 775
Australia, 778
and colonialism, rise of, 775
English, 779
fewer than 99 speakers, languages with, 776
French, 779
Icelandic, 779
and Industrial Revolution, 775
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), 778
languages with 100 million or more speakers as a proportion of world population, 777
large languages, spread of, 775–76
native American languages in United States, 778
number of languages by continent having fewer than 10,000 and 1000 speakers, 780
Quechua, 779
Red List of IUCN, 778
small languages, 779–80
Summer Institute of Linguistics, Ethnologue data, 774–75
twenty countries with highest number of languages, 776
UNESCO, 778
United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 775
unwritten languages, 777
list of hotspots, 781
logosphere, use of term, 774
Madagascar, 785
New Guinea, 785–87
northwestern Pakistan, 784
number of languages spoken by fewer than 1000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 783
number of languages spoken by fewer than 10,000 speakers in high biodiversity regions, 782
Papua, New Guinea, 786–87
preservation of linguistic and biological diversity, 788–89
Red List of IUCN, 780
and warfare, 788
West African languages, 784
Linguistic anthropology, 31–47, 706–8
access, 41
bi- and multilingual communities, 41
contextualization, 706
criminal trial, opening statement, 707
ethnographic turn in, 44n8
foundations, 32–35
fourth wave of sociolinguistic research, 42
future, 38–43
interactional sociolinguistics (IS), 706
interdiscursivity, 39
intertextual-to-interdiscursive relations, 39
language beyond linguistic form, 35–38
language ideologies, 36–37
and political economy, 37
“reality-out-there,” 36
real-time linguistic interaction, 706–7
and residential function, 35–36
sentences, interest in language from, 37–38
social life of language, 35
SPEAKING model, 33
text, processes of creating, 37–38
transcription systems, 34–35
Linguistic Compass, 820
Linguistic Data Consortium, 436
Linguistic ethnography, 123n1
Linguistic imperialism, defined, 549
“Linguistic insecurity,” and social stratification, 163
Linguistic Society of America (LSA), 825
Linguistics of allusion, 81
Liquids, sociophonetics, 412–13
LIS. See Italian Sign Language (LIS)
Lisbon Treaty, 631
Charter of Fundamental Rights, 645n6
Literacy
language revitalization, 798–99
USSR (1917–1991), 659
Lithuania, language management, 666–68
Opinion on Lithuania, 667
Little Doe Baird, Jessie, 808
Lobanov, B. M., 411
Locke, John, 56
Locker-McKee, Rachel, 746–47
Logging and plotting of measurements (sociophonetics)
gross errors, correction of, 409
Plotnik program, 410
Logosphere, use of term, 774
Londe, Cziráky, 434
London, Cantonese-Mandarin, 372–75
L1 signers, language attitudes, 747–48
Longitudinal studies, 4, 261–79
African Americans, quotations (Springville, Texas), 272
Brazilian cities, first person plural pronoun, 273
Brazilian Portuguese, 269–70
Canada, female high school students, 269
Canadian shift, St. Johns, 267
caught/cot merger, 267
change from above vs. change from below, 266–67
Canadian shift, St. Johns, 267
caught/cot merger, 267
dialect contact, 266
Dutch reflexives, 266
leveling and convergence process, 266
Massachusetts, caught/cot merger, 267
non-rhotic dialects, 266
Northern Cities Shift, Chicago, 267
Willems questionnaire of 1885, Dutch reflexives, 266
combined trend and panel studies, 272–73
African Americans, quotations (Springville, Texas), 272
Brazilian cities, first person plural pronoun, 273
Copenhagen and Naestved, Danish short (a), 268
Danish short (a), 268
dialect contact, 266
Dutch reflexives, 266
Elizabeth (queen of England), broadcasts of, 267, 271
films (American), 1932 to 1980, 267–68
language stability vs. language change, 262–65
California, quotative be like, 265
Dutch fricatives by radio announcers, 263
England, dialectical speech, 263–64
Eskilstuna (Sweden), morphophonological features, 262
Indiana, devoicing of final [z], 264
New Zealand, near-square merger, 263
Northern Cities Shift, Chicago, 264
Norwich study, 262
Ohio, North-Midland boundary, 264
ONZE project, 264, 275n2
Panamanian Spanish, 262
Récits du François (RFQ), 264–65
Smith Island, Maryland, fourth generation comparisons, 264
Swedish, standard, 262–63
Toronto, innovative quotatives, 265
leveling and convergence process, 266
lifespan change, 267–72
African American Vernacular English (AAVE), 271
Brazilian Portuguese, 269–70
Canada, female high school students, 269
Copenhagen and Naestved, Danish short (a), 268
Danish short (a), 268
Elizabeth (queen of England), broadcasts of, 267, 271
films (American), 1932 to 1980, 267–68
Montréal French speakers, 269–70
North Carolina, Mexican immigrant student, 271
Philadelphia, female high school students, 268–69
retrograde change, 270
Spanish/Catalan speakers, 269
Utah church elders, vowels of, 268
Massachusetts, caught/cot merger, 267
Montréal, French speakers, 269–70, 272–73
non-rhotic dialects, 266
North Carolina, Mexican immigrant student, 271
Northern Cities Shift, Chicago, 264, 267
panel studies
combined trend and panel studies, 272–73
defined, 262
evidence from, 267–72
and usage patterns, 273–74
Philadelphia, female high school students, 268–69
questions, important, 273–74
retrograde change, 270
Spanish/Catalan speakers, 269
timing, 274
trend studies
combined trend and panel studies, 272–73
defined, 262
Utah church elders, vowels of, 268
Willems questionnaire of 1885, Dutch reflexives, 266
Louisiana
Council for the Development of French in Louisiana, 308
pidgins and creoles, 305
Louisiana Creole French, 304, 308
Lower East Side (New York) residents, studies of, 3, 11–13, 22, 59
LP. See Lexical Phonology (LP)
LPP (language policy and planning), 5, 540
LPS. See Language and power school of legal anthropology
LS. See Language socialization, sociolinguistics and
LSA. See Linguistic Society of America (LSA)
LSM sign language, sign-writing contact, 387, 389
LSQ (Quebec sign language), signed language interpreting, 739
LTTE. See Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
L2 Russian, USSR (1917–1991), 659, 664–65
L2 signers, language attitudes, 747–48
L2 acquisition. See Second language acquisition
Lukes, M., 529–30
Lumbee Indians, 765, 766
dialect, 761, 767
Fine in the World: Lumbee Language in Time and Place (Wolfram et al), 762
Lyell, C., 63n2
Lynch, A., 334
M
Macaulay, T. B., 590
Maclagan, M., 263, 435
Macro-level approaches, 159
Macy’s, study on, 219–20, 221–22, 427
Madagascar, linguistic diversity, 785
Madden, M., 746
Madrid, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 477, 478
Maine, H. J. S., 49
“Mainlanders,” Taiwan, 577–58
Mainstreaming, signed languages and, 691–92
interpreting signed languages, 744
Maintenance, difference between revitalization and, 793
Maintenance, language. See Language maintenance and shift
Major, R., 349
The Maldives
language policies and politics, 599–600
Muslims, 599
Malherbe, E. G., 556
Malinowski, B., 52, 464
Mallinson, C., 819, 821–22
Malthus, T. R., 49
Malvar, E., 265
Mandarin, 556
codeswitching, Cantonese-Mandarin, 372–75
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 564
Beijing Mandarin, 565, 569
Taiwan, 578–81
Mandarin-only policy, 579–80
“Mandarin-Plus,” 580
Manhattan department store employee study, 219–20, 221–22, 427
cross-tabulation, chi-square, and Fisher exact test, 220
Manually coded English (MCE), 683–85, 692
deaf education, 283
Maori revitalization, 801–2
Maori signs, 516, 517, 747, 749n7
Marginalized groups, language and, 161–62
Maritime Sign Language (MSL), 393
Markedness
codeswitching, 367–68
pidgins and creoles, 311
Marovo Lagoon (Solomon Islands), 777
Marriott, H., 344, 354–55
Martha’s Vineyard studies (Labov), 3, 11, 12, 22, 59, 258n1, 427
Martin, D., 332
Martinet, A., 262, 432
Martinez, L., 742
Marx, Karl, 49
Maryland
Smith Island, fourth generation comparisons, 264
State of Maryland v. Mahamu D. Kanneh, 823
Mashpee Wampanoag Tribes, language revitalization, 808
Massachusetts, caught/cot merger, 267
Master-Apprentice program, language revitalization, 798, 801, 802
Matched Guise, 143–44, 530
Mather, S., 739
Mathesius, V., 464
Matrix Language Frame Model, 368
Matthews, S., 309
Maximum Entropy Harmonic Grammar model, 431
Max Planck Institute, 291, 436
Maya households, bilingual/multilingual research, 116
Mayol, L., 479
McAll, C., 63
McCarthy, C., 264
McCaskill, C., 282
McConnell-Ginet, S., 244–45
McDougall, W., 57
MCE. See Manually coded English (MCE)
McNeil, D., 717
McPhee, R., 284
McWhorter, J. H., 309
Meaning, symbols and, 158
Medical interviews, signed language interpreting, 738–39
Medical school culture, description. See Our stories, ourselves (IUSM culture)
Meek, B. A., 115
Meillet, A., 52
Mendoza-Denton, N., 116–17
Mercosur, 623
Mertz, E., 702, 716
Meta-awareness, second language acquisition, 354–55
Meta-knowledge, second language acquisition, 355
Metaphorical codeswitching, 366
Methodologies and approaches
closely related language varieties, measuring intelligibility of, 195–213
longitudinal Studies, 261–79
multilingual contexts, mapping research trajectory in, 241–60
qualitative data analysis, 241–60
sign languages, methods for, 280–98
Metzger, M., 738–39, 744
Mexican-descent children, subject personal pronoun variation, 19
Mexican immigrant student, North Carolina, 271
Mexican Sign Language, 741–42
Mexico
indigenous education, 620–21
plurilingualism, limited, 623
Spanish-English bilingualism in primary education, 625
Mexico-United States border, signed language interpreting, 741–42
Meyerhoff, M., 2
Miami, Spanish speakers, 334
community factors, language maintenance and shift, 327
Miami Tribe of Oklahoma, language revitalization, 803–4
Miami University, 803–4
Michigan. See Indiana/Michigan study, dialectal variation
Micro-level approaches, 159
Midwest, Spanish speakers, 334–35
Mielke, J., 434
Migrant integration policies, language in
Western Europe, 640–42
and cultural differences, 640–41
“expats,” distinguished from “migrants,” 641
heritage language, 641–62
and human rights, 640
local language, acquisition by immigrants, 641
“multiculturalism” and, 640
Milan, Italy conference (1880)
signed languages, 684–85
Mill, John Stuart, 57, 634
Milroy, L., 59, 282–83, 330, 495
Mind and language, 154–57
Mindfulness and Medicine (electronic newsletter column)
Indiana University School of Medicine, 728–31, 730
Ministry of Education (MOE), The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 565–67
Minneapolis-St. Paul, Spanish speakers, 334
Minority approach, multilingual contexts, 247
Minority languages
use patterns among children, language maintenance and shift, 325
USSR (1917–1991), 658–59
Minute on English education, British India, 590
Mitchell, T. F., 464, 479
Mixed-effects regression, 223–25, 236
multiple predictors, tests with, 232
random intercepts, 223–24
random slopes, 224–25
Modality
codeswitching, 374
native speech patterns, L2 acquisition of, 349
Modeling work, interdisciplinary approaches, 156
Model of the world approach. See Colonizer’s model of the world approach, African ideologies
“Modern capitalism,” 58
Modern Language Association, 816
Modern Standard Chinese
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 573
MOE. See Ministry of Education (MOE)
Mohanty, A. K., 827
MOI. See Chinese MOI policy
Moldova, language management, 668–69
Monikowski, C., 740, 744
“Monoglot” ideology, 529
Monolingual ideology, 328, 371
Monolingualism, English. See English monolingualism and standard language ideology
Monolingual speakers, contact with, 328
Montréal
aerospace industry, 63
Anglophone learners of French, second language acquisition, 343
French speakers, longitudinal study, 269–70, 272–73
Morgan, Lewis Henry, 52, 813–14
Morphed internationalization, 553–55
Morphology in sign languages, 290
Morphosyntactic variation, 5, 445–63
active-passive alternation, 446
African American English (AAE)
copula variation, 445, 447–48
Agree, 453
Blocking Effect, 450
Buckie English paradigm, 452, 453, 454–57
combinatorial variability, 454–56
Buckie paradigm, 455
Competing Grammars model, 445, 449–52, 457–58
Blocking Effect, 450
competing grammars, 450–51
Constant Rate Effect, 449
criticisms of the model, 451–52
fourteenth century Midlands, 450–51
Old English period, 450–51
Penn-Helsinki Corpus of Middle English, 450
Scandinavian speakers in England, 450
Verb Second, 450
Constant Rate Effect, 449
controversies, early, 446–48
active-passive alternation, 446
early variable rule framework, 446
introspection, 448
Optimality Theory (OT), 447
Stochastic Optimality Theory, 448
theory, variable rules, 447–48
VARBRUL, 447–8
copular verb paradigm for Buckie English, 453
criticisms of the model, 451–52
Distributed Morphology, 446, 456, 459n8
early variable rule framework, 446
feature interpretation, 445
fourteenth century Midlands, 450–51
Fusion, 456
generative approaches, 452–57
Agree, 453
Buckie English paradigm, 452, 453, 454–57, 455
combinatorial variability, 454–56
copular verb paradigm for Buckie English, 453
Distributed Morphology, 456
Fusion, 456
impoverishment theory, variation and, 456–57
Subset Principle, 456
GoldVarb, 458n3
impoverishment theory, variation and, 456–57
introspection, 448
Old English period, 450–51
one form, one social meeting, 458n2
Optimality Theory (OT), 447
Penn-Helsinki Corpus of Middle English, 450
R-Varb, 458n3
Scandinavian speakers in England, 450
Stochastic Optimality Theory, 448
Subset Principle, 456
syntactic variation, 458n1
theory, variable rules, 447–48
VARBRUL, 447–8
Verb Second, 450
Morphosyntax, 209
Morris, C. W., 464
Mother Tongues Movement, Taiwan, 580
Mougeon, Raymond, 341–46, 348–49, 352
Mouthings, sign language contact, 381–82
MSL. See Maritime Sign Language (MSL)
Mufwene, S. S., 309, 314, 553
Mughal Empire, India
growth of, 589
transition from, 589–90
Mühlhaüsler, Peter, 799
Multicollinarity of predictors, quantitative analysis, 217
Multiculturalism
Canadian official multiculturalism, 534–37
Western Europe, 640
Multiculturalism Act (1988) of Canada, 535
Multilingual contexts, mapping research trajectory in, 241–60. See also Hungarian minority population, Eastern Europe
community of practice approach, 244–45, 247–48
constructing research focus, 255
context, defining, 244
current approaches, 243–55
community of practice approach, 244–45, 247–48
context, defining, 244
data analysis within language ideology framework, 248–49
data collection, 247–48
ecology of language approach, 244
extending analyses to multilingual data, 253–55
language ideology framework, 247–49
lessons from the analysis, 252
minority approach, 247
site, choice of, 247–48
transcripts of data, 249–52
data analysis within language ideology framework, 248–49
data collection, 247–48
ecology of language approach, 244
extending analyses to multilingual data, 253–55
joke, interpretation of, 253–54
historical approaches to qualitative analysis of language in use, 242–43
language ideology framework, 246–47
analyzing data within, 248–49
lessons from the analysis, 252
minority approach, 247
multilingual data, gathering and transcribing, 256
multiple perspectives, 257
qualitative sociolinguistic research, 255–57
constructing research focus, 255
multilingual data, gathering and transcribing, 256
multiple perspectives, 257
reflexivity, 256–57
research paradigm, choosing, 256
role of the researcher, 256–57
reflexivity, 256–57
research paradigm, choosing, 256
role of the researcher, 256–57
site, choice of, 247–48
transcripts of data, 249–52
Multilingualism, signed language interpreting, 741–43
Multilingual settings, Western Europe. See Western Europe, language policy, ideology, and attitudes in
Multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization. See Bilingual/multilingual sociolinguistic research in language socialization
Multinomial variables, methods for, 226–29
Gretna, Scotland, tokens of post-vocalic r, 226–28
unordered multinomial logistic regression (external effects only), 227
proportional odds, 227
Waldorf, Maryland, 228–29
Multinominal outcomes, quantitative analysis, 218–19
Multiple languages, language maintenance and shift, 321–22
Multiple negation, use of, 13–14
Multiple predictors, tests with, 231–32
linear regression, 232
mixed-effect regression, 232
Multivariate outcomes, tests for, 232–34
Euclidean distance, 232–33
North American English LOT/THOUGHT distance by region and speaker, 234
variance, multivariate analysis of, 233
Museum of the Native American Resource Center (Robeson County), 762, 766
Muslim Mughal Empire. See Mughal Empire
Muslims
East Pakistan and West Pakistan, 596
India, 591
the Maldives, 599
Muysken, P., 364, 389
Myaamia Project, language revitalization, 803–4
Myers-Scotton, C., 367, 368, 476
N
Naestved, Danish short (a), 268
Nagy, Naomi, 2, 428–49, 437
Napier, J., 740–41, 747–49
Naro, A. J., 269–70, 272
Nathan, D., 824
National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA), 294
National Common Language Law, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 568
National Conference on Script Reform, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 566
National Council of Teachers of English (NCTL), 827
Nationalist government, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 565
National Language Movement, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 564
National People’s Congress, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 567, 568
National Phonetic Symbols (NPS), The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 565
National Putonghua Promotion Publicity Week (NPPPW), The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 569–70
National Science Foundation (NSF), 814–15
National Socialism, 83–84
Native American languages, endangerment of, 778
Native English Teachers Scheme
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 576
Native speech patterns, L2 acquisition of, 347–49
gender factors, 347–48
linguistic factors, 347
modality factors, 349
social and stylistic factors, 347–49
gender, 347–48
modality, 349
social class, 348–49
social grouping, 349
style, 349
social class factors, 348–49
social grouping factors, 349
style factors, 349
Nativization, USSR (1917–1991), 657
Naturalistic context, 425
second language acquisition, 344, 346
NBDA. See National Black Deaf Advocates (NBDA)
NCCS, 135–36
NCLLP. See North Carolina Language and Life Project (NCLLP)
Ndyuka, 306
Nearey, T. M., 411
Needham, J., 52
Negative concord
African American Vernacular English (AAVE), Detroit, 14
use of, 13–14
Negerhollands, 303
Nehru, Jarwarhalal, 591
Neighborhood density of words, 198
Neocolonialism, 552–53
Nepal
Communist Party of Nepal, 604
Gorkha Empire, 603
Interim Constitution (2007), 604
language policies and politics, 602–4
mass uprisings, 1990, 603–4
Radio Nepal, 604
Rama Empire, 603
Sino-Tibetan languages, 557
Nesting and regression, 222–23
Netherlands/Belgium
closely related language varieties, measuring intelligibility of, 204
sign language, 509
Nettle, D., 559, 779, 784
Nevins, A., 451, 456–57, 459–60n14
Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English, 436
Newcomers: hierarchies of constraints within the person variable (null pronoun variation in Spanish), 20
New England, combined factors, 428
New Guinea, linguistic diversity, 785–87
New Literacy Studies, 158–59
“New Taiwanese,” 580
New York City
dialect, priming, 138, 155–56
Dominican community, 538
Lower East Side residents, studies of, 3, 11–13, 22, 59
Manhattan department store employee study, 219
Puerto Rican families, language maintenance and shift, 326
social stratification of (r), 14
Spanish speakers, 333–35
Yiddish-speaking Hasidic Jews, language maintenance and shift, 328, 331
New York Times, “On Language” column, 823
New York University, 823
New Zealand
near-square merger, longitudinal study, 263
Origins of New Zealand English (ONZE) project, 157, 264, 275n2
sociolinguistic stereotypes, perceived speaker origin, 141
Teluga-speaking mothers and children, 323
New Zealand Broadcasting Service, 264
New Zealand Chain Shift, 263, 264
New Zealand English
be like, 494–96, 495
phonology and sociolinguistics, 435
sociophonetics, 416–17
New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL), 21
age, 513, 514
ethnicity, 516, 517
grammatical variation, 517–18
phonological variation and change, 508, 508–9
sign-writing contact, 388
N400 response, 149
NGT. See Dutch and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT)
Nicholas I, 652
Nicodemus, B., 740
Nida, Eugene, 735–36
Niedzielski, N. A., 140–41
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 58
Niyazov, Saparmurat, 666–67
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 796
Nomadic schools, language revitalization, 802–3
Nonaka, A., 389, 394
Nones dialect, Italy, 115
Non-immersion learners, second language acquisition, 345–46, 355
Non-rhotic dialects, longitudinal study, 266
Nonstandardized varieties of language and social stratification, 161
Nordberg, Benjt, 262
Nordic Council, 796
Normative accountability, 93
North American English LOT/THOUGHT distance by region and speaker, 234
North Carolina
language awareness, 6, 754–772. See also Language awareness, community perspective
Mexican immigrant student, longitudinal study, 271
North Carolina Language and Life Project (NCLLP), 757, 761, 823
North Carolina State University
Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project, 436
Northern Cities Chain Shift (NCCS), 135–36
Northern Cities Shift
Chicago, 264, 267
sociophonetics, 405, 416
Northern Min language, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 564
Northwestern Pakistan, linguistic diversity, 784
Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP), 594
Norton, B., 245, 538–39
Norwich study, language stability vs. language change, 262
NPPPW. See National Putonghua Promotion Publicity Week (NPPPW)
NSF. See National Science Foundation (NSF)
Null Context, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 477
Null hypothesis, 235–36
proving the null, 236
quantitative analysis, 215
Null pronoun variation in Spanish, 16–21
Mexican-descent children, subject personal pronoun variation, 19
newcomers: hierarchies of constraints within the person variable, 20
subject personal pronoun expression, constraints on, 17
VARBRUL, 18
NWFP. See Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP)
NZSL. See New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL)
O
Oakland School Board
African American Education Task Force, 827
O’Barr, W., 701–2, 713–14
Objection-mediated question/answer system, Conversation Analysis (CA), 705
Objection sequences, Conversation Analysis (CA), 705
Obligatory Contour Principle, 436
Observer’s paradox, sign language, 284
Ochs, E., 34–35, 112–13
The Ocracoke Brogue (documentary), 761
Ocracoke Island, 754, 758, 763
Ocracoke Preservation Society, 758
Ocracoke Speaks (CD), 762
Off-campus sources, social activism, 820–21
Official Languages Act of 1969 (Canada), 534
Official Languages Act, Sri Lanka, 598
Official Languages Ordinance, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR), 573
Ohio, North-Midland boundary
language stability vs. language change, longitudinal study, 264
Oklahoma, Cherokee Nation, 808
OLAT. See One language at a time (OLAT)
Oldenburg approach, Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA), 67
concepts of context, 81
concepts of discourse, 79
Old English period, Competing Grammars model, 450–51
OLON. See One language only (OLON)
Omitted variable problem, quantitative analysis, 216
One-handed signs, 287–88, 387
One-handed variants, phonological variation and change, 504, 505
One language at a time (OLAT), 366, 371
One language only (OLON), 366, 371
“One nation, one people,” Bhutan, 601
One-party-at-a-time rule, Conversation Analysis (CA), 705
One sided instrument of power, language as, 812
“On Measures for Further Improving the Study and Teaching of the Russian Language in the Union Republics” (decree, USSR), 661
“On National Minority Schools” (decree, USSR), 658
“On the Obligatory Study of Russian Language in National Republic and Regional Schools” (decree, USSR), 658
ONZE project. See Origins of New Zealand English (ONZE) project
Opium Wars (1840–1842), 564
Optimal Contrast Principle, 429
Optimality Theory (OT)
morphosyntactic variation, 447
phonology and sociolinguistics, 425, 431, 435
Oral deaf, defined, 691
Oralism, 281, 283, 295n2
attitudes toward, 684–85
“Orators” (Ancient Rome), 701
Order in Court (Atkinson and Drew), 714–15
Organic model, sociology, 56–57
“Organic solidarity,” 52
Orientalist Colonial Period (1774–1835), British India, 590
Origins of New Zealand English (ONZE) project, 264, 275n2
Orthographic systems, language revitalization, 799–800
Osborne, R., 284
OT. See Optimality Theory (OT)
Othering, 813–14
Our stories, ourselves (IUSM culture), 6, 720–34
beginnings of, 722–24
change, evidence of
responsiveness of administration to student concerns, 731
satisfaction with quality of education, 732
discovery interview with an IUSM Faculty Member, 724
initiatives taken, 724–33
change, evidence of, 731–32
impact of student professionalism narratives, 727
Mindfulness and Medicine (electronic newsletter column), 728–31, 730
percentage change in number of applications to all US medical schools and to IUSM from Indiana residents and nonresidents, 732
photo of defaced poster published in Mindfulness and Medicine (electronic newsletter column), 730
Strategic Teaching and Evaluation of Professionalism (STEP), 726–28
student narrative publications, 2004–2010, 725
taking root, 725–26
Scope (electronic newsletter), 728
Strategic Teaching and Evaluation of Professionalism (STEP)
student narrative publications 2004–2010, 725
“Taking Root and Becoming a Physician at Indiana University School of Medicine” (booklet), 725–26
“Town Hall” meetings, 724
Outer Circle, variation and change, 496–99
Outside leads, African ideologies, 552
Overt Context, pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 477
Owen, R., 52
P
Paheka signs, 747, 749n7
Pakistan. See East Pakistan and West Pakistan; India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, language policies and politics
PAL. See Personal adoptive language (PAL)
Panamanian Spanish, language stability vs. language change, 262
“Panarchic” Model, multilingual settings, 633–34
“Pan-blue,” Taiwan, 580
Panel studies, 267–72
combined trend and panel studies, 272–73
defined, 262
evidence from, 267–72
and usage patterns, 273–74
“Pan-green,” Taiwan, 580
Papiamento, pidgins and creoles, 307
Papua, New Guinea, 304–5
language shift and construction of selves, 114–15
linguistic diversity, 786–87
Paredes, J. R., 119
Parrott, J. K., 451, 456–57, 459–60n14
Parsons, T., 54, 92
Particularity, pidgins and creoles, 310–12
and community, 311–12, 314
distinctiveness, 311
ecology, creolizing, 314–16
emergent particularity, 312–17
markedness, 311
ontology, 311–12
relexification, 310–11
SVO typology, 312–13
UG approach, 313
“virtual Sprachbund”, 317
Partition of India, 590–91
Pater, J., 431, 434
Patrick, T., 412
Pauwels, A., 324–25
Pavlenko, A., 244
Pearson, Egon, 235
Peer groups
community factors, language maintenance and shift, 330
and variationist sociolinguistics, 24–25
Peña, S., 741
Penn-Helsinki Corpus of Middle English, 450
Penn Phonetics Lab, 409
Pennycook, A., 538
The People’s Republic of China (PRC)
Cantonese, 564
Central Working Committee for the Promotion of Putonghua, 566
Chinese Communist Party (CCP), 565, 566, 570–71, 573
Chinese Script Reform Association, 566
Committee for Chinese Script Reform, 566
Committee on Script Reform, 567
Common Language Law, 568, 571
Cultural Revolution, 567, 570–71
demographic and language information, 563–64
Dictionary of National Pronunciation, 565
First National Conference, 568
First Scheme of Simplified Chinese Characters, 566–67
Gang-of-Four, 571
General List of Simplified Characters, 567
Great Leap Forward, 570
Guoyu Luomazi, 565
Han Chinese, 563, 570, 572
historical background, 564–65
Kenyan, 565
Kuomintang (KMT), 566
language reform, 567
late nineteenth century to 1949, language policy, 564–65
Law of the National Commonly Used Language and Script of the PRC, 568
Law on Regional Autonomy for Monetary Nationalism, 571
Mandarin, 564
Beijing Mandarin, 565, 569
Ministry of Education (MOE), 565–67
minority language policy, 570–73
National Common Language Law, 568
National Conference on Script Reform, 566
Nationalist government, 565
National Language Movement, 564
National People’s Congress, 567, 568
National Phonetic Symbols (NPS), 565
National Putonghua Promotion Publicity Week (NPPPW), 569–70
1949, language policy since, 566–70
Northern Min language, 564
Opium Wars (1840–1842), 564
Pinyin, 571
population, 563–64
Putonghua (PTH), 566–68, 571–73
National Putonghua Promotion Publicity Week (NPPPW), 569–70
Putonghua Proficiency Test, 568–69
Scheme for the Phonetic Alphabet of Chinese, 567
Second National Conference on Script Reform, 567
Second Scheme of Simplified Chinese Character, 567
Southern Min language, 564
State Language Commission, 567
Unification of Pronunciation, 565
vernacular-based literary chines, 565
Vocabulary of National Pronunciation for Everyday Use, 565
Xiang language, 564
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, 572
Zhonghua Minzu, 572
Perceived speaker origin, sociolinguistic stereotypes, 140–41
Perceived speaker race, sociolinguistic stereotypes, 141–42
Perception studies, ferry-furry continuum, 416
Perceptual learning, 139–40
Performance
closely related language varieties, measuring intelligibility of, 207–8
codeswitching, 368
Perseveration, 468, 475–79
Personal adoptive language (PAL), 637
Personality factors, second language acquisition, 350
Peter I, 652
Philadelphia
female high school students, longitudinal study, 268–69
neighborhood study, 22
Philips, S., 714
Phillips, B., 434
Phillipson, R., 548–50
Philosophical Investigations (Wittgenstein), 71
Phinney, J., 330
Phonetic notation, sign languages, 291–92
Phonological variation and change in sign language. See Sign language, changes in and sociolinguistic variation
Phonology and sociolinguistics, 5, 425–44
American Generative Phonology, 426
Atlas of North American English (ANAE), 432
Autosegmental Phonology, 430
division of, past, 426–30
American Generative Phonology, 426
Autosegmental Phonology, 430
Floating Constraint, 430
frequency, differing approaches to, 427
Functional Phonology, 429
Grounded Phonology, 429
Lab Phonology, 429
languages examined in three major journals, 429
language-specific vs. articles analyzing more than one language in three major journals, 428
Lexical Phonology (LP), 428, 429
New England, combined factors, 428
Optimal Contrast Principle, 429
overlaps, 428–30
sounds and intuitions, transcription of, 427
stop tokens, word internal, 427–28
traditional Generative Phonology, 426, 427
variation, 426–27
Exemplar models, 432–33
Exemplar Theory (ET), 425, 433–34
Floating Constraint, 430
frequency, differing approaches to, 427
Functional Phonology, 429
future unified approach, 437–38
Garde’s Principle, 432
Grammar 1, 2 and 3, 431
Grounded Phonology, 429
Herzog’s Corollary, 432
Hungarian vowel harmony, 434
interconnectedness of forms, 433
International Corpus of English (ICE), 436
Lab Phonology, 429
languages examined in three major journals, 429
language-specific vs. articles analyzing more than one language in three major journals, 428
lexical factors, role of, 434
Lexical Phonology (LP), 425, 428, 429
Linguistic Data Consortium, 436
Maximum Entropy Harmonic Grammar model, 431
methods, similarity, 436
Newcastle Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English, 436
New England, combined factors, 428
New Zealand English, 435
Obligatory Contour Principle, 436
Optimal Contrast Principle, 429
Optimality Theory (OT), 425, 431, 435
overlaps, 428–30
languages examined in three major journals, 429
language-specific vs. articles analyzing more than one language in three major journals, 428
social side of sociolinguistics, 432
Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project, 436
sounds and intuitions, transcription of, 427
speakers’ orientation or attitude, analysis of, 432
stochastic OT, 431
stop tokens, word internal, 427–28
Texas English, 436
traditional Generative Phonology, 426, 427
twenty-first-century, 430–36
Atlas of North American English (ANAE), 432
Exemplar models, 432–33
Exemplar Theory (ET), 433–34
Garde’s Principle, 432
Grammar 1, 2 and 3, 431
Herzog’s Corollary, 432
Hungarian vowel harmony, 434
interconnectedness of forms, 433
lexical factors, role of, 434
Maximum Entropy Harmonic Grammar model, 431
New Zealand English, 435
social side of sociolinguistics, 432
speakers’ orientation or attitude, analysis of, 432
stochastic OT, 431
Texas English, 436
UCLA Phonetic Segmental Inventory Database (UPSID), 434, 436
variation, 426–27
Pidgins and creoles, 4–5, 301–20
African slave trade, 305
background, 301–9
African slave trade, 305
Caribbean creoles and pidgins 2012, 303
current situation of pidgins and creoles, 307–9
distinguishing between contact languages, 304–5
geographic distribution of creoles and pidgins, 302
immigrants, 306
Louisiana Creole French, 304, 308
Louisiana, early colonial period, 305
Ndyuka, 306
Negerhollands, 303
Papua, New Guinea, 304–5
pidgin and creole formation, 305–7
Portuguese lexifer pidgin, 305
Russenorsk, 304
société d’habitation, 305
société d’plantation, 305–6
Tok Pisin, 305
Caribbean creoles and pidgins 2012, 303
commonalities across contexts, 307
and community, 311–12, 314
creole “life cycle,” 308
creoles versus non-creoles, 309–12
current situation of pidgins and creoles, 307–9
commonalities across contexts, 307
creole “life cycle,” 308
de facto status, 307
de jure status, 307
French Antilles, 307–8
Haiti, 308
Hawaiian Creole English, 308
inequality, positions of, 307
Louisiana Creole French, 308
Papiamento, 307
de facto status, 307
de jure status, 307
distinctiveness, 311
distinguishing between contact languages, 304–5
ecology, creolizing, 314–16
emergent particularity, 312–17
exceptionalism, 310
against exceptionalism, 312–17
and exclusive grouping, 323
schematization of social factors and the ecology of creole formation, 316
and exclusive grouping, 323
French Antilles, 307–8
geographic distribution of creoles and pidgins, 302
Haiti, 308
Hawaiian Creole English, 308
immigrants, 306
inequality, positions of, 307
Louisiana Creole French, 304, 308
Louisiana, early colonial period, 305
markedness, 311
Ndyuka, 306
Negerhollands, 303
ontology, 311–12
Papiamento, 307
Papua, New Guinea, 304–5
particularity, 310–12
and community, 311–12, 314
distinctiveness, 311
ecology, creolizing, 314–16
emergent particularity, 312–17
markedness, 311
ontology, 311–12
relexification, 310–11
SVO typology, 312–13
UG approach, 313
“virtual Sprachbund”, 317
pidgin and creole formation, 305–7
Portuguese lexifer pidgin, 305
relexification, 310–11
Russenorsk, 304
schematization of social factors and the ecology of creole formation, 316
société d’habitation, 305
société d’plantation, 305–6
SVO typology, 312–13
tense, mood, aspect markers, 309
Tok Pisin, 305
typology, 309–10
SOV typology, 313
SVO typology, 312–13
UG approach, 313
universalists, 305
“virtual Sprachbund”, 317
Pidgin Signed English (PSL), 381
Pierrehumbert, J., 430, 435
Pietrosemoli, Lo, 392
Pin and pen, sociophonetics, 406
Pinyin, The People’s Republic of China (PRC), 571
Pisoni, D., 133–34, 140
Pittsburgh Speech and Society Project, 823
Platonic ideal of social division, 52
Plaza-Post, C., 388
Plichta, B., 416
Plotnik program, 410
Plurilingualism, Latin America, 611, 619, 623–24
Points of measurement, selection of (sociophonetics), 407–9
Atlas of North American English (ANAE), 407–8
ban and Sam, 408
Praat script, 408–9
Southern Shift, 408
Poland, 1721–1830, 652
Political economy and linguistic anthropology, 37
Pollock, J., 475
Poon, A. Y. K., 576
Poplack, S., 264–65, 364–65
Portuguese lexifer pidgin, 305
Post-Imperial English (Fishman, et al.), 550
Post-Soviet countries, language management. See Russian Empire, Soviet Union, and post-Soviet countries, language management in
Poverty, effect on language survival, 819
Powell, John W., 813–14
Praat script, sociophonetics, 408–9
user list, 409
Pragmatics and variationist sociolinguistics, 5, 464–83
Anglo-American approach, 465
Applied Linguistics, 466
bounded rationality, 476
classical model, 475
communication, generally, 465–66
constraints, 468–72
Discourse Analysis, 479
envelope of variation, 468–72
European-Continental approach, 465
function-based approach, 468
Game Theory, 479
hypothesis testing, 473–75
Inferential Model, 465
Inferential Model of communication, 475
Libya, 479
Madrid, 477, 478
meaningful variation, pragmatics and, 466–68
function-based approach, 468
Principle of Accountability, 467
Spanish, future tense, 467–68
meanings in use, 473–75
null and pronominal triggers cross-tabulated with switch reference in San Juan and Madrid (singular subjects only: probability of pronoun in target NP), 478
Null Context, 477
Overt Context, 477
perseveration, 468, 475–79
Principle of Accountability, 467
rationality, 475–79
San Juan, 477, 478
satisficing, 476
Spanish, 468–72
future tense, 467–68
hypothesis testing and meanings in use, 473–75
variable-rule analysis of factors contributing to choice of se-marked bajar-subir, 475
Speech Act theory, 479
SPPs (Spanish),